The Sanskrit Alphabet with translation to English

Share it with your friends Like

Thanks! Share it with your friends!

Close

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENS
Voval sounds  

Velar consonants

Cerebral consonants

Palatal consonants

Dental consonants

Labial consonants

Non-axial sonants

Sibilant consonants

Guttural consonant “ha”

The Special signs

Vowel:

Symbol ITRANS Translation
a अ – a the first letter of the alphabet; the first short vowel inherent in consonants. अ – a (“pragṛhya” q.v.), a vocative particle ([“a ananta”, O Viṣṇu]) ; interjection of pity, Ah! अ – a (before a vowel “an”, exc. “a-ṛṇin”), a prefix corresponding to Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘in’, Goth. and Germ. ‘un’, Eng. ‘in’ or ‘un’, and having a negative or privative or contrary sense (“an-eka” not one; “an-anta” endless; “a-sat” not good; “a-paśyat” not seeing); rarely prefixed to Inf. (“a-svaptum” not to sleep and even to forms of the finite verb (“a-spṛhayanti” they do not desire and to pronouns (“a-saḥ” not he ; “a-tad” not that ; occasionally denoting comparison (“a-brāhmaṇa” like a Brahman ; sometimes disparagement (“a-yajṇa” a miserable sacrifice); sometimes diminutiveness (cf. “a-karṇa, an-udarā”); rarely an expletive (cf. “a-kupya, a-pūpa”). According to , the accent may be optionally either on the first or last syllable in certain compounds formed with “a” (as “a-tīkṣṇa” or “a-tīkṣṇa, a-śuci” or “a-śuci, an-anna” or “an-anna”); the same applies to stems ending in “tṛ” accentuated on the first syllable before “a” is prefixed; cf. also “a-tūrta” and “a-tūrta, a-bhinna” and “a-bhinna”, &c. अ – a the base of some pronouns and pronom. forms, in “asya, atra”, &c. अ – a the augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the imperfect, aorist, and conditional tenses (in the Veda often wanting, as in Homer, the fact being that originally the augment was only prefixed in principal sentences where it was accentuated, whilst it was dropped in subordinate sentences where the root-vowel took the accent). अ – a m. N. of Vishnu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable “om”).
ā आ – ā the second vowel of the alphabet corresponding to the “a” in far. आ – ā ind. a particle of reminiscence ; also of compassion or pain [more correctly written 1. “ās” q.v.], and of assent ([This particle remains unaltered in orthography even before vowels (which causes it to be sometimes confounded with 1. “ās”) आ – ā m. N. of śiva m. grandfather आ – ā f. N. of Lakṣmī आ – ā (as a prefix to verbs, especially of motion, and their derivatives) near, near to, towards (see “ā-kram” &c.; in the Veda, of course, the prefix is separable from the verb; in a few cases , a verb in the imperative is to be supplied; with roots like “gam, yā”, and “i”, “to go”, and 1. “dā”, “to give”, it reverses the action; e.g. “ā-gacchati”, “e comes”; “ā-datte”, “e takes”). (As a prep. with a preceding acc.) near to, towards, to ; (with a preceding noun in the acc., as “joṣam” or “varam”) for ; (with a following acc.) up to.. exclusively ; (with a preceding abl.) from ; out of, from among (e.g. “bahubhya ā”, “from among many”) ; towards (only in “asmad ā”, “towards us”) ; (with a following abl. cf. up to, to, as far as &c.; from ; (with a preceding loc.) in, at, on (As an adv. after words expressing a number or degree) fully, really, indeed (e.g. “trir ā divas”, “quite or fully three times a day”; “mahimā vām indrāgnī paniṣṭha, ā”, “your greatness, O Indra and Agni, is most praiseworthy indeed”, &c.) ; (after a subst. or adj.) “as, like”, (or it simply strengthens the sense of the preceding word) , (after a verb) ; (as a conjunctive particle) moreover, further, and (it is placed either between the two words connected [rarely after the second , or after both or, if there are more, after the last [ iv, 57, 1 and x, 75, 5]; see also “ātaś ca” s.v.) In classical Sanskṛit it may denote the limit “to”, “until”, “as far as”, “from”, either not including the object named or including it (sometimes with acc. or abl. or forming an adv.) e.g. “ā-maraṇam” or “ā-maranāt”, “till death” (cf. “ā-maraṇānta” &c.); “ā-gopālā dvijātayaḥ”, “the twice-born including the cowherds” ; “ā-samudram” or “ā-samudrāt”, “as far as the ocean” or “from the ocean” (but not including it); “ā-kumāram”, “from a child” or “from childhood” or “to a child” (cf. Lat. ‘a puero’) ; “ā-kumāram yaśaḥ pāṇineḥ”, “the fame of Pāṇini extends even to children”; “ājānu-bāhu” mfn. “one whose arms reach down to the knees” ; (see also “ākarṇa-” and “ājanma-“); (cf. “ā-jarasam, ā-vyuṣam, ā-saptama, otsūyam”.) Prefixed to adj. ([rarely to subst.; cf. “ā-kopa”]) it implies diminution “a little” e.g. “ā-piṇjara” mfn. a little red, reddish ; (see also “ā-pakva, oṣṇa”, &c.) Some commentaries (e.g. on occasionally give to “ā” in this application the meaning “samantāt”, “all through, completely”, as “ā-nīla”, “blue all round.” आ – ā the second vowel of the alphabet corresponding to the “a” in far. आ – ā ind. a particle of reminiscence ; also of compassion or pain [more correctly written 1. “ās” q.v.], and of assent ([This particle remains unaltered in orthography even before vowels (which causes it to be sometimes confounded with 1. “ās”) आ – ā m. N. of śiva m. grandfather आ – ā f. N. of Lakṣmī आ – ā (as a prefix to verbs, especially of motion, and their derivatives) near, near to, towards (see “ā-kram” &c.; in the Veda, of course, the prefix is separable from the verb; in a few cases , a verb in the imperative is to be supplied; with roots like “gam, yā”, and “i”, “to go”, and 1. “dā”, “to give”, it reverses the action; e.g. “ā-gacchati”, “e comes”; “ā-datte”, “e takes”). (As a prep. with a preceding acc.) near to, towards, to ; (with a preceding noun in the acc., as “joṣam” or “varam”) for ; (with a following acc.) up to.. exclusively ; (with a preceding abl.) from ; out of, from among (e.g. “bahubhya ā”, “from among many”) ; towards (only in “asmad ā”, “towards us”) ; (with a following abl. cf. up to, to, as far as &c.; from ; (with a preceding loc.) in, at, on (As an adv. after words expressing a number or degree) fully, really, indeed (e.g. “trir ā divas”, “quite or fully three times a day”; “mahimā vām indrāgnī paniṣṭha, ā”, “your greatness, O Indra and Agni, is most praiseworthy indeed”, &c.) ; (after a subst. or adj.) “as, like”, (or it simply strengthens the sense of the preceding word) , (after a verb) ; (as a conjunctive particle) moreover, further, and (it is placed either between the two words connected [rarely after the second , or after both or, if there are more, after the last [ iv, 57, 1 and x, 75, 5]; see also “ātaś ca” s.v.) In classical Sanskṛit it may denote the limit “to”, “until”, “as far as”, “from”, either not including the object named or including it (sometimes with acc. or abl. or forming an adv.) e.g. “ā-maraṇam” or “ā-maranāt”, “till death” (cf. “ā-maraṇānta” &c.); “ā-gopālā dvijātayaḥ”, “the twice-born including the cowherds” ; “ā-samudram” or “ā-samudrāt”, “as far as the ocean” or “from the ocean” (but not including it); “ā-kumāram”, “from a child” or “from childhood” or “to a child” (cf. Lat. ‘a puero’) ; “ā-kumāram yaśaḥ pāṇineḥ”, “the fame of Pāṇini extends even to children”; “ājānu-bāhu” mfn. “one whose arms reach down to the knees” ; (see also “ākarṇa-” and “ājanma-“); (cf. “ā-jarasam, ā-vyuṣam, ā-saptama, otsūyam”.) Prefixed to adj. ([rarely to subst.; cf. “ā-kopa”]) it implies diminution “a little” e.g. “ā-piṇjara” mfn. a little red, reddish ; (see also “ā-pakva, oṣṇa”, &c.) Some commentaries (e.g. on occasionally give to “ā” in this application the meaning “samantāt”, “all through, completely”, as “ā-nīla”, “blue all round.” अव्यक्तराग – avyaktarāga “a-vyakta-rāga” m. dark-red (the colour of the dawn) आ – āi “ā-i” see “e, endh, env, eṣ”.
i इ – i the third vowel of the alphabet, corresponding to “i” short, and pronounced as that letter in “kill” &c. इ – i ind. an interjection of anger, calling, sorrow, distress, compassion, &c., (g. “cādi” इ – i base of Nom. and Acc. sing. du. and pl. of the demonstrative pronoun “idam”, “this” or “that”; ([cf. “itara, itas, iti” “id, idā, iyat, iva, iha”: cf. also Lat. ‘id’; Goth. ‘ita’; Eng. ‘it’; Old Germ. ‘iz’; Mod. Germ. ‘es’.]) इ – i m. N. of Kāmadeva इ – i cl.2.P. “eti” (Impv. 2. sg. “ihi”) and 1. P. ā. “ayati, ayate” ([cf. “ay”]), (pf. “iyāya” [2. sg. “iyatha” “iyetha” fut. “eṣyati”; aor. “aiṣīt”; inf. “etum, etave” and , “etavai” “etos” “ityai” to go, walk; to flow; to blow; to advance, spread, get about; to go to or towards (with acc.), come &c.; to go away, escape, pass, retire ; to arise from, come from ; to return (in this sense only fut.) ; (with “punar”) to come back again, return &c.; to succeed ; to arrive at, reach, obtain &c.; to fall into, come to; to approach with prayers, gain by asking (cf. “ita”); to undertake anything (with acc.); to be employed in, go on with, continue in any condition or relation (with a part. or instr. e.g. “asura-rakṣasāni mṛdyamānāni yanti”, “the Asuras and Rakshases are being continually crushed” ; “gavāmayaneneyuḥ”, “they, were engaged in the [festival called] Gavāmayana” ; to appear, be Intens. ā. “īyate” ( i, 30, 18; p. “iyāna” ; inf. “iyadhyai” to go quickly or repeatedly; to come, wander, run, spread, get about ; to appear, make one’s appearance ; to approach any one with requests (with two acc.), ask, request Pass. “īyate”, to be asked or requested Caus. “āyayati”, to cause to go or escape ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘e-o’, ‘i-mus’, ‘i-ter’, &c.; Lith. ‘ei-mi’, “I go”; Slav. ‘i-du’, “I go”, ‘i-ti’, “to go”; Goth. ‘i-ddja’, “I went.”])
ī ई – ī the fourth letter of the alphabet, corresponding to “i” long, and having the sound of ‘ee’ in ‘feel’. ई – ī m. N. of Kandarpa, the god of love ई – ī m. (“ī” or “īs”) f. N. of Lakṣmī ([also in , 1220 according to (who reads “puṇyacaṇcur ī”)]). ई – ī ind. an interjection of pain or anger; a particle implying consciousness or perception, consideration, compassion. ई – ī for “i”. see 5. “i”.
u उ – u the fifth letter and third short vowel of the alphabet, pronounced as the ‘u’ in ‘full’. उ – u ind. an interjection of compassion, anger ; a particle implying assent, calling, command उ – u ind. an enclitic copula used frequently in the Vedas; (as a particle implying restriction and antithesis, generally after pronominals, prepositions, particles, and before “nu” and “su”, equivalent to) and, also, further; on the other hand (especially in connexion with a relative e.g. “ya u”, he on the contrary who &c.) This particle may serve to give emphasis, like “id” and “eva”, especially after prepositions or demonstrative pronouns, in conjunction with “nu, vai, hi, cid”, &c. (e.g. “ayam u vām purutamo”.. “johavīti” [ iii, 62, 2], this very person [your worshipper] invokes you &c.) It is especially used in the figure of speech called Anaphora, and particularly when the pronouns are repeated (e.g. “tam u stuṣa indram tam gṛṇīṣe” [ ii, 20, 4], him I praise, Indra, him I sing). It may be used in drawing a conclusion, like the English “now” (e.g. “tad u tathā na kuryāt” [ v, 2, 2, 3], that now he should not do in such a manner), and is frequently found in interrogative sentences (e.g. “ka u tac ciketa” [ i, 164, 48], who, I ask, should know that?) Pāṇini calls this particle “uṇ” to distinguish it from the interrogative “u”. In the Pada-pāṭha it is written “ūm”. In the classical language “u” occurs only after “atha, na”, and “kim”, with a slight modification of the sense, and often only as an expletive (see “kim”); “u” – “u” or “u” – “uta”, on the one hand – on the other hand; partly – partly; as, well – as. उ – u cl.5.P. “unoti” (see “vy-u” cl.2. ā. (1. sg. “uve” cl.1. ā. “avate” ; to call to, hail; to roar, bellow (see also “ota” = “ā-uta”). उ – u m. N. of śiva m. also of Brahman
ū ऊ – ū the sixth letter of the alphabet (corresponding to “u” long, and having the sound of that letter in the word “rule”). ऊ – ū ind. an interjection of calling to; of compassion; a particle implying promise to protect ; a particle used at the beginning of a sentence. ऊ – ū mfn. (“av” , helping, protecting ऊ – ū mfn. (“ūs”) m. the moon mfn. N. of śiva ऊ – ū mfn. (“ve” , weaving, sewing.
ऋ – ṛ the seventh vowel of the Sanskṛit alphabet and peculiar to it (resembling the sound of “ri” in “merrily”). ऋ – ṛ ind. an interjection expressing laughter ; a particle implying abuse ; a sound inarticulate or reiterated as in stammering ऋ – ṛ m. heaven ऋ – ṛ f. N. of Aditi ऋ – ṛ cl.1.3.5.P. “ṛcchati, iyarti, ṛṇoti”, and “ṛṇvati” (only Ved.); “āra, ariṣyati, ārat”, and “ārṣīt”, to go, move, rise, tend upwards &c.; to go towards, meet with, fall upon or into, reach, obtain &c.; to fall to one’s share, occur, befall (with acc.) &c.; to advance towards a foe, attack, invade ; to hurt, offend ; to move, excite, erect, raise, (“iyarti vācam”, he raises his voice ; “stomān iyarmi”, I sing hymns Caus. “arpayati”, to cause to move, throw, cast &c.; to cast through, pierce ; to put in or upon, place, insert, fix into or upon, fasten &c.; to place on, apply &c.; to direct or turn towards &c.; to deliver up, surrender, offer, reach over, present, give &c.; to give back, restore &c.: Ved. Intens. “alarti” ; (2. sg. “alarṣi” ; to move or go towards with speed or zeal: Class. Intens. ā. “arāryate” ( 7-4, 30), to wander about, haste towards ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] &c.: Zend ‘ir’: Lat. ‘or-ior’, ‘re-mus’, ‘aro’: Goth. ‘argan’: Angl. Sax. ‘ar’: Old High Germ. ‘ruo-dar’, ‘ar-an’: Lith. ‘ir-ti’, “to row”; ‘ar-ti’, “to plough.”])
ऋऋ – ṝ the eighth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to “ṛ” and resembling the sound of “ri” in “marine”, but after labials more like “ru”; it generally only appears in some forms of nouns in “ṛ”, viz. in the gen. pl. of all genders, in the acc. pl. m. and f. and in nom. acc. and voc. pl. n.) ऋऋ – ṝ ind. an interjection of terror ; a particle implying reproach; warding off ; a particle used at the beginning of a sentence ऋऋ – ṝ m. a Bhairava m. a Dānava ऋऋ – ṝ f. the mother of the gods ऋऋ – ṝ f. of the demons ऋऋ – ṝ f. recollection ऋऋ – ṝ f. going, motion ऋऋ – ṝ n. a breast ऋऋ – ṝ for 4. “ṛ” q.v.
लृ – ḷ the ninth vowel of the alphabet (resembling the sound “lry” in “revelry”; it only appears in some forms of “kḷp”). लृ – ḷ m. a mountain m. the earth, the mother of the gods लृ – ḷ (in gram.) N. of the terminations of the Conditional Mood or N. of that Mood itself.
लृऋ – ḹ the tenth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to “ḷ”, entirely artificial and only appearing in the works of some grammarians and lexicographers). लृऋ – ḹ m. śiva लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the cow of plenty लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the Dānavas लृऋ – ḹ f. wife of a Daitya लृऋ – ḹ f. mother लृऋ – ḹ f. divine female लृऋ – ḹ f. female nature. लृऋ – ḹ the tenth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to “ḷ”, entirely artificial and only appearing in the works of some grammarians and lexicographers). लृऋ – ḹ m. śiva लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the cow of plenty लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the Dānavas लृऋ – ḹ f. wife of a Daitya लृऋ – ḹ f. mother लृऋ – ḹ f. divine female लृऋ – ḹ f. female nature. उद्वर्तिन् – udvartin “ud-vartin” mfn. ifc. rubbing or kneading with. लृऋ – ḹ the tenth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to “ḷ”, entirely artificial and only appearing in the works of some grammarians and lexicographers). लृऋ – ḹ m. śiva लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the cow of plenty लृऋ – ḹ f. the mother of the Dānavas लृऋ – ḹ f. wife of a Daitya लृऋ – ḹ f. mother लृऋ – ḹ f. divine female लृऋ – ḹ f. female nature.
e ए – e the eleventh vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to the letter “e” as pronounced in “prey, grey”). ए – e ind. an interjection ; a particle of recollection; addressing; censure; contempt; compassion ए – e m. Viṣṇu ए – e (“ā-i”) P. “-eti”, to come near or towards, go near, approach &c.; (with and without “punar”) to come back, come again to &c.; to reach, attain, enter, come into (a state or position) &c.; to submit, fall to one’s share (“āyayanti” ?) Intens. ā. (3. du. “-iyāte”; 1. pl. “-īmahe”) to hasten near ; to request
o ओ – o the thirteenth vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to English “o”). ओ – o ind. an interjection ; a particle of addressing; calling; reminiscence; of compassion ओ – o m. N. of Brahmā ओ – o (“ā-u”).
ai ऐ – ai the twelfth vowel of the alphabet and having the sound of ‘ei’ in ‘height’. ऐ – ai ind. an interjection ; a particle of addressing; summoning; remembering ऐ – ai m. N. of śiva
au औ – au the fourteenth vowel of the alphabet (having the sound of English “ou” in “our”). औ – au ind. an interjection; a particle of addressing; calling; prohibition; ascertainment औ – au m. N. of Ananta or śeṣa m. a sound m. the Setu or sacred syllable of the śūdras, KālikāP. ([]) औ – au m. (“aus”) f. the earth

Return to the table of contents

Consonants:  Velar sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ka क – ka the first consonant of the alphabet, and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to ‘k’ in ‘keep’ or ‘king’). क – ka “kas, kā, kim”, interrog. pron. (see “kim” and 2. “kad”, and cf. the following words in which the interrogative base “ka” appears, “katama, katara, kati, katham, kadā, karhi, kā”, &c.), who? which? what? In its declension “ka” follows the pronoun “tad” except in nom. acc. sing. neut., where “kim” has taken the place of “kad” or “kat” in classical Sanskṛit; but the old form “kad” is found in the Veda (see Gram. 227); ([cf. Zd. ‘ka’, ‘ko’, ‘kA’, ‘kat’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘quis’, ‘quid’; Lith. ‘kas’ “ka”; Goth. ‘hvas’, ‘hvo’, ‘hva’, Angl. Sax. ‘hwa’, ‘hwaet’; Eng. ‘who’, ‘what’.]) The interrogative sentence introduced by “ka” is often terminated by “iti” (e.g. “kasya sa putra iti kathyatām”, let it be said, “whose son is he?”), but “iti” may be omitted and the sentence lose its direct interrogative character (e.g. “kasya sa putro na jṇāyate”, it is not known whose son he is). “ka” with or without 1. “as” may express “ow is it possible that?” “what power have I, you, they, &c.?” (e.g. “ke mama dhanvino’nye”, what can the other archers do against me? “ke āvām paritrātum”, what power have we to rescue you?) “ka” is often connected with a demonstrative pron. (e.g. “ko ‘yam āyāti”, who comes here?) or with the potential (e.g. “ko hariṁ nindet”, who will blame Hari?) “ka” is sometimes repeated (e.g. “kaḥ ko ‘tra”, who is there? “kān kān”, whom? whom? i.e. which of them? cf. Gram. 54), and the repetition is often due to a kind of attraction (e.g. “keṣāṁ kiṁ śāstram adhyayanīyam”, which book is to be read by whom? Gram. 836. “a”). When “kim” is connected with the inst. c. of a noun or with the indecl. participle it may express “what is gained by doing so, &c.?” (= “ko’rthas”); (e.g. “kiṁ vilambena”, what is gained by delay? “kim bahunā”, what is the use of more words? “dhanena kiṁ yo na dadāti”, what is the use of wealth to him who does not give? with inst. and gen., “nīrujaḥ kim auṣadhaiḥ”, what is the use of medicine to the healthy?) “ka” is often followed by the particles “iva, u, nāma, nu, vā, svid”, some of which serve merely to generalize the interrogation (e.g. “kim iva etad”, what can this be? “ka u śravat”, who can possibly hear? “ko nāma jānāti”, who indeed knows? “ko nv ayam”, who, pray, is this? “kiṁ nu kāryam”, what is to be done? “ko vā devād anyaḥ”, who possibly other than a god? “kasya svid hṛdayaṁ nāsti”, of what person is there no heart?) “ka” is occasionally used alone as an indefinite pronoun, especially in negative sentences (e.g. “na kasya ko vallabhaḥ”, no one is a favourite of any one; “nānyo jānāti kaḥ”, no one else knows; “kathaṁ sa ghātayati kam”, how does he kill any one?) Generally, however, “ka” is only made indefinite when connected with the particles “ca, cana, cid, vā”, and”api”, in which case “ka” may sometimes be preceded by the relative “ya” (e.g. “ye ke ca”, any persons whatsoever; “yasyai kasyai ca devatāyai”, to any deity whatsoever; “yāni kāni ca mitrāṇi”, any friends whatsoever; “yat kiṁca”, whatever). The particle “cana”, being composed of “ca”and”na”, properly gives a negative force to the pronoun (e.g. “yasmād indrād ṛte kiṁcana”, without which Indra there is nothing), but the negative sense is generally dropped (e.g. “kaścana”, any one; “na kaścana”, no one), and a relative is sometimes connected with it (e.g. “yat kiṁcana”, anything whatsoever). Examples of “cid” with the interrogative are common; “vā” and “api” are not so common, but the latter is often found in classical Sanskṛit (e.g. “kaścid”, any one; “kecid”, some; “na kaścid”, no one; “na kiṁcid api”, nothing whatsoever; “yaḥ kaścid”, any one whatsoever; “kecit” – “kecit”, some – others; “yasmin kasmin vā deśe”, in any country whatsoever; “na ko ‘pi”, no one; “na kimapi”, nothing whatever). “ka” may sometimes be used, like 2. “kad”, at the beginning of a compound. see “ka-pūya”, &c. क – ka m. (according to native authorities) N. of Prajāpati or of a Prajāpati &c. m. of Brahman m. of Daksha m. of Viṣṇu m. of Yama m. of Garuḍa m. the soul m. a particular comet m. the sun m. fire m. splendour, light m. air m. a peacock m. the body m. time m. wealth m. sound m. a king क – ka m. = “kāma-granthi” (?) क – ka n. happiness, joy, pleasure &c. क – ka n. water &c. क – ka n. the head क – ka n. hair, a head of hair क – ka n. (also regarded as ind.; cf. 1. “kam”.) क – ka a Taddhita affix (much used in forming adjectives; it may also be added to nouns to express diminution, deterioration, or similarity e.g. “putraka”, a little son; “aśvaka”, a bad horse or like a horse).
kha ख – kha the second consonant of the alphabet (being the aspirate of the preceding consonant; often in and confounded with “ṣa”). ख – kha m. the sun [Page 334,2] ख – kha n. (“khan”) a cavity, hollow, cave, cavern, aperture n. an aperture of the human body (of which there are nine, viz. the mouth, the two ears, the two eyes, the two nostrils, and the organs of excretion and generation) &c. ख – kha n. (hence) an organ of sense ख – kha n. (in anat.) the glottis n. “the hole made by an arrow”, wound n. the hole in the nave of a wheel through which the axis runs n. vacuity, empty space, air, ether, sky n. heaven n. Brahma (the Supreme Spirit) ख – kha n. (in arithm.) a cypher n. the Anusvāra represented by a circle (“bindu”) n. N. of the tenth astrological mansion n. talc n. a city n. a field n. happiness (a meaning derived fr. “su-kha, duḥ-kha”) n. action n. understanding ख – kha f. a fountain, well (“khām ṛtasya”, cf. Zend ‘aSahe khAo’) & vi, 36, 4 ख – kha n. ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘halo’.])
ga ग – ga (3rd consonant of the alphabet), the soft guttural having the sound “g” in “give”; m. N. of Gaṇeśa ग – ga mf (“ā”) n. (“gam”) only ifc. going, moving (e.g. “yāna-“, going in a carriage ; “śīghra-“, going quickly ; cf. “antarikṣa-” &c.) mf (“ā”) n. having sexual intercourse with (cf. “anya-strī-“) mf (“ā”) n. reaching to (cf. “kaṇṭha-“) mf (“ā”) n. staying, being, abiding in &c. (e.g. “paṇcama-“, abiding in or keeping the fifth place, śrut.) mf (“ā”) n. relating to or standing in connection with (cf. “a-, agra-, a-jihma-, atyanta-“, &c.; “agre-ga”, &c.) ग – ga mf (“ī” ) n. (“gai”) only ifc. singing (cf. “chando-, purāṇa-, sāma-“) ग – ga m. a Gandharva or celestial musician ग – ga mf (“ī” ) n. (“ā”) f. a song ग – ga n. id. ग – ga (used in works on prosody as an abbreviation of the word “guru” to denote) a long syllable ; (in music used as an abbreviation of the word “gāndhāra” to denote) the third note.
gha घ – gha the 4th consonant of the Sanskṛit alphabet (aspirate of the preceding). घ – gha ind. (used to lay stress on a word) at least, surely, verily, indeed, especially (= Gk. [greek] ), (“ghā” cf. ; as a rule it is preceded by other particles (“uta, uto, uta vā, cid, na, vā”) or by a pronoun or a preposition; it is also found between “iva” and “id”; or between “iva” and “id aha”, or between “vā” and “id”; sometimes it occurs in the clause which depends on a conditional or relative sentence (e.g. “ā ghā gamad yadi śravat”, “e will surely come when he hears” , i, 161, 8; viii, 46, 4. घ – gha mfn. (“han”) ifc. “striking, killing” cf. “jīva-, tāḍa-, pāṇi-, rāja-“, &c. (cf. also “parigha”) घ – gha m. a rattling or gurgling or tinkling sound m. a bell
ṅa ङ – ṅa the 5th consonant of the Sanskṛit alphabet, nasal of the 1st class. No word in use begins with this letter; it is usually found as the 1st member of a conjunct consonant preceded by a vowel. ङ – ṅa m. an object of sense m. desire for any sensual object m. śiva (“bhairava”)

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Cerebral sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ṭa ट – ṭa the 1st cerebral consonant (pronounced like ‘t’ in ‘true’, but properly by keeping back the tip of the tongue and slightly turning it upwards). ट – ṭa m. sound m. a dwarf m. a quarter, 4th ट – ṭa n. = “karaṅka” ट – ṭa n. an oath, confirming an assertion by ordeal &c.
ṭha ठ – ṭha the aspirate of the preceding consonant. ठ – ṭha m. a loud noise (“ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaḥ”, an imitative sound as of a golden pitcher rolling down steps iii, 5) m. the moon’s disk m. a disk m. a cypher m. a place frequented by all m. śiva
ḍa ड – ḍa the 3rd cerebral consonant (pronounced like “d” in “drum” by slightly turning the tip of the tongue upwards; and often in Bengal like a hard “r”). ड – ḍa m. a sound m. a kind of drum m. fear m. submarine fire m. Siva
ḍha ढ – ḍha the aspirate of the preceding letter, ढ – ḍha mfn. = “nir-guṇa” ढ – ḍha m. an imitative sound ढ – ḍha m. a large drum ढ – ḍha m. a dog ढ – ḍha m. a dog’s tail ढ – ḍha m. a serpent
ṇa ण – ṇa the cerebral nasal ण – ṇa m. knowledge m. certainty, ascertainment m. ornament m. a water-house ण – ṇa m. = “nirvṛti” (invented for the etymology of “kriṣṇa”, ) m. a bad man m. N. of śiva or of a deity m. the sound of negation m. gift

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Palatal sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ca च – ca the 20th letter of the alphabet, 1st of the 2nd (or palatal) class of consonants, having the sound of “ch” in “church”. च – ca ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as (= [characters], Lat. ‘que’, placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects with what precedes; when used with a personal pronoun this must appear in its fuller accented form (e.g. “tava ca mama ca” [not “te ca me ca”], “both of thee and me”), when used after verbs the first of them is accented ; it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences; in the double “ca” occurs more frequently than the single (e.g. “ahaṁ ca tvaṁ ca”, “I and thou”, viii, 62, 11); the double “ca” may also be used somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskṛit (e.g. “kva hariṇakānāṁ jīvitaṁ cātilolaṁ kva ca vajra-sārāḥ śarās te”, “where is the frail existence, of fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows?” ; in later literature, however, the first “ca” is more usually omitted (e.g. “ahaṁ tvaṁ ca”), and when more than two things are enumerated only one “ca” is often found (e.g. “tejasā yaśasā lakṣmyā sthityā ca parayā”, “in glory, in fame, in beauty, and in high position” ; elsewhere, when more than two things are enumerated, “ca” is placed after some and omitted after others (e.g. “ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī”, “the payer of a debt and a physician [and] a Brāhman [and] a river” ; in Ved. and even in class. Sanskṛit [ iii, 20; ix, 322 “ca” would generally be used, the second may occasionally be omitted (e.g. “indraś ca soma”, “both Indra [and thou] Soma” ; “durbhedyaś cāśusaṁdheyaḥ”, “both difficult to be divided [and] quickly united” i); with lexicographers “ca” may imply a reference to certain other words which are not expressed (e.g. “kamaṇḍalau ca karakaḥ”, “the word “karaka” has the meaning “pitcher” and other meanings”); sometimes “ca” is = “eva”, even, indeed, certainly, just (e.g. “su-cintitaṁ cauṣadhaṁ na nāma-mātreṇa karoty arogam”, “even a well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name” ; “yāvanta eva te tāvāṁśca saḥ”, “as great as they [were] just so great was he” ; occasionally “ca” is disjunctive, “but”, “on the contrary”, “on the other hand”, “yet”, “nevertheless” (“varam ādyau na cāntimaḥ”, “better the two first but not the last” ; “śāntam idam āśrama-padaṁ sphurati ca bāhuḥ”, “this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs” ; “ca-ca”, though-yet ; “ca-na ca”, though – yet not ; “ca” – “na tu” (v.l. “nanu”) id., Mālav-. iv, 8; “na ca” – “ca”, though not – yet ; “ca” may be used for “vā”, “either”, “or” (e.g. “iha cāmutra vā”, “either here or hereafter” ; “strī vā pumān vā yac cānyat sattvam”, “either a woman or a man or any other being” neg. particle is joined with “ca” the two may then be translated by “neither”, “nor”; occasionally one “ca” or one “na” is omitted (e.g. “na ca paribhoktuṁ naiva śaknomi hātum”, “I am able neither to enjoy nor to abandon” ; “na pūrvāhṇe nā ca parāhṇe”, “neither in the forenoon nor in the afternoon”); “ca-ca” may express immediate connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence (e.g. “mama ca muktaṁ tamasā mano manasijena dhanuṣi śaraś ca niveśitaḥ”, “no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his bow by the heart-born god”, vi, 8); “ca” is sometimes = “ced”, “if” (cf. ; the verb is accented) ; “ca” may be used as an expletive (e.g. “anyaiś ca kratubhiś ca”, “and with other sacrifices”); “ca” is often joined to an adv. like “eva, api, tathā, tathaiva”, &c., either with or without a neg. particle (e.g. “vairiṇaṁ nopaseveta sahāyaṁ caiva vairiṇaḥ”, “one ought not to serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy” ; (see “eva, api”, &c.) For the meaning of “ca” after an interrogative see 2. “ka”, 2. “kathā, kim, kva”); ([cf. [characters], Lat. ‘que’, ‘pe’ (in ‘nempe’ &c.); Goth. ‘uh’; Zd. ‘ca’; Old Pers. ‘ca’.]) च – ca mfn. pure mfn. moving to and fro mfn. mischievous mfn. seedless च – ca m. a thief. च – ca m. the moon च – ca m. a tortoise च – ca m. śiva
cha छ – cha the 7th consonant (aspirate of the preceding). छ – cha m. (“cho”) dividing m. a fragment छ – cha mfn. pure, clean mfn. tremulous, unsteady छ – cha mfn. cf. “chā”.
ja ज – ja the 3rd palatal letter (having the sound of “j” in “jump”). ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (“jan”) ifc. born or descended from, produced or caused by, born or produced in or at or upon, growing in, living at &c. ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (after an adv. or adverbial word) born or produced (e.g. “agra-, avara-; eka-, dvi-, ni-, pūrva-, prathama-, saha-“and”sākaṁ-ja”), Mn x, 25 mf (“ā”) n. prepared from, made of or with, v, 25 mf (“ā”) n. “belonging to, connected with, peculiar to” see “anūpa, anna, śahra-, sārtha-“. m. a son of (in comp.) &c. mf (“ā”) n. a father mf (“ā”) n. birth ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. a race, tribe ज – ja ifc. a daughter ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. cf. “jā”. ज – ja mfn. speedy, swift mfn. victorious mfn. eaten ज – ja m. speed ज – ja m. enjoyment ज – ja m. light, lustre ज – ja m. poison ज – ja m. a Piśāca ज – ja m. Viṣṇu ज – ja m. śiva ज – ja m. a husband’s brother’s wife
jha झ – jha the 9th consonant (aspirate of the preceding). = झ – jha mfn. asleep झ – jha m. playing a tune, beating time झ – jha m. a sound like the splashing of water or clashing of symbols, jingling, clanking झ – jha m. wind accompanied by rain झ – jha m. anything lost or mislaid झ – jha m. Bṛihaspati झ – jha m. N. of a chief of the Daityas झ – jha m. = “jhaṇṭīśa”
ña ण – ṇa the palatal nasal (found before palatal consonants). ण – ṇa m. a singer m. a jingling sound m. a heretic m. an ox m. the planet śukra ण – ṇa the palatal nasal (found before palatal consonants). ण – ṇa m. a singer m. a jingling sound m. a heretic m. an ox m. the planet śukra विश्वस्पृश् – viśvaspṛś “viśva-spṛś” mfn. all-touching, all-reaching (applied to Maha-purusha) (v.l. “diva-sp-“). ण् – ṇ

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Dental sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ta त – ta the 1st dental consonant. त – ta pronom. base see “tad” त – ta m. a tail (esp. of a jackal), any tail except that of Bos gaurus त – ta m., the breast m. the womb m. the hip m. a warrior m. a thief. m. a wicked man m. a Mleccha m. a Buddha m. a jewel m. nectar त – ta n. crossing त – ta n. virtue
tha थ – tha aspirate of the preceding letter. थ – tha m. a mountain m. a protector m. a sign of danger m. N. of a disease m. eating थ – tha n. preservation थ – tha n. fear थ – tha n. an auspicious prayer
da द – da the 3rd and soft letter of the 4th or dental class. द – da mf (“ā”) n. (1. “dā”) ifc. ( 3-2, 3) giving, granting, offering, effecting, producing (e.g. “abhīṣṭa-“, “giving any desired object” ; “gaja-vāji-vṛddhi-“, “promoting the welfare of elephants and horses” &c. (cf. “agni-; a-doma-da; anna-, artha-, garbha-, janma-” &c.) द – da m. n. a gift द – da mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. id. द – da mfn. ( “do”) ifc. see “anala-“, 2. “jīva-” द – da m. n. the act of cutting off द – da mfn. (4. “da-“) ifc. see “ṛśya-da”. द – da = “dat” cf. “a-panna-, panna-; ṣo-ḍa”. द – da m. a mountain द – da n. a wife (derived fr. “dam-patī”)
dha ध – dha aspirate of the preceding letter, ध – dha mf (“ā”) n. (1. “dhā”; cf. 2. “dhā”) ifc. placing, putting mf (“ā”) n. holding, possessing, having mf (“ā”) n. bestowing, granting, causing &c. (cf. “a-doma-dha, garbha-dha”) ध – dha m. N. of Brahmā or Kubera ध – dha m. (in music) the 6th note of the gamut ध – dha m. virtue, merit ध – dha n. wealth, property ध – dha mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. in 2. “tiro-dhā” ध – dha n. “dur-dhā” (qq. vv.)
na न – na “no, it is not so” न – na not-but न – na the dental nasal (found at the beginning of words and before or after dental consonants as well as between vowels; subject to conversion into [characters] न – na ind. not, no, nor, neither (“nā”, x, 34, 8) &c. &c. (as well in simple negation as in wishing, requesting and commanding, except in prohibition before an Impv. or an augmentless aor. [cf. a. “mā”]; in successive sentences or clauses either simply repeated e.g. ; or strengthened by another particle, esp. at the second place or further on in the sentence e.g. by “u” [cf. “no”], “uta, api, cāpi, vā, vāpi” or “atha vā” ; it may even be replaced by “ca, vā, api ca, api vā”, &c. alone, as ; often joined with other particles, beside those mentioned above esp. with a following “tu, tv eva, tv eva tu, ced” q.v., “khalu” q.v., “ha” [cf. g. “cādi” and ; before round or collective numbers and after any numeral in the instr. or abl. it expresses deficiency e.g. “ekayā na viṁśati”, not 20 by 1 i.e. 19 ; “paṇcabhir na catvāri śatāni”, 395 ; with another “na” or an “a” priv. it generally forms a strong affirmation [cf. e.g. “neyaṁ na vakṣyati”, she will most certainly declare ; “nādaṇḍyo ‘sti”, he must certainly be punished ; it may also, like “a”, form compounds [cf. below]); that not, lest, for fear lest (with Pot.) ; like, as, as it were (only in Veda and later artificial language, e.g. “gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piba”, drink like [lit. “not” i.e. “although not being”] a thirsty deer; in this sense it does not coalesce metrically with a following vowel). [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘ne-‘; Angl. Sax. ‘ne’, “not”; Eng. ‘no’, &c.] -2. न – na () mfn. thin, spare; vacant, empty; identical; unvexed, unbroken; m. band, fetter; jewel, pearl; war; gift; welfare; N. of Buddha; N. of Gaṇeśa; = “prastuta”; = “dviraṇḍa” (?); (“ā”) f. the navel; a musical instrument; knowledge.

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Labial sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
pa प – pa the first labial consonant. प – pa mf (“pā” and “pī”) n. (1. “pā”) drinking (cf. “aṁhri-, aneka-” &c.; also “paka” in “taila-paka”) प – pa m. or (“pā”) f. the act of drinking प – pa mfn. (3. “pā”) guarding, protecting, ruling (ifc.; cf. “aja-, kula-” &c.; also “paka” in “hasti-paka”) प – pa m. (in music for “paṇcama”) the fifth note of the gamut. प – pa m. (only wind m. a leaf प – pa m. = “pūta”
pha फ – pha aspirate of “pa”. फ – pha (only ; m. a gale; swelling; gaping; gain; = “vardhaka”; = “yakṣa-sādhana”; n. flowing; bursting with a popping noise; bubbling, boiling; angry or idle speech.
ba ब – ba the third letter of the labial class (often confounded with “va”). ब – ba m. = “varuna” ब – ba m. “sindhu” ब – ba m. “bhaga” ब – ba m. “gandhana” ब – ba m. “vapana” &c.
bha भ – bha aspirate of “ba”. भ – bha (in gram.) N. of the weakest base of nouns (as opp. to “pada” and “aṅga” q.v.) i.e. of the base before the vowel terminations except in strong cases, before feminine suffixes, and before Taddhitas beginning with vowels or “y” भ – bha (in prosody) a dactyl. भ – bha (1. “bhā”) m. N. of the planet Venus or its regent, (= “śukra”) ; semblance, delusion, error ; (“ā”) f. light or a beam of light, lustre, splendour &c. (cf. 2. “bhā”); the shadow of a gnomon ; appearance, resemblance, likeness (ifc.; cf. “agni-bha, guḍa-bhā, tantubha”); n. a star, planet, asterism, lunar asterism or mansion (and so also the number 27; cf. “nakṣatra”), sign of the zodiac भ – bha m. (prob. onomat.) a bee
ma म – ma the labial nasal. -1. म – ma m. (in prosody) a molossus. -2. म – ma base of the 1st pers. pron. in acc. sg. “mām” or “mā”; instr. “mayā”; dat. “mahyam” or “me”; abl. “mat” or “mad”; gen. “mama” or me (for the enclitic forms cf. “mad”; Zd. ‘ma’; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘me’, ‘mihi’ &c.]

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Non-axial sonants 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ya य – ya the 1st semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “i” and “ī”, and having the sound of the English “y”, in Bengal usually pronounced “j”). य – ya m. (in prosody) n. bacchic ([characters] ) य – ya the actual base of the relative pronoun in declension ([cf. “yad” and Gk. [greek] ]). य – ya m. (in some senses fr. 1. “yā”, only a goer or mover m. wind m. joining m. restraining m. fame m. a carriage (?) m. barley m. light m. abandoning
ra र – ra the 2nd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “ṛ” and “ṝ”, and having the sound of “r” in “ring”). र – ra (in prosody) a cretic (- [characters] -) र – ra mfn. ( “rā”) acquiring, possessing mfn. giving, effecting र – ra m. (only fire, heat र – ra m. love, desire र – ra m. speed र – ra m. giving र – ra m. gold र – ra n. brightness, splendour (used in explaining an etymology)
la ल – la the 3rd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “ḷ, ḹ”, and having the sound of the English ‘l’); a technical term for all the tenses and moods of a finite verb or for the terminations of those tenses and moods (also applied to some forms with “kṛt” affixes construed like a finite verb ; cf. iii, 2, 124, and when accompanied by certain indicatory letters denoting each tense separately see “laṭ; laṅ; liṅ; loṭ; liṭ; luṭ; ḷṭ; luṅ; ḷṅ; leṭ”) ल – la m. N. of Indra m. cutting (? cf. “lava”) ल – la m. (“lā”) f. see s.v. ल – la (in prosody) = “laghu”, a short syllable.
va व – va the 3rd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “u” and “ū”, and having the sound of the English ‘v’, except when forming the last member of a conjunct consonant, in which case it is pronounced like ‘w’; it is often confounded and interchanged with the labial consonant “b”). व – va (only m. air, wind; the arm; N. of Varuṇa; the ocean, water; addressing; reverence; conciliation; auspiciousness; a dwelling; a tiger; cloth; the esculent root of the water-lily; (“ā”) f. going; hurting; an arrow; weaving; a weaver (?). n. a sort of incantation or Mantra (of which the object is the deity Varuṇa); = “pra-catas”; mfn. strong, powerful. व – va ind. = “iva”, like, as

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Sibilant sound 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ṣa ष – ṣa the second of the three sibilants (it belongs to the cerebral class, and is sometimes substituted for “s”, and more rarely for “ś”, and occasionally interchangeable with “kh”; in sound it corresponds to “ṣ” on the English word ‘Sun’; many roots which begin with “s” are written in the Dhātu-pāṭha with “ṣ”, prob. to show that their initial “s” is liable to be cerebralized after certain prepositions). ष – ṣa mfn. (only ; for 3. “ṣa” see below) best, excellent mfn. wise, learned ष – ṣa m. loss, destruction ष – ṣa m. loss of knowledge ष – ṣa m. end, term ष – ṣa m. rest, remainder ष – ṣa m. eternal happiness, final emancipation ष – ṣa m. heaven, paradise ष – ṣa m. sleep ष – ṣa m. a learned man, teacher ष – ṣa m. a nipple ष – ṣa m. = “kaca” ष – ṣa m. = “mānava” ष – ṣa m. = “sarva” ष – ṣa m. = “garbhavimocana” ष – ṣa n. the embryo ष – ṣa n. (accord. to some) patience, endurance. ष – ṣa mfn. = “ṣaṣ” ifc. (in “paṇca-ṣa” q.v.)
śa श – śa the first of the three sibilants (it belongs to the palatal class, but in sound as well as euphonic treatment often corresponds to “ṣ”, though in some words pronounced more like “s”). श – śa (ifc.) = “śaya” (see “giri-, vāri-, vṛkṣa-śa”). श – śa m. = “śastra” श – śa m. = “śiva” श – śa n. see 2. “śam”.
sa स – sa the last of the three sibilants (it belongs to the dental class and in sound corresponds to “s” in “sin”). स – sa (in prosody) an anapest ([characters] -). -2. स – sa (in music) an abbreviated term for “ṣaḍ-ja” (see p.1109, col.2). स – sa (only m. a snake; air, wind; a bird; N. of Viṣṇu or śiva; (“ā”) f. N. of Lakshmi or Gaurī; n. knowledge; meditation; a carriage road; a fence. स – sa mfn. (fr. “san”) procuring, bestowing (only ifc.; cf. “palu-ṣa” and “priya-sa”). स – sa the actual base for the nom. case of the 3rd pers. pron. “tad” q.v. (occurring only in the nom. sg. mf. [“sa” or “sas, sā”], and in the Ved. loc. [“sasmin” ; the final “s” of the nom. m. is dropped before all consonants [except before “p” in “t” in ; “sa” occasionally blends with another vowel [as in “saīṣaḥ”]; and it is often for emphasis connected with another pron. as with “aham, tvam, eṣa, ayam” &c. [e.g. “so ‘ham” “sa tvam”, “I (or thou) that very person”; cf. under “tad”, p.434], the verb then following in the 1st and 2nd pers. even if “aham” or “tvam” be omitted [e.g. “sa” “tvā pṛcchāmi” “I that very person ask you” ; “sa” “vai no brūhi” “do thou tell us” ; similarly, to denote emphasis, with “bhavān” [e.g. “sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām”, “let your Highness set out for victory” ; it sometimes [and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas] stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a rel. pronoun or adv. such as “ya, yad, yadi, yathā, ced”; in this position “sa” may be used pleonastically or as a kind of ind., even where another gender or number is required [e.g. “sa yadi” “sthāvarā āpo bhananti”, “if those waters are stagnant” ; in the Sāṁkhya “sa”, like “eṣa, ka”, and “ya”, is used to denote Purusha, “the Universal Soul”) ‘ha’, ‘hA’; Gk. [greek]. ] स – sa ind. (connected with “saha, sam, sama”, and occasionally in standing for “saha” with instr.) an inseparable prefix expressing “junction”, “conjunction”, “possession” (as opp. to “a” priv.), “similarity”, “equality”; (and when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by “with”, “together or along with”, “accompanied by”, “added to”, “having”, “possessing”, “containing”, “having the same” [cf. “sa-kopa, sāgni, sa-bhāya, sa-droṇa, sa-dharman, sa-varṇa”]; or it may = “ly”, as in “sa-kopam”, “angrily”, “sopadhi”, “fraudulently”) ‘a’ in [characters]; Lat. ‘sim’ in ‘simplex’; ‘sem’ in ‘semel’, ‘semper’ Eng. ‘same’.] स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following). स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa see 5. “sa”, p.1111, col.2. स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following) स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following) स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

Return to the table of contents
Consonants:Guttural sounds 

Symbol ITRANS Translation
ha ह – ha the thirty-third and last consonant of the Nāgarī alphabet (in Pāṇini’s system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the English “h” in “hard”; it is not an original letter, but is mostly derived from an older “gh”, rarely from “dh” or “bh”). ह – ha (only m. a form of śiva or Bhairava (cf. “nakulīśa”); water; a cipher (i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation, auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; fear; knowledge; the moon; Viṣṇu; war, battle; horripilation; a horse; pride; a physician; cause, motive; = “pāpa-haraṇa”; = “sakopa-vāraṇa”; = “śuṣka”; (also “ā” f.) laughter; (“ā”) f. coition; a lute (“am”) n. the Supreme Spirit; pleasure, delight; a weapon; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to the sound of a lute; (ind.) = “aham” (?). ; mfn. mad, drunk. ह – ha ind. (prob. orig. identical with 2. “gha”, and used as a particle for emphasizing a preceding word, esp. if it begins a sentence closely connected with another; very frequent in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras, and often translatable by) indeed, assuredly, verily, of course, then &c. (often with other particles e.g. with “tv eva, u, sma, vai” &c.; “na ha”, “not indeed”; also with interrogatives and relatives e.g. “yad dha”, “when indeed”; “kad dha”, “what then?” sometimes with impf. or pf. [cf. ; in later language very commonly used as a mere expletive, esp. at the end of a verse) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (fr. “han”) killing, destroying, removing (only ifc.; see “arāti-, vṛtra-, śatruha” &c.) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (fr. 3. “hā”) abandoning, deserting, avoiding (ifc.; see “an-oka-” and “vāpī-ha”) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. abandonment, desertion ह – ha see 4. “ha”, p.1286, col.1. ह – ha see 5. “ha”, p.1286, col.1.

Return to the table of contents
The special signs   

Symbol ITRANS Translation
अनुस्वार – anusvāra “anu-svāra” m. ( “svṛ”), after-sound, the nasal sound which is marked by a dot above the line, and which always belongs to a preceding vowel.
विसर्ग – visarga “vi-sarga” “vi-sarjana” see p.1001. विसर्ग – visarga “vi-sarga” m. sending forth, letting go, liberation, emission, discharge &c. m. voiding, evacuation (of excrement) m. opening (of the closed hand) m. getting rid of, sending away, dismissal, rejection &c. m. letting loose i.e. driving out (cows; see “go-vis-“) m. final emancipation, exemption from worldly existence m. cessation, end m. end of the annual course of the sun m. destruction of the world m. giving, granting, bestowal &c. m. scattering, hurling, throwing, shooting, casting (also of glances) m. producing, creating (esp. secondary creation or creation in detail by Purusha; see under “sarga”) m. creation (in the concrete sense), product, offspring m. “producer”, cause m. membrum virile m. the sun’s southern course m. separation, parting (cf. “-cumbana”) m. light, splendour m. N. of a symbol in grammar (= “vi-sarjanīya”, which is the older term see below) m. N. of śiva
  विरम् – viram “vi-ram” P. “-ramati” (rarely ā.; cf. , to stop (esp. speaking), pause, cease, come to an end &c. &c.; to give up, abandon, abstain or desist from (abl.) &c.: Caus. “-rāmayati”, to cause to stop or rest &c., bring to an end, finish Desid. see “vi-riraṁsā”.
अनुनासिक – anunāsika “anu-nāsika” mfn. nasal, uttered through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants, or a vowel, or the three semivowels “y, v, l”, under certain circumstances; in the case of vowels and semivowels, the mark [sign] is used to denote this nasalization) mfn. the nasal mark [sign] अनुनासिक – anunāsika “anu-nāsika” n. a nasal twang अनुनासिक – anunāsika “anu-nāsika” n. speaking through the nose (a fault in pronunciation).

Return to the table of contents

Comments

Write a comment