The Sanskrit sylables

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क ka कि ki कु ku कृ kṛ कॢ kḷ का kā की kī कू kū कॄ kṝ कॣ kḹ के ke को ko कै kai कौ kau कं kaṁ कः kaḥ
ख kha खि khi खु khu खृ khṛ खॢ khḷ खा khā खी khī खू khū खॄ khṝ खॣ khḹ खे khe खो kho खै khai खौ khau खं khaṁ खः khaḥ
ग ga गि gi गु gu गृ gṛ गॢ gḷ गा gā गी gī गू gū गॄ gṝ गॣ gḹ गे ge गो go गै gai गौ gau गं gaṁ गः gaḥ
घ gha घि ghi घु ghu घृ ghṛ घॢ ghḷ घा ghā घी ghī घू ghū घॄ ghṝ घॣ ghḹ घे ghe घो gho घै ghai घौ ghau घं ghaṁ घः ghaḥ
ङ ṅa ङि ṅi ङु ṅu ङृ ṅṛ ङॢ ṅḷ ङा ṅā ङी ṅī ङू ṅū ङॄ ṅṝ ङॣ ṅḹ ङे ṅe ङो ṅo ङै ṅai ङौ ṅau ङं ṅaṁ ङः ṅaḥ
ट ṭa टि ṭi टु ṭu टृ ṭṛ टॢ ṭḷ टा ṭā टी ṭī टू ṭū टॄ ṭṝ टॣ ṭḹ टे ṭe टो ṭo टै ṭai टौ ṭau टं ṭaṁ टः ṭaḥ
ठ ṭha ठि ṭhi ठु ṭhu ठृ ṭhṛ ठॢ ṭhḷ ठा ṭhā ठी ṭhī ठू ṭhū ठॄ ṭhṝ ठॣ ṭhḹ ठे ṭhe ठो ṭho ठै ṭhai ठौ ṭhau ठं ṭhaṁ ठः ṭhaḥ
ड ḍa डि ḍi डु ḍu डृ ḍṛ डॢ ḍḷ डा ḍā डी ḍī डू ḍū डॄ ḍṝ डॣ ḍḹ डे ḍe डो ḍo डै ḍai डौ ḍau डं ḍaṁ डः ḍaḥ
ढ ḍha ढि ḍhi ढु ḍhu ढृ ḍhṛ ढॢ ḍhḷ ढा ḍhā ढी ḍhī ढू ḍhū ढॄ ḍhṝ ढॣ ḍhḹ ढे ḍhe ढो ḍho ढै ḍhai ढौ ḍhau ढं ḍhaṁ ढः ḍhaḥ
ण ṇa णि ṇi णु ṇu णृ ṇṛ णॢ ṇḷ णा ṇā णी ṇī णू ṇū णॄ ṇṝ णॣ ṇḹ णे ṇe णो ṇo णै ṇai णौ ṇau णं ṇaṁ णः ṇaḥ
च ca चि ci चु cu चृ cṛ चॢ cḷ चा cā ची cī चू cū चॄ cṝ चॣ cḹ चे ce चो co चै cai चौ cau चं caṁ चः caḥ
छ cha छि chi छु chu छृ chṛ छॢ chḷ छा chā छी chī छू chū छॄ chṝ छॣ chḹ छे che छो cho छै chai छौ chau छं chaṁ छः chaḥ
ज ja जि ji जु ju जृ jṛ जॢ jḷ जा jā जी jī जू jū जॄ jṝ जॣ jḹ जे je जो jo जै jai जौ jau जं jaṁ जः jaḥ
झ jha झि jhi झु jhu झृ jhṛ झॢ jhḷ झा jhā झी jhī झू jhū झॄ jhṝ झॣ jhḹ झे jhe झो jho झै jhai झौ jhau झं jhaṁ झः jhaḥ
ञ ña ञि ñi ञु ñu ञृ ñṛ ञॢ ñḷ ञा ñā ञी ñī ञू ñū ञॄ ñṝ ञॣ ñḹ ञे ñe ञो ño ञै ñai ञौ ñau ञं ñaṁ ञः ñaḥ
त ta ति ti तु tu तृ tṛ तॢ tḷ ता tā ती tī तू tū तॄ tṝ तॣ tḹ ते te तो to तै tai तौ tau तं taṁ तः taḥ
थ tha थि thi थु thu थृ thṛ थॢ thḷ था thā थी thī थू thū थॄ thṝ थॣ thḹ थे the थो tho थै thai थौ thau थं thaṁ थः thaḥ
द da दि di दु du दृ dṛ दॢ dḷ दा dā दी dī दू dū दॄ dṝ दॣ dḹ दे de दो do दै dai दौ dau दं daṁ दः daḥ
ध dha धि dhi धु dhu धृ dhṛ धॢ dhḷ धा dhā धी dhī धू dhū धॄ dhṝ धॣ dhḹ धे dhe धो dho धै dhai धौ dhau धं dhaṁ धः dhaḥ
न na नि ni नु nu नृ nṛ नॢ nḷ ना nā नी nī नू nū नॄ nṝ नॣ nḹ ने ne नो no नै nai नौ nau नं naṁ नः naḥ
प pa पि pi पु pu पृ pṛ पॢ pḷ पा pā पी pī पू pū पॄ pṝ पॣ pḹ पे pe पो po पै pai पौ pau पं paṁ पः paḥ
फ pha फि phi फु phu फृ phṛ फॢ phḷ फा phā फी phī फू phū फॄ phṝ फॣ phḹ फे phe फो pho फै phai फौ phau फं phaṁ फः phaḥ
ब ba बि bi बु bu बृ bṛ बॢ bḷ बा bā बी bī बू bū बॄ bṝ बॣ bḹ बे be बो bo बै bai बौ bau बं baṁ बः baḥ
भ bha भि bhi भु bhu भृ bhṛ भॢ bhḷ भा bhā भी bhī भू bhū भॄ bhṝ भॣ bhḹ भे bhe भो bho भै bhai भौ bhau भं bhaṁ भः bhaḥ
म ma मि mi मु mu मृ mṛ मॢ mḷ मा mā मी mī मू mū मॄ mṝ मॣ mḹ मे me मो mo मै mai मौ mau मं maṁ मः maḥ
य ya यि yi यु yu यृ yṛ यॢ yḷ या yā यी yī यू yū यॄ yṝ यॣ yḹ ये ye यो yo यै yai यौ yau यं yaṁ यः yaḥ
र ra रि ri रु ru रृ rṛ रॢ rḷ रा rā री rī रू rū रॄ rṝ रॣ rḹ रे re रो ro रै rai रौ rau रं raṁ रः raḥ
ल la लि li लु lu लृ lṛ लॢ lḷ ला lā ली lī लू lū लॄ lṝ लॣ lḹ ले le लो lo लै lai लौ lau लं laṁ लः laḥ
व va वि vi वु vu वृ vṛ वॢ vḷ वा vā वी vī वू vū वॄ vṝ वॣ vḹ वे ve वो vo वै vai वौ vau वं vaṁ वः vaḥ
ष ṣa षि ṣi षु ṣu षृ ṣṛ षॢ ṣḷ षा ṣā षी ṣī षू ṣū षॄ ṣṝ षॣ ṣḹ षे ṣe षो ṣo षै ṣai षौ ṣau षं ṣaṁ षः ṣaḥ
श śa शि śi शु śu शृ śṛ शॢ śḷ शा śā शी śī शू śū शॄ śṝ शॣ śḹ शे śe शो śo शै śai शौ śau शं śaṁ शः śaḥ
स sa सि si सु su सृ sṛ सॢ sḷ सा sā सी sī सू sū सॄ sṝ सॣ sḹ से se सो so सै sai सौ sau सं saṁ सः saḥ
ह ha हि hi हु hu हृ hṛ हॢ hḷ हा hā ही hī हू hū हॄ hṝ हॣ hḹ हे he हो ho है hai हौ hau हं haṁ हः haḥ




Syllable Translation
ka क – ka the first consonant of the alphabet, and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to ‘k’ in ‘keep’ or ‘king’). क – ka “kas, kā, kim”, interrog. pron. (see “kim” and 2. “kad”, and cf. the following words in which the interrogative base “ka” appears, “katama, katara, kati, katham, kadā, karhi, kā”, &c.), who? which? what? In its declension “ka” follows the pronoun “tad” except in nom. acc. sing. neut., where “kim” has taken the place of “kad” or “kat” in classical Sanskṛit; but the old form “kad” is found in the Veda (see Gram. 227); ([cf. Zd. ‘ka’, ‘ko’, ‘kA’, ‘kat’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘quis’, ‘quid’; Lith. ‘kas’ “ka”; Goth. ‘hvas’, ‘hvo’, ‘hva’, Angl. Sax. ‘hwa’, ‘hwaet’; Eng. ‘who’, ‘what’.]) The interrogative sentence introduced by “ka” is often terminated by “iti” (e.g. “kasya sa putra iti kathyatām”, let it be said, “whose son is he?”), but “iti” may be omitted and the sentence lose its direct interrogative character (e.g. “kasya sa putro na jṇāyate”, it is not known whose son he is). “ka” with or without 1. “as” may express “ow is it possible that?” “what power have I, you, they, &c.?” (e.g. “ke mama dhanvino’nye”, what can the other archers do against me? “ke āvām paritrātum”, what power have we to rescue you?) “ka” is often connected with a demonstrative pron. (e.g. “ko ‘yam āyāti”, who comes here?) or with the potential (e.g. “ko hariṁ nindet”, who will blame Hari?) “ka” is sometimes repeated (e.g. “kaḥ ko ‘tra”, who is there? “kān kān”, whom? whom? i.e. which of them? cf. Gram. 54), and the repetition is often due to a kind of attraction (e.g. “keṣāṁ kiṁ śāstram adhyayanīyam”, which book is to be read by whom? Gram. 836. “a”). When “kim” is connected with the inst. c. of a noun or with the indecl. participle it may express “what is gained by doing so, &c.?” (= “ko’rthas”); (e.g. “kiṁ vilambena”, what is gained by delay? “kim bahunā”, what is the use of more words? “dhanena kiṁ yo na dadāti”, what is the use of wealth to him who does not give? with inst. and gen., “nīrujaḥ kim auṣadhaiḥ”, what is the use of medicine to the healthy?) “ka” is often followed by the particles “iva, u, nāma, nu, vā, svid”, some of which serve merely to generalize the interrogation (e.g. “kim iva etad”, what can this be? “ka u śravat”, who can possibly hear? “ko nāma jānāti”, who indeed knows? “ko nv ayam”, who, pray, is this? “kiṁ nu kāryam”, what is to be done? “ko vā devād anyaḥ”, who possibly other than a god? “kasya svid hṛdayaṁ nāsti”, of what person is there no heart?) “ka” is occasionally used alone as an indefinite pronoun, especially in negative sentences (e.g. “na kasya ko vallabhaḥ”, no one is a favourite of any one; “nānyo jānāti kaḥ”, no one else knows; “kathaṁ sa ghātayati kam”, how does he kill any one?) Generally, however, “ka” is only made indefinite when connected with the particles “ca, cana, cid, vā”, and”api”, in which case “ka” may sometimes be preceded by the relative “ya” (e.g. “ye ke ca”, any persons whatsoever; “yasyai kasyai ca devatāyai”, to any deity whatsoever; “yāni kāni ca mitrāṇi”, any friends whatsoever; “yat kiṁca”, whatever). The particle “cana”, being composed of “ca”and”na”, properly gives a negative force to the pronoun (e.g. “yasmād indrād ṛte kiṁcana”, without which Indra there is nothing), but the negative sense is generally dropped (e.g. “kaścana”, any one; “na kaścana”, no one), and a relative is sometimes connected with it (e.g. “yat kiṁcana”, anything whatsoever). Examples of “cid” with the interrogative are common; “vā” and “api” are not so common, but the latter is often found in classical Sanskṛit (e.g. “kaścid”, any one; “kecid”, some; “na kaścid”, no one; “na kiṁcid api”, nothing whatsoever; “yaḥ kaścid”, any one whatsoever; “kecit” – “kecit”, some – others; “yasmin kasmin vā deśe”, in any country whatsoever; “na ko ‘pi”, no one; “na kimapi”, nothing whatever). “ka” may sometimes be used, like 2. “kad”, at the beginning of a compound. see “ka-pūya”, &c. क – ka m. (according to native authorities) N. of Prajāpati or of a Prajāpati &c. m. of Brahman m. of Daksha m. of Viṣṇu m. of Yama m. of Garuḍa m. the soul m. a particular comet m. the sun m. fire m. splendour, light m. air m. a peacock m. the body m. time m. wealth m. sound m. a king क – ka m. = “kāma-granthi” (?) क – ka n. happiness, joy, pleasure &c. क – ka n. water &c. क – ka n. the head क – ka n. hair, a head of hair क – ka n. (also regarded as ind.; cf. 1. “kam”.) क – ka a Taddhita affix (much used in forming adjectives; it may also be added to nouns to express diminution, deterioration, or similarity e.g. “putraka”, a little son; “aśvaka”, a bad horse or like a horse).
kha ख – kha the second consonant of the alphabet (being the aspirate of the preceding consonant; often in and confounded with “ṣa”). ख – kha m. the sun [Page 334,2] ख – kha n. (“khan”) a cavity, hollow, cave, cavern, aperture n. an aperture of the human body (of which there are nine, viz. the mouth, the two ears, the two eyes, the two nostrils, and the organs of excretion and generation) &c. ख – kha n. (hence) an organ of sense ख – kha n. (in anat.) the glottis n. “the hole made by an arrow”, wound n. the hole in the nave of a wheel through which the axis runs n. vacuity, empty space, air, ether, sky n. heaven n. Brahma (the Supreme Spirit) ख – kha n. (in arithm.) a cypher n. the Anusvāra represented by a circle (“bindu”) n. N. of the tenth astrological mansion n. talc n. a city n. a field n. happiness (a meaning derived fr. “su-kha, duḥ-kha”) n. action n. understanding ख – kha f. a fountain, well (“khām ṛtasya”, cf. Zend ‘aSahe khAo’) & vi, 36, 4 ख – kha n. ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘halo’.])
ga ग – ga (3rd consonant of the alphabet), the soft guttural having the sound “g” in “give”; m. N. of Gaṇeśa ग – ga mf (“ā”) n. (“gam”) only ifc. going, moving (e.g. “yāna-“, going in a carriage ; “śīghra-“, going quickly ; cf. “antarikṣa-” &c.) mf (“ā”) n. having sexual intercourse with (cf. “anya-strī-“) mf (“ā”) n. reaching to (cf. “kaṇṭha-“) mf (“ā”) n. staying, being, abiding in &c. (e.g. “paṇcama-“, abiding in or keeping the fifth place, śrut.) mf (“ā”) n. relating to or standing in connection with (cf. “a-, agra-, a-jihma-, atyanta-“, &c.; “agre-ga”, &c.) ग – ga mf (“ī” ) n. (“gai”) only ifc. singing (cf. “chando-, purāṇa-, sāma-“) ग – ga m. a Gandharva or celestial musician ग – ga mf (“ī” ) n. (“ā”) f. a song ग – ga n. id. ग – ga (used in works on prosody as an abbreviation of the word “guru” to denote) a long syllable ; (in music used as an abbreviation of the word “gāndhāra” to denote) the third note.
gha घ – gha the 4th consonant of the Sanskṛit alphabet (aspirate of the preceding). घ – gha ind. (used to lay stress on a word) at least, surely, verily, indeed, especially (= Gk. [greek] ), (“ghā” cf. ; as a rule it is preceded by other particles (“uta, uto, uta vā, cid, na, vā”) or by a pronoun or a preposition; it is also found between “iva” and “id”; or between “iva” and “id aha”, or between “vā” and “id”; sometimes it occurs in the clause which depends on a conditional or relative sentence (e.g. “ā ghā gamad yadi śravat”, “e will surely come when he hears” , i, 161, 8; viii, 46, 4. घ – gha mfn. (“han”) ifc. “striking, killing” cf. “jīva-, tāḍa-, pāṇi-, rāja-“, &c. (cf. also “parigha”) घ – gha m. a rattling or gurgling or tinkling sound m. a bell
ṅa ङ – ṅa the 5th consonant of the Sanskṛit alphabet, nasal of the 1st class. No word in use begins with this letter; it is usually found as the 1st member of a conjunct consonant preceded by a vowel. ङ – ṅa m. an object of sense m. desire for any sensual object m. śiva (“bhairava”)
ṭa ट – ṭa the 1st cerebral consonant (pronounced like ‘t’ in ‘true’, but properly by keeping back the tip of the tongue and slightly turning it upwards). ट – ṭa m. sound m. a dwarf m. a quarter, 4th ट – ṭa n. = “karaṅka” ट – ṭa n. an oath, confirming an assertion by ordeal &c.
ṭha ठ – ṭha the aspirate of the preceding consonant. ठ – ṭha m. a loud noise (“ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaṭhaṁ ṭhaḥ”, an imitative sound as of a golden pitcher rolling down steps iii, 5) m. the moon’s disk m. a disk m. a cypher m. a place frequented by all m. śiva
ḍa ड – ḍa the 3rd cerebral consonant (pronounced like “d” in “drum” by slightly turning the tip of the tongue upwards; and often in Bengal like a hard “r”). ड – ḍa m. a sound m. a kind of drum m. fear m. submarine fire m. Siva
ḍha ढ – ḍha the aspirate of the preceding letter, ढ – ḍha mfn. = “nir-guṇa” ढ – ḍha m. an imitative sound ढ – ḍha m. a large drum ढ – ḍha m. a dog ढ – ḍha m. a dog’s tail ढ – ḍha m. a serpent
ṇa ण – ṇa the cerebral nasal ण – ṇa m. knowledge m. certainty, ascertainment m. ornament m. a water-house ण – ṇa m. = “nirvṛti” (invented for the etymology of “kriṣṇa”, ) m. a bad man m. N. of śiva or of a deity m. the sound of negation m. gift
ca च – ca the 20th letter of the alphabet, 1st of the 2nd (or palatal) class of consonants, having the sound of “ch” in “church”. च – ca ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as (= [characters], Lat. ‘que’, placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects with what precedes; when used with a personal pronoun this must appear in its fuller accented form (e.g. “tava ca mama ca” [not “te ca me ca”], “both of thee and me”), when used after verbs the first of them is accented ; it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences; in the double “ca” occurs more frequently than the single (e.g. “ahaṁ ca tvaṁ ca”, “I and thou”, viii, 62, 11); the double “ca” may also be used somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskṛit (e.g. “kva hariṇakānāṁ jīvitaṁ cātilolaṁ kva ca vajra-sārāḥ śarās te”, “where is the frail existence, of fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows?” ; in later literature, however, the first “ca” is more usually omitted (e.g. “ahaṁ tvaṁ ca”), and when more than two things are enumerated only one “ca” is often found (e.g. “tejasā yaśasā lakṣmyā sthityā ca parayā”, “in glory, in fame, in beauty, and in high position” ; elsewhere, when more than two things are enumerated, “ca” is placed after some and omitted after others (e.g. “ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī”, “the payer of a debt and a physician [and] a Brāhman [and] a river” ; in Ved. and even in class. Sanskṛit [ iii, 20; ix, 322 “ca” would generally be used, the second may occasionally be omitted (e.g. “indraś ca soma”, “both Indra [and thou] Soma” ; “durbhedyaś cāśusaṁdheyaḥ”, “both difficult to be divided [and] quickly united” i); with lexicographers “ca” may imply a reference to certain other words which are not expressed (e.g. “kamaṇḍalau ca karakaḥ”, “the word “karaka” has the meaning “pitcher” and other meanings”); sometimes “ca” is = “eva”, even, indeed, certainly, just (e.g. “su-cintitaṁ cauṣadhaṁ na nāma-mātreṇa karoty arogam”, “even a well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name” ; “yāvanta eva te tāvāṁśca saḥ”, “as great as they [were] just so great was he” ; occasionally “ca” is disjunctive, “but”, “on the contrary”, “on the other hand”, “yet”, “nevertheless” (“varam ādyau na cāntimaḥ”, “better the two first but not the last” ; “śāntam idam āśrama-padaṁ sphurati ca bāhuḥ”, “this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs” ; “ca-ca”, though-yet ; “ca-na ca”, though – yet not ; “ca” – “na tu” (v.l. “nanu”) id., Mālav-. iv, 8; “na ca” – “ca”, though not – yet ; “ca” may be used for “vā”, “either”, “or” (e.g. “iha cāmutra vā”, “either here or hereafter” ; “strī vā pumān vā yac cānyat sattvam”, “either a woman or a man or any other being” neg. particle is joined with “ca” the two may then be translated by “neither”, “nor”; occasionally one “ca” or one “na” is omitted (e.g. “na ca paribhoktuṁ naiva śaknomi hātum”, “I am able neither to enjoy nor to abandon” ; “na pūrvāhṇe nā ca parāhṇe”, “neither in the forenoon nor in the afternoon”); “ca-ca” may express immediate connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence (e.g. “mama ca muktaṁ tamasā mano manasijena dhanuṣi śaraś ca niveśitaḥ”, “no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his bow by the heart-born god”, vi, 8); “ca” is sometimes = “ced”, “if” (cf. ; the verb is accented) ; “ca” may be used as an expletive (e.g. “anyaiś ca kratubhiś ca”, “and with other sacrifices”); “ca” is often joined to an adv. like “eva, api, tathā, tathaiva”, &c., either with or without a neg. particle (e.g. “vairiṇaṁ nopaseveta sahāyaṁ caiva vairiṇaḥ”, “one ought not to serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy” ; (see “eva, api”, &c.) For the meaning of “ca” after an interrogative see 2. “ka”, 2. “kathā, kim, kva”); ([cf. [characters], Lat. ‘que’, ‘pe’ (in ‘nempe’ &c.); Goth. ‘uh’; Zd. ‘ca’; Old Pers. ‘ca’.]) च – ca mfn. pure mfn. moving to and fro mfn. mischievous mfn. seedless च – ca m. a thief. च – ca m. the moon च – ca m. a tortoise च – ca m. śiva
cha छ – cha the 7th consonant (aspirate of the preceding). छ – cha m. (“cho”) dividing m. a fragment छ – cha mfn. pure, clean mfn. tremulous, unsteady छ – cha mfn. cf. “chā”.
ja ज – ja the 3rd palatal letter (having the sound of “j” in “jump”). ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (“jan”) ifc. born or descended from, produced or caused by, born or produced in or at or upon, growing in, living at &c. ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (after an adv. or adverbial word) born or produced (e.g. “agra-, avara-; eka-, dvi-, ni-, pūrva-, prathama-, saha-“and”sākaṁ-ja”), Mn x, 25 mf (“ā”) n. prepared from, made of or with, v, 25 mf (“ā”) n. “belonging to, connected with, peculiar to” see “anūpa, anna, śahra-, sārtha-“. m. a son of (in comp.) &c. mf (“ā”) n. a father mf (“ā”) n. birth ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. a race, tribe ज – ja ifc. a daughter ज – ja mf (“ā”) n. cf. “jā”. ज – ja mfn. speedy, swift mfn. victorious mfn. eaten ज – ja m. speed ज – ja m. enjoyment ज – ja m. light, lustre ज – ja m. poison ज – ja m. a Piśāca ज – ja m. Viṣṇu ज – ja m. śiva ज – ja m. a husband’s brother’s wife
jha झ – jha the 9th consonant (aspirate of the preceding). = झ – jha mfn. asleep झ – jha m. playing a tune, beating time झ – jha m. a sound like the splashing of water or clashing of symbols, jingling, clanking झ – jha m. wind accompanied by rain झ – jha m. anything lost or mislaid झ – jha m. Bṛihaspati झ – jha m. N. of a chief of the Daityas झ – jha m. = “jhaṇṭīśa”
ña ण – ṇa the palatal nasal (found before palatal consonants). ण – ṇa m. a singer m. a jingling sound m. a heretic m. an ox m. the planet śukra
ta त – ta the 1st dental consonant. त – ta pronom. base see “tad” त – ta m. a tail (esp. of a jackal), any tail except that of Bos gaurus त – ta m., the breast m. the womb m. the hip m. a warrior m. a thief. m. a wicked man m. a Mleccha m. a Buddha m. a jewel m. nectar त – ta n. crossing त – ta n. virtue
tha थ – tha aspirate of the preceding letter. थ – tha m. a mountain m. a protector m. a sign of danger m. N. of a disease m. eating थ – tha n. preservation थ – tha n. fear थ – tha n. an auspicious prayer
da द – da the 3rd and soft letter of the 4th or dental class. द – da mf (“ā”) n. (1. “dā”) ifc. ( 3-2, 3) giving, granting, offering, effecting, producing (e.g. “abhīṣṭa-“, “giving any desired object” ; “gaja-vāji-vṛddhi-“, “promoting the welfare of elephants and horses” &c. (cf. “agni-; a-doma-da; anna-, artha-, garbha-, janma-” &c.) द – da m. n. a gift द – da mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. id. द – da mfn. ( “do”) ifc. see “anala-“, 2. “jīva-” द – da m. n. the act of cutting off द – da mfn. (4. “da-“) ifc. see “ṛśya-da”. द – da = “dat” cf. “a-panna-, panna-; ṣo-ḍa”. द – da m. a mountain द – da n. a wife (derived fr. “dam-patī”)
dha ध – dha aspirate of the preceding letter, ध – dha mf (“ā”) n. (1. “dhā”; cf. 2. “dhā”) ifc. placing, putting mf (“ā”) n. holding, possessing, having mf (“ā”) n. bestowing, granting, causing &c. (cf. “a-doma-dha, garbha-dha”) ध – dha m. N. of Brahmā or Kubera ध – dha m. (in music) the 6th note of the gamut ध – dha m. virtue, merit ध – dha n. wealth, property ध – dha mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. in 2. “tiro-dhā” ध – dha n. “dur-dhā” (qq. vv.)
na न – na “no, it is not so” न – na not-but न – na the dental nasal (found at the beginning of words and before or after dental consonants as well as between vowels; subject to conversion into [characters] न – na ind. not, no, nor, neither (“nā”, x, 34, 8) &c. &c. (as well in simple negation as in wishing, requesting and commanding, except in prohibition before an Impv. or an augmentless aor. [cf. a. “mā”]; in successive sentences or clauses either simply repeated e.g. ; or strengthened by another particle, esp. at the second place or further on in the sentence e.g. by “u” [cf. “no”], “uta, api, cāpi, vā, vāpi” or “atha vā” ; it may even be replaced by “ca, vā, api ca, api vā”, &c. alone, as ; often joined with other particles, beside those mentioned above esp. with a following “tu, tv eva, tv eva tu, ced” q.v., “khalu” q.v., “ha” [cf. g. “cādi” and ; before round or collective numbers and after any numeral in the instr. or abl. it expresses deficiency e.g. “ekayā na viṁśati”, not 20 by 1 i.e. 19 ; “paṇcabhir na catvāri śatāni”, 395 ; with another “na” or an “a” priv. it generally forms a strong affirmation [cf. e.g. “neyaṁ na vakṣyati”, she will most certainly declare ; “nādaṇḍyo ‘sti”, he must certainly be punished ; it may also, like “a”, form compounds [cf. below]); that not, lest, for fear lest (with Pot.) ; like, as, as it were (only in Veda and later artificial language, e.g. “gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piba”, drink like [lit. “not” i.e. “although not being”] a thirsty deer; in this sense it does not coalesce metrically with a following vowel). [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘ne-‘; Angl. Sax. ‘ne’, “not”; Eng. ‘no’, &c.] -2. न – na () mfn. thin, spare; vacant, empty; identical; unvexed, unbroken; m. band, fetter; jewel, pearl; war; gift; welfare; N. of Buddha; N. of Gaṇeśa; = “prastuta”; = “dviraṇḍa” (?); (“ā”) f. the navel; a musical instrument; knowledge.
pa प – pa the first labial consonant. प – pa mf (“pā” and “pī”) n. (1. “pā”) drinking (cf. “aṁhri-, aneka-” &c.; also “paka” in “taila-paka”) प – pa m. or (“pā”) f. the act of drinking प – pa mfn. (3. “pā”) guarding, protecting, ruling (ifc.; cf. “aja-, kula-” &c.; also “paka” in “hasti-paka”) प – pa m. (in music for “paṇcama”) the fifth note of the gamut. प – pa m. (only wind m. a leaf प – pa m. = “pūta”
pha फ – pha aspirate of “pa”. फ – pha (only ; m. a gale; swelling; gaping; gain; = “vardhaka”; = “yakṣa-sādhana”; n. flowing; bursting with a popping noise; bubbling, boiling; angry or idle speech.
ba ब – ba the third letter of the labial class (often confounded with “va”). ब – ba m. = “varuna” ब – ba m. “sindhu” ब – ba m. “bhaga” ब – ba m. “gandhana” ब – ba m. “vapana” &c.
bha भ – bha aspirate of “ba”. भ – bha (in gram.) N. of the weakest base of nouns (as opp. to “pada” and “aṅga” q.v.) i.e. of the base before the vowel terminations except in strong cases, before feminine suffixes, and before Taddhitas beginning with vowels or “y” भ – bha (in prosody) a dactyl. भ – bha (1. “bhā”) m. N. of the planet Venus or its regent, (= “śukra”) ; semblance, delusion, error ; (“ā”) f. light or a beam of light, lustre, splendour &c. (cf. 2. “bhā”); the shadow of a gnomon ; appearance, resemblance, likeness (ifc.; cf. “agni-bha, guḍa-bhā, tantubha”); n. a star, planet, asterism, lunar asterism or mansion (and so also the number 27; cf. “nakṣatra”), sign of the zodiac भ – bha m. (prob. onomat.) a bee
ma म – ma the labial nasal. -1. म – ma m. (in prosody) a molossus. -2. म – ma base of the 1st pers. pron. in acc. sg. “mām” or “mā”; instr. “mayā”; dat. “mahyam” or “me”; abl. “mat” or “mad”; gen. “mama” or me (for the enclitic forms cf. “mad”; Zd. ‘ma’; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘me’, ‘mihi’ &c.]
ya य – ya the 1st semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “i” and “ī”, and having the sound of the English “y”, in Bengal usually pronounced “j”). य – ya m. (in prosody) n. bacchic ([characters] ) य – ya the actual base of the relative pronoun in declension ([cf. “yad” and Gk. [greek] ]). य – ya m. (in some senses fr. 1. “yā”, only a goer or mover m. wind m. joining m. restraining m. fame m. a carriage (?) m. barley m. light m. abandoning
ra र – ra the 2nd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “ṛ” and “ṝ”, and having the sound of “r” in “ring”). र – ra (in prosody) a cretic (- [characters] -) र – ra mfn. ( “rā”) acquiring, possessing mfn. giving, effecting र – ra m. (only fire, heat र – ra m. love, desire र – ra m. speed र – ra m. giving र – ra m. gold र – ra n. brightness, splendour (used in explaining an etymology)
la ल – la the 3rd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “ḷ, ḹ”, and having the sound of the English ‘l’); a technical term for all the tenses and moods of a finite verb or for the terminations of those tenses and moods (also applied to some forms with “kṛt” affixes construed like a finite verb ; cf. iii, 2, 124, and when accompanied by certain indicatory letters denoting each tense separately see “laṭ; laṅ; liṅ; loṭ; liṭ; luṭ; ḷṭ; luṅ; ḷṅ; leṭ”) ल – la m. N. of Indra m. cutting (? cf. “lava”) ल – la m. (“lā”) f. see s.v. ल – la (in prosody) = “laghu”, a short syllable.
va व – va the 3rd semivowel (corresponding to the vowels “u” and “ū”, and having the sound of the English ‘v’, except when forming the last member of a conjunct consonant, in which case it is pronounced like ‘w’; it is often confounded and interchanged with the labial consonant “b”). व – va (only m. air, wind; the arm; N. of Varuṇa; the ocean, water; addressing; reverence; conciliation; auspiciousness; a dwelling; a tiger; cloth; the esculent root of the water-lily; (“ā”) f. going; hurting; an arrow; weaving; a weaver (?). n. a sort of incantation or Mantra (of which the object is the deity Varuṇa); = “pra-catas”; mfn. strong, powerful. व – va ind. = “iva”, like, as
ṣa ष – ṣa the second of the three sibilants (it belongs to the cerebral class, and is sometimes substituted for “s”, and more rarely for “ś”, and occasionally interchangeable with “kh”; in sound it corresponds to “ṣ” on the English word ‘Sun’; many roots which begin with “s” are written in the Dhātu-pāṭha with “ṣ”, prob. to show that their initial “s” is liable to be cerebralized after certain prepositions). ष – ṣa mfn. (only ; for 3. “ṣa” see below) best, excellent mfn. wise, learned ष – ṣa m. loss, destruction ष – ṣa m. loss of knowledge ष – ṣa m. end, term ष – ṣa m. rest, remainder ष – ṣa m. eternal happiness, final emancipation ष – ṣa m. heaven, paradise ष – ṣa m. sleep ष – ṣa m. a learned man, teacher ष – ṣa m. a nipple ष – ṣa m. = “kaca” ष – ṣa m. = “mānava” ष – ṣa m. = “sarva” ष – ṣa m. = “garbhavimocana” ष – ṣa n. the embryo ष – ṣa n. (accord. to some) patience, endurance. ष – ṣa mfn. = “ṣaṣ” ifc. (in “paṇca-ṣa” q.v.)
śa श – śa the first of the three sibilants (it belongs to the palatal class, but in sound as well as euphonic treatment often corresponds to “ṣ”, though in some words pronounced more like “s”). श – śa (ifc.) = “śaya” (see “giri-, vāri-, vṛkṣa-śa”). श – śa m. = “śastra” श – śa m. = “śiva” श – śa n. see 2. “śam”.
sa स – sa the last of the three sibilants (it belongs to the dental class and in sound corresponds to “s” in “sin”). स – sa (in prosody) an anapest ([characters] -). -2. स – sa (in music) an abbreviated term for “ṣaḍ-ja” (see p.1109, col.2). स – sa (only m. a snake; air, wind; a bird; N. of Viṣṇu or śiva; (“ā”) f. N. of Lakshmi or Gaurī; n. knowledge; meditation; a carriage road; a fence. स – sa mfn. (fr. “san”) procuring, bestowing (only ifc.; cf. “palu-ṣa” and “priya-sa”). स – sa the actual base for the nom. case of the 3rd pers. pron. “tad” q.v. (occurring only in the nom. sg. mf. [“sa” or “sas, sā”], and in the Ved. loc. [“sasmin” ; the final “s” of the nom. m. is dropped before all consonants [except before “p” in “t” in ; “sa” occasionally blends with another vowel [as in “saīṣaḥ”]; and it is often for emphasis connected with another pron. as with “aham, tvam, eṣa, ayam” &c. [e.g. “so ‘ham” “sa tvam”, “I (or thou) that very person”; cf. under “tad”, p.434], the verb then following in the 1st and 2nd pers. even if “aham” or “tvam” be omitted [e.g. “sa” “tvā pṛcchāmi” “I that very person ask you” ; “sa” “vai no brūhi” “do thou tell us” ; similarly, to denote emphasis, with “bhavān” [e.g. “sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām”, “let your Highness set out for victory” ; it sometimes [and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas] stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a rel. pronoun or adv. such as “ya, yad, yadi, yathā, ced”; in this position “sa” may be used pleonastically or as a kind of ind., even where another gender or number is required [e.g. “sa yadi” “sthāvarā āpo bhananti”, “if those waters are stagnant” ; in the Sāṁkhya “sa”, like “eṣa, ka”, and “ya”, is used to denote Purusha, “the Universal Soul”) ‘ha’, ‘hA’; Gk. [greek]. ] स – sa ind. (connected with “saha, sam, sama”, and occasionally in standing for “saha” with instr.) an inseparable prefix expressing “junction”, “conjunction”, “possession” (as opp. to “a” priv.), “similarity”, “equality”; (and when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by “with”, “together or along with”, “accompanied by”, “added to”, “having”, “possessing”, “containing”, “having the same” [cf. “sa-kopa, sāgni, sa-bhāya, sa-droṇa, sa-dharman, sa-varṇa”]; or it may = “ly”, as in “sa-kopam”, “angrily”, “sopadhi”, “fraudulently”) ‘a’ in [characters]; Lat. ‘sim’ in ‘simplex’; ‘sem’ in ‘semel’, ‘semper’ Eng. ‘same’.] स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following). स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa see 5. “sa”, p.1111, col.2. स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following) स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following): स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following) स – sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):
ha ह – ha the thirty-third and last consonant of the Nāgarī alphabet (in Pāṇini’s system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the English “h” in “hard”; it is not an original letter, but is mostly derived from an older “gh”, rarely from “dh” or “bh”). ह – ha (only m. a form of śiva or Bhairava (cf. “nakulīśa”); water; a cipher (i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation, auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; fear; knowledge; the moon; Viṣṇu; war, battle; horripilation; a horse; pride; a physician; cause, motive; = “pāpa-haraṇa”; = “sakopa-vāraṇa”; = “śuṣka”; (also “ā” f.) laughter; (“ā”) f. coition; a lute (“am”) n. the Supreme Spirit; pleasure, delight; a weapon; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to the sound of a lute; (ind.) = “aham” (?). ; mfn. mad, drunk. ह – ha ind. (prob. orig. identical with 2. “gha”, and used as a particle for emphasizing a preceding word, esp. if it begins a sentence closely connected with another; very frequent in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras, and often translatable by) indeed, assuredly, verily, of course, then &c. (often with other particles e.g. with “tv eva, u, sma, vai” &c.; “na ha”, “not indeed”; also with interrogatives and relatives e.g. “yad dha”, “when indeed”; “kad dha”, “what then?” sometimes with impf. or pf. [cf. ; in later language very commonly used as a mere expletive, esp. at the end of a verse) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (fr. “han”) killing, destroying, removing (only ifc.; see “arāti-, vṛtra-, śatruha” &c.) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (fr. 3. “hā”) abandoning, deserting, avoiding (ifc.; see “an-oka-” and “vāpī-ha”) ह – ha mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. abandonment, desertion ह – ha see 4. “ha”, p.1286, col.1. ह – ha see 5. “ha”, p.1286, col.1.
ki कि – ki a pronominal base, like 2. “ka” and 1. “ku”, in the words “kim, kiyat, kis, kī-dṛkṣa, kī-dṛś, kī-dṛśa, kīvat”. कि – ki cl.3.P. “ciketi”. see “ci”. कि – ki m. n. an ant-hill
ci चि – ci cl.5. “cinoti, -nute” (1. pl. “cinumas” and “-nmas” ; perf. “cikāya” and “cicāya”, vii, 3, 58; 2. “cicetha”, 2, 61 ; 3. pl. “cikyur” ; p. “cikivas” ; ā. “cikye” and “cicye” ; p. “cikyāna” v; 2nd fut. p. “ceṣyat” ; 1st fut. “cetā” ; aor. “acaiṣīt” on iii, 1, 42 and vii, 2, 1; Ved. “cikayām akar”, iii, 1, 42 ; 1. sg. “acaiṣam”, 2. sg. “acais” ; 3. pl. “acaiṣur” ; ā. “aceṣṭa” ; Prec. “ceṣīṣṭa” “cīyāt”, vii, 4, 25 ; ind. p. “citvā” &c.; Pass. “cīyate” &c.; fut. “cāyiṣyate” & “ceṣy-” Cond. “acāyiṣyata” & “aceṣy-” to arrange in order, heap up, pile up, construct (a sacrificial altar; P., if the priests construct the altar for another; ā., if the sacrificer builds it for himself) ; to collect, gather together, accumulate, acquire for one’s self ; to search through (for collecting; cf. 2. “ci”) (); to cover, inlay, set with ; Pass. “cīyate”, to become covered with ; to increase, thrive ( Caus. “cayayati” and “capay-“, to heap up, gather ; “cāyayati” and “cāpay-” Desid. “cikīṣate” (also “-ti”, vii, 3, 58 to wish to pile up ; “cicīṣati” ( 7-3, 58 ; vi, 4, 16, [ed. “vivīṣ-“] to wish to accumulate or collect Desid. Caus. (p. “cicīṣayat”) to cause any one to wish to arrange in order Intens. “cecīyate” on चि – ci Ved. cl.3. (“ciketi”, fr. “ki” ; Impv. “ciketu” ; Subj. ā. “ciketa”; impf. “aciket” ; aor. 2. pl. ā. “acidhvam” ; 3. sg. “acait” [fr. 4. “cit” to observe, perceive (with acc. or gen.) ; to fix the gaze upon, be intent upon ; to seek for cl.5. “cinoti” (p. “-nvat”, ā. “-nvāna”) to seek for, investigate, search through, make inquiries (cf. 1. “ci”) Intens. “cekite” see 4. “cit”; ([cf. Lat. ‘scio’.]) चि – ci cl.1. “cayate” (p. “cayamāna”) to detest, hate ( iv, 25) ; to revenge, punish, take vengeance on (acc.), ii, 27, 4; ix, 47, 2 ; ([cf. “apaciti, kāti”; [characters]. ])
chi छि – chi m. abuse
ji जि – ji cl.1. “jayati, -te” (impf. “ajayat”; aor. “ajaiṣīt”, Ved. “ajais”, 1. pl. “ajaiṣma, jeṣma”, 2. sg. “jes” and ā. “jeṣi” Subj. “jeṣat, -ṣas, -ṣāma” ; aor. ā. “ajeṣṭa”; fut. 1st. “jetā” &c.; fut. 2nd. “jeṣyati”, x, 34, 6 &c.; pf. “jigāya” [ 7-3, 57], “jigetha, jigyur”; p. “jigīvas” [“-givas” ; acc. pl. “-gyuṣas”] &c.; Inf. “jiṣe”, i, 111, 4 and 112, 12; “jetave” ; Class. “jetum”: Pass. “jīyate, ajīyata” [ xi, 65], “ajāyi, jāyiṣyate”; for “jīyate” and cl.9. “jināti” see “jyā”) to win or acquire (by conquest or in gambling), conquer (in battle), vanquish (in a game or lawsuit), defeat, excel, surpass &c. (with “punar”, “to reconquer” ; to conquer (the passions), overcome or remove (any desire or difficulties or diseases) &c.; to expel from (abl.) ; to win anything (acc.) from (acc.), vanquish anyone (acc.) in a game (acc.) ; to be victorious, gain the upper hand ; often pr. in the sense of an Impv. “long live!” “glory to” &c.: Caus. “jāpayati” ( 6-1, 48 and vii, 3, 36) to cause to win ; (aor. 2. pl, “ajījipata” and “ajījap-“) ; to conquer (aor. “ajījayat”): Pass. “jāpyate”, to be made to conquer Desid. “jigīṣati, -te” ( 7-3, 57; p. “-ṣat, -ṣamāṇa”) to wish to win or obtain or conquer or excel &c.; (ā.) to seek for prey Intens. “jejīyate” जि – ji mfn. conquering जि – ji m. a Piśāca
ti ति – ti for “iti” (after “kā”)
dhi धि – dhi cl.6.P. “dhiyati” (“didhāya, dheṣyati” &c.) to hold ( xxviii, 113). Prob. abstracted fr. 1. “dhā”, of which it is the weak form. धि – dhi m. receptacle (only ifc.; cf. “ambu-, iṣu-” &c.) धि – dhi or dhinv cl.5.P. “dhinoti” (aor. “adhinvīt” ; pf. “didhinva”; fut. “dhinviṣyati, dhinvitā” Gr.) to nourish, satiate, satisfy ; to delight, please धि – dhi = “adhi”2 (e.g. in “dhi-ṣṭhita” [ for “adhi-ṣṭhita” q.v.; cf. “pi” = “api, va” = “ava”).
ni नि – ni ind. down, back, in, into, within (except always prefixed either to verbs or to nouns; in the latter case it has also the meaning of negation or privation [cf. “down-hearted” = heartless]; sometimes w.r. for “nis”); it may also express “kṣepa, dāna, upa-rama, ā-śraya, mokṣa” &c. ‘ni’; Gk. [greek]; Slav. ‘ni-zu’; Germ, ‘ni-dar’, ‘ni-der’, ‘nieder’; Angl. Sax. ‘ni-ther’, Eng. ‘ne-ther’, ‘be-neath’.] नि – ni (for “nī”) mfn. see “ṛta-ni”. नि – ni (in music) the 7th note (for “niṣadha”).
pi पि – pi cl.6.P. “piyati”, to go, move (cf. 2. “pī”). पि – pi see under “api”.
phi फि – phi m. a wicked man m. idle talk m. anger
mi मि – mi (cf. 3. “mā” and “mī”), c, l. 5. P. ā. ( xxvii, 4) “minoti, minute” (pf. P. “mimāya, mimyuḥ” , “mamau”, Gr,; ā. “mimye” Gr. aor. “amāsīt, -sta” ; Prec. “mīyāt, māsīṣṭa” ; fut. “mātā, māsyati, -te” ; p. “meṣyat” [?] ; ind. p. “-mitya” , “-māya” Gr.), to fix or fasten in the earth, set up, found, build, construct ; to mete out, measure ; to judge, observe, perceive, know ; to cast, throw, scatter Pass. “mīyate” (aor. “amāyi” Gr.), to be fixed &c. Caus. “māpayati” (aor. “amīmapat”) Gr.: Desid. “mitsati, -te” Intens. “memīyate, memayīte, memeti” मि – mi see “mī”.
ri रि – ri see 1. “rī”. रि – ri (ifc.) = “rai”3 (cf. “ati-ri, bṛhad-ri”). रि – ri (for “ṛṣabha”), the second note of the Hindū gamut.
li लि – li m. (only ; perhaps connected with “lī”) weariness, fatigue m. loss, destruction m. end, term m. equality, sameness m. a bracelet लि – li m. (in gram.) abbreviated form of, “liṅga” (see “li-dhu”).
vi वि – vi m. (nom. “vis” or “ves” acc. “vim” gen. abl. “ves”; pl. nom. acc. “vayas” [acc. “vīn” ; “vibhis, vibhyas, vīnām”) a bird (also applied to horses, arrows, and the Maruts) “vayas”; Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘a-vis’; accord. to some Germ. ‘Ei’; Angl. Sax. ‘aeg’; Eng. ‘egg.’ ] वि – vi n. an artificial word said to be = “anna” वि – vi ind. (prob. for an original “dvi”, meaning “in two parts”; and opp. to “sam” q.v.) apart, asunder, in different directions, to and fro, about, away, away from, off, without &c. &c. In it appears also as a prep. with acc. denoting “through” or “between” (with ellipse of the verb e.g. i, 181, 5; x, 86, 20 &c.) It is esp. used as a prefix to verbs or nouns and other parts of speech derived from verbs, to express “division”, “distinction”, “distribution”, “arrangement”, “order”, “opposition”, or “deliberation” (cf. “vi-bhid, -śiṣ, -dhā, -rudh, -car”, with their nominal derivatives); sometimes it gives a meaning opposite to the idea contained in the simple root (e.g. “krī”, “to buy”; “vi-krī”, “to sell”), or it intensifies that idea (e.g. “hiṁs”, “to injure”; “vi-hiṁs”, “to injure severely”). The above 3. “vi” may also be used in forming compounds not immediately referable to verbs, in which cases it may express “difference” (cf. 1. “vi-lakṣaṇa”), “change” or “variety” (cf. “vi-citra”), “intensity” (cf. “vi-karāla”), “manifoldness” (cf. “vi-vidha”), “contrariety” (cf. “vi-loma”), “deviation from right” (cf. “vi-śīla”), “negation” or “privation” (cf. “vi-kaccha”, being often used like 3. “a, nir”, and”nis” [qq. vv.], and like the Lat. ‘dis’, ‘se’, and the English ‘a’, ‘dis’, ‘in’, ‘un’ &c.); in some cases it does not seem to modify the meaning of the simple word at all (cf. “vi-jāmi, vi-jāmātṛ”); it is also used to form proper names out of other proper names (e.g. “vi-koka, vi-pṛthu, vi-viṁśa”). To save space such words are here mostly collected under one article; but words having several subordinate compounds will be found s.v.
śi शि – śi (accord. to some = “śo”) cl.3.P. “śiśāti” (Impv. “śiśīhi, śādhi”), to grant, bestow (cf. ; to present or satisfy with (instr.) ; cl.5. P. ā. ( xxvii, 3) “śinoti, śinute” (p. “śiṣāya, śiṣye”; aor. “aśaiṣīt, aśeṣṭa” fut. “śeṣyati, -te”), to sharpen. शि – śi m. N. of śiva m. auspiciousness, good fortune m. peace, composure, calm शि – śi (in gram.) a technical term for the case-ending “i” (substituted for “jas” and “śas” in neuters).
si सि – si (cf. 1. “sā”) cl.5.9. P. ā. ( xxvii, 2; xxxi, 5) “sinoti, sinute; sināti, sinite” (really occurring only in pres. “sināti”, impf. “asinot”; pf. “siṣāya” ; aor. [?] “siṣet” ; “asaiṣīt, aseṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “setā” ; “siṣyati” ; “seṣyati, -te” Gr.; inf. “setave” ; “setum” Gr.), to bind, tie, fetter Caus. “sāyayati” (aor. “asīṣayat”) Gr.: Desid. “sisīṣati, -te” Intens. “seṣīyate, seṣayīti, seṣeti” ; Lett. ‘sinu’, “to bind”; Angl. Sax. ‘sal’; Germ. ‘Seil’.] सि – si (see “sāyaka, senā”), to hurl, cast. सि – si ind. g. “cādi”.
hi हि – hi i (cf. “hay”) cl.5.P. () “hinoti” (Ved. also “hinute, hinvati” and “hinvati, -te”; p. “hinvāna” [with aet. and pass. sense] ; “hayat” ; 1: sg. “hiṣe” ; pf. “jighāya, jighyuḥ” &c.; “jighye” [with pass. sense] ; aor. “ahema” “ahema, ahyan, heta” p. “hiyāna” [with pass. sense] ; “ahyam” [?], “ahait” ; “ahaiṣīt” ; “aheṣata” ; fut. “hetā” Gr.; “heṣyati” &c.; inf. “-hye” , to send forth set in motion, impel, urge on, hasten on (ā. also intrans.) ; to stimulate or incite to (dat.) ; to assist or help to (dat.) ; to discharge, b, hurl, cast, shoot ; to convey, bring, procure ; to forsake, abandon, get rid of ; (“hinvati”) to gladden, delight Pass. “hīyate” (aor. “ahāyi”) Gr.: Caus. “hāyuyati” (aor. “ajīhayat”) Desid. of Caus. “jihāpayiṣati” Desid. “jighīṣati” Inteus. “jeghīyate, jeghayīti, jegheti” हि – hi ind. (used as a particle [cf. “ha” and “gha”] and usually denoting) for, because, on account of (never standing first in a sentence, but generally after the first word and used enclitically, sometimes after pronouns; e.g. “sarvo hi pṛtanā jigīṣati”, “for everybody wishes to win battles”; “bkavān hi pramāṇam”, “for your honour is the authority”; “tahā hi”, “for example”, “accordingly”; “na hi” or “nahī”, “for not”, “not at all”) &c. &c.; just, pray, do (with an Impv. or Pot. emphatically; sometimes with Indic., e. g. “pasyāmo hi”, “we will just see”) ; indeed, assuredly, surely, of course, certainly (“hi vai”, “most assuredly”; “hi-tu” or “hi-punar”, “indeed-but”; often a mere expletive, esp. to avoid a hiatus, sometimes repeated in the same sentence; “hi” is also said to be an interjection of “envy”, “contempt”, “urry” &c.)
ku कु – ku a pronom. base appearing in “kutas, kutra, kuvid, kuha, kva”, and as a prefix implying deterioration, depreciation, deficiency, want, littleness, hindrance, reproach, contempt, guilt; originally perhaps “ku” signified “ow (strange!)”; as a separate word “ku” occurs only in the lengthened form 3. “kū” q.v. कु – ku f. the earth f. the ground or base of a triangle or other plane figure, Comm on f. the number “one.” कु – ku see 1. “kū”.
khu खु – khu cl.1.ā. “khavate”, to sound
gu गु – gu (cf. 1. “gā”) cl.1.ā. “gavate”, to go गु – gu ifc. “going” see “adhri-gu, vanar-gu” (cf. also “priyaṁgu, śāci-gu”); “fit for” see “tāta-gu, nigu” (cf. “agre-gū”.) गु – gu cl.1.ā. “gavate”, to sound Intens. ā. (1. and 3. sg. “joguve”, p. “joguvāna”) “to cause to sound”, proclaim P. (impf. “agaṅgūyat” for “aguṅg-“) to shout with joy (cf. “prati-” 3. “gu” and “jogū”.) [Page 356,2] गु – gu (= 1. “gū” q.v.) cl.6.P. “guvati”, to void by stool (cf. “vi-gūna”.) गु – gu ifc. = “go”, “cow; earth; ray” ( 1-2, 48) see “a-gu, anu-gu, anuṣṇa-gu, ariṣṭagu, upa-gu, uṣṇa-gu, kṛśa-gu, tamo-gu”, &c.; (“u”) n. water ; the hair on the body
ghu घु – ghu cl.1.ā. “ghavate”, to utter or produce a peculiar sound, xxii, 55. घु – ghu m. a kind of sound
ṅu ङु – ṅu cl.1.ā. “ṅavate”, to sound Desid. “ṇuṇūṣate”
ṭu टु – ṭu m. gold m. one who changes his shape at will m. love, god of love
ju जु – ju see 1. “jū”.
jhu झु – jhu cl.1.ā. v.l. for “jyu”.
tu तु – tu cl.2. (“tauti” ; fut. 2nd “totā” or “tavitā” to have authority, be strong (pf. “tūtāva” cf. ; to go ; to injure Caus. (aor. “tūtot”, 2. sg. “-tos”) to make strong or efficient ; cf. “ut-, saṁ-; tavas”, &c., “tīvra”; [Zd. ‘tav’, “to be able”; Lat. ‘tumour’, ‘tueri’, ‘totus’.] तु – tu (never found at the beginning of a sentence or verse; metrically also “tū” ; cf. pray! I beg, do, now, then, Lat. ‘dum’ used (esp. with the Imper.) ; but (also with “eva” or “vai” following) &c.; and ; or, i, 68; xi, 202; often incorrectly written for “nu” ; sometimes used as a mere expletive
du दु – du (or “dū”) cl.1.P. ( xxii, 46) “davati” (pf. “dudāva”; fut. “doṣyati, dotā”; aor. “adāvīt” or “adauṣīt” , to go: Caus. “dāvayati” or “davayati” (see s.v.) Actually occurring only in Subj. aor. “daviṣāṇi” , “”na d-” “ebhih””, (?) I will not go i.e. have intercourse with them (the dice). [Cf. [characters]. ] दु – du (also written “dū”), cl.5. P.4. ā. ( xxvii, 10; xxvi, 24) “dunoti, dūyate” (ep. also “-ti”; pf. “dudāva”; fut. “doṣyati”; aor. “adauṣīt”; inf. “dotum”), to be burnt, to be consumed with internal heat or sorrow (Pres. “dunoti” ; but oftener “dūyate”, which is at once Pass.) &c.; (only “dunoti”) to burn, consume with fire, cause internal heat, pain, or sorrow, afflict, distress Caus. “dāvayati” aor. “adūduvat”: Desid. “dudūṣati”: Intens. “dodūyate, dodoti”. ([Cf. [characters]. for [characters]; [characters] pain; Lit. ‘davyti’, to torment; Sl. ‘daviti’, to worry.])
dhu धु – dhu = “dhū”1 q.v. धु – dhu f. shaking, trembling धु – dhu = “duh”2 in “sabar-dhu” q.v. (cf. 2. “dhru”).
nu नु – nu (in also “nū”; esp. at the beginning of a verse, where often = “nu” + “u”), ind. now, still, just, at once; so now, now then ; indeed, certainly, surely &c. &c.; cf. (often connected with other particles, esp. with negatives e.g. “nahi nu”, “by no means”, “nakir nu”, no one or nothing at all”, “mā nu”, “in order that surely not”; often also “gha nu, ha nu, in nu, nu kam” &c. [“nū cit”, either “for ever, evermore; at once, forthwith” or, “never, never more”; so also “nū” alone ; with relat. = -cunque or -soever; sometimes it lays stress upon a preceding word, esp. an interr. pronoun or particle, and is then often connected with “khalu” &c. &c.; it is also employed in questions, esp. in sentences of two or more clauses [cf. where “nu” is either always repeated [ vi, 9] or omitted in the first place [ib. i, 8] or in the second place and further replaced by “svid, yadi vā” &c., and strengthened by “vā, atha vā” &c.) [Cf. 1. “nava, nūtana, nūnam”; Zd. ‘nu’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nun-c’; Germ. ‘nu’, ‘nun’; Angl.Sax. ‘nu’, ‘nu’; Eng. ‘now’.] नु – nu m. a weapon m. time नु – nu cl.1.ā. “navate” (“nauti” with “apa”), to go Caus. “nāvayati”, to move from the place, remove नु – nu or nū cl.2.6. P. (Dhāt. xxiv, 26; xxviii, 104) “nauti, nuvati”, (pres. also “navate, -ti” &c.; p. P. “nuvat, navat” ā. “navamāna” ; pf. “nunāva” ; aor. “anūnot, anūṣi, -ṣata, anaviṣṭa” ; “anauṣit, anāvit, anuvīt” Gr.; fut. “naviṣyati, nuv-; navitā, nuv-” ; ind. p. “-nutya, -nāvam” ; inf. “lavitum” v.l. “nuv-” , to sound, shout, exult; praise, commend &c. &c.: Pass. “nūyate” &c.: Caus. “nāvayati” aor. “anūnavat” Gr.: Desid. “nunūṣati” ; Desid. of Caus. “nunāvayiṣati” Intens. “nonavīti, nonumas” (impf. “anonavur” Subj. “navīnot”; pf. “nonāva, nonuvur” ; “nonūyate, nonoti” Gr.), to sound loudly, roar, thunder नु – nu m. praise, eulogium नु – nu Caus. “nāvayati”, to cause to be drawn into the nose (cf. 3 “nava”). नु – nu (ifc.) = “nau”, a ship
pu पु – pu mfn. cleaning, purifying (see “su-pu”).
phu फु – phu m. a magical formula m. useless or idle talk
bhu भु – bhu mfn. (ifc.) = “bhī”2, becoming being existing, produced (cf. “agni-, pra-bhu” &c.)
mu मु – mu m. (only ; cf. “mū”) a bond m. N. of śiva m. final emancipation m. a funeral pile or pyre m. a reddish-brown or tawny colour.
yu यु – yu (cf. “yuch”) cl.3.P. “yuyoti” (Impv. 2. sg. “yuyodhi” ; “yuyudhi” ; 2. du. “yuyotam” or “yuyutam” ; 2. pl. “yuyota” or “-tana” ; ā. Subj. 2. sg: “yuyothās” ; ā. impf. 3. pl. “ayuvanta” ; aor. P. “yaus, ayauṣīt”; Subj. “yoṣati, yoṣat” ; “yūṣat” ; “yūyāt, yūyātām” ; “yūyot” ; “yāvīs” ; ā. “yoṣṭhās” ; “yavanta” ; Pass. “ayāvi” ; inf. “yotave, -tavai, -tos” ; “-yāvam” , to separate, keep or drive away, ward off (acc.), exclude or protect from (abl.) ; to keep aloof, to be or remain separated from (abl.) Caus. “yavayati” or “yāvayati”, to cause to separate or remove or keep off &c. Intens. “yoyavīti” (impf. “ayoyavīt”; p. “yoyuvat”), to retreat back, recede ; to be rent, gape asunder ; to keep off from (abl.) यु – yu (cf. “yuj”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 23) “yauti” (Ved. also ā. “yute” and cl.6. “yuvati, -te”; accord. to cl.9. “yunāti, yunīte”; pf. “yuyāva”, 2. sg. “yuyavitha” ; “yuyuve” ; aor. “-yāviṣṭam” (?) ; “ayaviṣṭa” Gr.; Prec. “yūyāt” ; fut. “yuvitā” ; “yavitā, yaviṣyati, -te” Gr.; ind. p. “yutvā” ; “-yūya” ; “-yutya” , to unite, attach, harness, yoke, bind, fasten ; to draw towards one’s self, take hold or gain possession of, hold fast ; to push on towards (acc.) ; to confer or bestow upon (dat.), procure ; (“yauti”), to worship, honour Pass. “yūyate” (aor. “ayāvi”) Gr.: Caus. “yāvayati” (aor. “ayīyavat”) Desid. of Caus. “yiyāvayiṣati” Desid. “yuyūṣati” (), “yiyaviṣati” (Gr.), to wish to unite or hold fast: Intens. “yoyūyate, yoyoti, yoyavīti” &c. (see “ā-, ni-yu”). यु – yu mfn. ( “yā”) going, moving यु – yu the actual base of the du. and pl. numbers of the 2nd pers. pron. (see “yuṣmad”).
ru रु – ru cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 24; cf. “rauti” or “ravīti” (Ved. also “ruvati” and “ravoti, -te”; p. “ruvat, ravat, ravamāṇa, ravāṇa”; pf. “rurāva” ; “ruruvire” ; aor. “arāvīt” ; Prec. “rūyāt” Gr.; fut. “ravitā” or “rotā” ; “raviṣyati” ; inf. “ravitum” , “rotum” , to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud &c. &c.; to make any noise or sound, sing (as birds), hum (as bees) &c.; (“rauti”) to praise Caus. “rāvayati” (aor. “arūruvat” with the sense of the Intens. ; or “arīravat” , to cause to bellow or roar, cause an uproar &c.: Desid. of Caus. “rirāvayiṣati” Gr.: Desid. “rurūṣati” Intens. (Ved.) “roravīti” (p. “roruvat” and “roruvāṇa”) or (ep.) “rorūyate, -ti” or (Gr.) “roroti”. to bellow or roar &c. loudly, scream aloud, vociferate. [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘raucus’; Angl. Sax. ‘ryn’.] रु – ru m. (only sound, noise m. fear, alarm m. war, battle. रु – ru cl.1.ā. ( xxii, 63) “ravate” (only “rāviṣam” ; “ruruviṣe, araviṣṭa” “aroṣṭa” to break or dash to pieces ( also “to go; to kill; to be angry; to speak”): Intens. (only p. “roruvat”) to break, shatter रु – ru m. cutting, dividing
ṣu षु – ṣu m. or “ṣū” f. (fr. 4. “su”) child-bearing, parturition, delivery (w.r. for “sū”).
śu शु – śu cl.1.P. “śavati”, to go &c..; cf. “śav”, p.1059, col.3. शु – śu ind. (g. “svar-ādi”) quickly, swiftly (= “kṣipram”)
su सु – su cl.1.P. ā. “savati, -te”, to go, move ( “sru”). सु – su (= 1. “sū”) cl.1.2. P. ( xxii, 43 and xxiv, 32; “savati, sauti”, only in 3. sg. pr. “sauti” and 2. sg. Impv. “suhi”) to urge, impel, incite ; to possess supremacy सु – su cl.5.P. ā. ( xxvii, 1) “sunoti, sunute” (in 3. pl. “sunvanti, sunvire” [with pass. sense] and “suṣvati”; p. “sunvat” or “sunvāna” [the latter with act. and pass. sense] ; pf. “suṣāva, suṣuma” &c. ; p. in Veda “suṣuvas” and “suṣvāṇa” [the later generally with pass. sense; accord. to on “suṣuvāṇa” with act. sense]; aor. accord. to Gr. “asāvīt” or “asauṣīt, asoṣṭa” or “asaviṣṭa”; in also Impv. “sotu, sutam”, and p. [mostly pass.] “suvāna” [but the spoken form is “svāna” and so written in , “suv-” in ; and 3. pl. “asuṣavuḥ” ; fut. “sotā” ; “soṣyati” ; “saviṣyati” ; inf. “sotave, sotos” ; “sotum” Gr.; ind. p. “-sutya” ; “-sūya” , to press out, extract (esp. the juice from the Soma plant for libations) ; to distil, prepare (wine, spirits &c.) on Pass. “sūyate” (in also ā. 3. sg. “sunve” and 3. pl. “sunvire” with pass. sense; aor. “asāvi” Caus. “-sāvayati” or “-ṣāvayati” (see “abhi-ṣu” and “pra-su”; aor. “asūṣavat” accord. to some “asīṣavat”) Gr.: Desid. of Caus. “suṣāvayiṣati” Desid. “susūṣati, -te” Iutens. “soṣūyate, soṣavīti, soṣoti” सु – su (= 2. “sū”), (only in 3. sg. “sauti” see “pra-sū”) to beget, bring forth. सु – su ind. (opp. to “dus” and corresponding in sense to Gk. [greek]; perhaps connected with 1. “vasu”, and, accord. to some, with pron. base “sa”, as “ku” with “ka”; in Veda also “sū” and liable to become “ṣu” or “ṣū” and to lengthen a preceding vowel, while a following “na” may become “ṇa”; it may be used as an adj. or adv.), good, excellent, right, virtuous, beautiful, easy, well, rightly, much, greatly, very, any, easily, willingly, quickly (in older language often with other particles; esp. with “u”, = “forthwith, immediately”; with “mo” i.e. “mā u”, = “never, by no means”; “su kam” often emphatically with an Impv. e.g. “tiṣṭhā su kam maghavan mā parā gāḥ”, “do tarry O Maghavan, go not past” ; “su” always qualifies the meaning of a verb and is never used independently at the beginning of a verse; in later language it is rarely a separate word, but is mostly prefixed to substantives, adjectives, adverbs and participles, exceptionally also to an ind. p. e.g. “su-baddhvā”, “having well bound” ; or even to a finite verb e.g. “su-nirvavau” सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following). सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following) सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following, in which the initial “ṣ” stands for an orig. “s”): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following): सु – su (to be similarly prefixed to the following)
hu हु – hu cl.3.P. ( xxv, 1) “jhoti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “juhute” 3. p. pr. “juh” 3. pl. pr. “jilhvati, -te” &c.; 2. sg. Impv. “juhudhi” &c.; “hoṣi” ; p. P. “juhvat”; ā. “juhvāna” [also with pass. sense]; 3. pl. impf. “ajuhavuḥ” ; pf. P. “juhāva, juhuvuḥ” ; ā. “juhuve” ; “juhve, juhure” ; “juhvire” ; “juhavāṁ-cakāra” ; “juhavām-āsa” ; aor. “ahauṣīt” &c.; Prec. “hūyāt” Gr.; fut. “hotā” ; “hoṣyati, -te” &c.; Cond. “ahoṣyat” ; inf. “hotum, -tos, -tavai”, and ind. p. “hutvā” &c.), to sacrifice (esp. pour butter into the fire), offer or present an oblation (acc. or gen.) to (dat.) or in (loc.), sacrifice to, worship or honour (acc.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to sprinkle on (loc.) ; to eat Pass. “hūyate” (aor. “ahāvi”), to be offered or sacrificed &c. &c.: Caus. “hāvayati” (aor. “ajūhavat”), to cause to sacrifice or to be sacrificed or to be honoured with sacrifice &c.: Desid. “juhūṣati”, to wish to sacrifice Intens. “johavīti” (impf. “ajohavīt” or “ajuhavīt” , “johūyate, johoti” (Gr.), to offer oblations repeatedly or abundantly. [Cf. Gk. [greek] in [characters] (for [characters] ), [characters]; Lat. ‘futis’, “water-pot.”] हु – hu ind. an exclamation in “huṁ hu, hūṁ hu” &c.
kṛ कृ – kṛ “to treat by force”, commit a rape, violate (a female) कृ – kṛ Ved. (I) cl.2.P. 2. sg. “karṣi” du. “kṛthas” pl. “kṛtha”; ā. 2. sg. “kṛṣe”; impf. 2. and 3. sg. “akar”, 3. sg. rarely “akat” ( iii, xi); “mithyā k-“, he pronounces wrongly ; “kaikeyīm anu rājānaṁ kāraya”, treat or deal with Kaikeyī as the king does Desid. “cikīrṣati” (aor. 2. sg. “acikīrṣīs” iii), ep. also “-te”, to wish to make or do, intend to do, design, intend, begin, strive after &c.; to wish to sacrifice or worship Intens. 3. pl. “karikrati” (pr. p. “karikrat” see , to do repeatedly ; Class. “carkarti” or “carikarti” or “carīkarti” ([ 7-4, 92 “carkarīti” or “carikarīti” or “carīkarīti” or “cekrīyate” ([ib. ; ([cf. Hib. ‘caraim’, “I perform, execute”; ‘ceard’, “an art, trade, business, function”; ‘sucridh’, “easy”; Old Germ. ‘karawan’, “to prepare”; Mod. Germ. ‘gar’, “prepared (as food)”; Lat. ‘creo’, ‘ceremonia’; [characters].]) कृ – kṛ cl.3.P. p. “cakrat” (Pot. 2. sg. “cakriyās”; aor. 1. sg. “akārṣam” [ vii, 7, 1] or “akāriṣam” [ iv, 39, 6]), to make mention of, praise, speak highly of (gen.) Intens. (1. sg. “carkarmi”, 1. pl. “carkirāma”, 3. pl. “carkiran”; Impv. 2. sg. “carkṛtāt” and “carkṛdhi”; aor. 3. sg. ā. “carkṛṣe”) id. (cf. “kāru, kīri, kīrti”.) कृ – kṛ to injure, &c. see 2. “kṝ”. कृ – kṛ P. “-karoti”, to make straight
gṛ गृ – gṛ cl.1.P. “garati”, to sprinkle, moisten (cf. “ghṛ”.)
ghṛ घृ – ghṛ cl.3.P. “jigharti” (cl. 1. “gharati” , to besprinkle, wet, moisten Caus. (or cl.10. P.) “ghārayati” id. घृ – ghṛ cl.3.P. “jigharti”, to shine, burn cl.5. (or cl 8. fr. “ghṛṇ”) P. ā. “ghṛṇoti, -ṇute” or “gharṇoti, -ṇute” id., xxx, 7.
jṛ जृ – jṛ cl.1.P. see 1. “jṝ”. जृ – jṛ cl.1.ā. (2. du. “jarethe” and Impv. “-thām” “jarante, -rasva” p. “jaramāṇa”) to come near, approach
tṛ तृ – tṛ (= “stṛ”) nom. pl. “tāras”, the stars ; cf. “tārā”.
dṛ दृ – dṛ cl.6.ā. “driyate” (ep. also “-ti”), to respect, honour ( xxviii, 118); occurring only with prep. “ā” cf. “ā-dri”; Desid. “didariṣate”
dhṛ धृ – dhṛ cl.1.P. ā. “dharati, -te” ( xxii, 3; ā. Pot. “dhareran” , but more commonly in the same sense the Caus. form “dhārayati, -te” (perf. P. “dādhāra, -dhartha” [Impv. “dadhartu” Paipp.]; ā. “dadhre”, 3. pl. “-dhrire” &c. &c.; aor. “adhāram” ; “adhṛta, dhṛthās” ; “adīdharat” &c. &c. [“dīdhar, didhṛtam, -ta” ; 3. pl. “-rata” ; “adārṣīt” Gr.; fut. “dhariṣyati” ; “-ṣye” ; “dhartā” ; inf. “dhartum” , “-tavai” [“dhartari” see under “-ṭri”]; ind. p. “dhṛtvā, -dhṛtya” to hold, bear (also bring forth), carry, maintain, preserve, keep, possess, have, use, employ, practise, undergo &c. &c.; (with or scil “ātmānam, jīvitam, prāṇān, deham, śarīram” &c.) to preserve soul or body, continue living, survive &c. (esp. fut. “dhariṣyati”; cf. Pass. below); to hold back, keep down, stop, restrain, suppress, resist &c.; to place or fix in, bestow or confer on (loc.) &c.; to destine for (dat.; ā. also to be destined for or belong to) ; to present to (gen.) ; to direct or turn (attention, mind, &c.) towards, fix or resolve upon (loc. or dat.) ; ā. to be ready or prepared for ; P. ā. to owe anything (acc.) to (dat. or gen.) (cf. ; to prolong (in pronunciation) ; to quote, cite ; (with “garbham”) to conceive, be pregnant (older “-bham-bhṛ”) &c.; (with “daṇḍam”) to inflict punishment on (loc.) (also “damam”); (with “keśān”, or “śmaśru”) to let the hair or beard grow ; (with “raśmīn” [ib.] or “praharān” [) to draw the reins tight; (with “dharamam”) to fulfil a duty ; (with “vratam”) to observe or keep a vow &c. &c.; (with “dhāraṇām”) to practise self-control ; (wit. “ipas”) to perform penance ; (with “mūrdhnā” or “-dhni, śirasā” or “-si”) to bear on the head, honour highly ; (with or scil. “tulayā”) to hold in a balance, weigh, measure &c.; (with or scil. “manasā”) to bear in mind, recollect, remember ; (with “samaye”) to hold to an agreement, cause to make a compact (B. “dṛṣṭvā” for “dhṛtvā”): Pass. “dhriyate” (ep. also “-yati”; pf. “dadhre” &c. = ā.; aor. “adhāri”) to be borne &c.; so be firm, keep steady &c. &c.; continue living, exist, remain &c. (also “dhāryate” ; to begin, resolve upon, undertake (dat.; acc. or inf.) Caus. “dhārayati, -te” see above: Desid. “didhīrṣati” (see “-ṣā”), “didhariṣate” ; “didhārayiṣati”, to wish to keep up or preserve (“ātmānam”) Intens. “dardharti” ()and”dādharti” (3. pl. “-dhrati” ; cf. to hold fast, bear firmly, fasten. [Cf. Zd. ‘dar’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fre-tus’, ‘fre-num’.]
nṛ नृ – nṛ m. (acc. “naram” dat. “nare” gen. abl. “naras”, loc. “nari”; du. “narā, narau”; pl. nom. voc. “naras” acc. “nṝn” [may also stand for other cases; for the final, “n” before “p” cf. instr. “nṛbhis”, or “nṛbhis”; dat. abl. “nṛbhya” or “nṛbhyas” loc. “nṛṣu” or “nṛṣu” [vi, 1, 184] gen. “narām. nṛṇām” or “nṝṇām” [vi, 4, 6]) a man, hero (used also of gods), person m. mankind, people (mostly pl.) &c. &c. नृ – nṛ m. (in gram.) a masculine word (nom. “nā”) m. the pin or gnomon of a sun-dial m. a piece at chess “nara”; Zd. ‘nar’; Gk. [greek] stem ‘-vep’; Old Lat. ‘nero’, st. ‘neron’, Lat. ‘Nero’.]
pṛ पृ – pṛ cl.3.P. ( xxv, 4) “piparti” (3. pl. “piprati” ; Impv. “pipṛhi” ; “para” ; cl.9. P. “pṛṇāti”, “to protect” ; pf. 3. pl. “pipruḥ” [= “pūrṇāḥ” ; aor. Subj. “parṣi, parṣati, parṣa, pāriṣat” ; “apārīt” ; inf. “parṣaṇi” , to bring over or to (acc.), bring out of, deliver from (abl.), rescue, save, protect, escort, further, promote ; to surpass, excel (acc.) ; to be able (with inf.) Caus. “pārayati” (ep. and m.c. also “-te”; aor. “apīparat”; Pass. “pāryate”), to bring over or out, rescue, protect, save, preserve, keep alive &c. &c.; to get over, overcome, bring to an end ; to resist, withstand, be a match for (acc.) &c.; to be capable of or able to (with an inf. which after “pāryate” has a pass. sense; cf. “śak” and Lat. ‘porta’, ‘peritus’; Slav. ‘pirati’; Germ. ‘fahren’; Eng. ‘fare’.] पृ – pṛ cl.5.P., 6. ā. “pṛṇoti” or “priyate” ( xxvii, 12; xxviii, 109), to be busy or active (only in “ā-pṛ” and “vy-ā-pṛ” q.v.)
bhṛ भृ – bhṛ cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii, 1) “bharati, -te”; cl.3. P. ā. (xxv, 5) “bibharti” (“bibharti” only , “bibhṛte”; cl.2. P. “bharti” P. “bibhrat”, q.v.; ā. “bibhrāṇa” with act. meaning , “bibhramāṇa” with pass. meaning ; pf. “jabhāra, jabharat; jabhre, ajabhartana” ; “babhāra, babhṛma” &c.; p. “babhrāṇa” with pass. meaning ; “bibharāmbabhūva” , “-rām-āsa” ; aor. “abhār” ; “bhartam, bhṛtam” ; “abhṛta” Gr.; “abhārṣam” Subj. “bharṣat” ; “abhāriṣam” ; Prec. “bhriyāsam””, “-yāt” ; fut. “bhariṣyati” cond. “abhariṣyat” ; “bhartā” ; inf. “bhartum, bhartave, bhartavai”, Ved.; “bharadhyai” ; ind. p. “-bhṛtya” &c.), to bear, carry, convey, hold (“on” or “in” loc.) &c. &c.; to wear i.e. let grow (hair, beard, nails) &c.; to balance, hold in equipoise (as a pair of scales) ; to bear i.e. contain, possess, have, keep (also “keep in mind”) &c. &c.; to support, maintain, cherish, foster ; to hire, pay ; to carry off or along (ā. “bharate”, “for one’s self” i.e. gain, obtain, or = ‘ferri’ “to be borne along”) ; to bring, offer, procure, grant, bestow &c. &c.; to endure, experience, suffer, undergo ; to lift up, raise (the voice or a sound; ā. “bharate”, also “to rise, be heard”) ; to fill (the stomach) ; (with “garbham”) to conceive, become pregnant (cf. under “dhṛ”) ; (with “kṣitim”) to take care of, rule, govern ; (with, “ājṇām”) to submit to, obey ; (with “ūrjām”) to exert, employ Pass. “bhriyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “abhāri”), to be borne &c. &c. &c.: Caus. “bhārayati” (aor. “abībharat”), to cause to bear &c.; to engage for hire Desid. “bubhūrṣati” (, “bibhariṣati” ( 8-2, 49), to wish to bear or support or maintain: Intens. “baribharti” (3. pl. “-bhrati” du. “jarbhṛtaḥ”), “barībharti” (), to bear repeatedly or continually, carry hither and thither. [Cf. Zd. ‘bar’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fero’; Slav. ‘brati’; Goth. ‘bairan’; Germ. ‘beran’, ‘ge-baren’; Eng. ‘bear’.] भृ – bhṛ (1. see p.764, col.3), in comp. for “bhrū”.
mṛ मृ – mṛ cl.6.ā. ( xxviii, 110) “mriyate” (ep. and m.c. also P. “-ti”; cl.1. P. ā. “marati, marate” ; Impv. “mara”, Caṇ.; pf. “mamāra, mamruḥ” &c. &c.; p. “mamṛvas” ; ā. “mamrire” ; sor. “amṛta” Subj. “mṛthāh” ; Pot. “murīya”. ; “mriṣīṣṭa” ; fut. “martā” Gr.; “mariṣyati” &c. &c.; “-te” ; inf. “martum” &c.; “martave” ; ind. p. “mṛtvā” ; “-māram” , to die, decease &c. &c.: Pass. “mriyate” (cf. above; sometimes used impers, with instr.; pf. “mamre”; aor. “amāri”) Caus. “mārayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor, “amīmarat”): Pass. “māryate”, to cause to die, kill, slay &c. &c.: Desid. of Caus see “mimārayiṣu”: Desid. “mumūrṣati” ( 7-1, 102), to wish or be about to die, face death Intens. “memrīyate, marmarti” Gr. ([Cf. Zd. ‘mar’, ‘mareta’; Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘mors’, ‘morior’ &c.; Slav. ‘mreti’; Lith. ‘mirti’; Goth. ‘maurthr’; Germ. ‘Mord’, ‘morden’; Eng. ‘murder’.])
vṛ वृ – vṛ cl.5.9.1. P. ā. ( xxvii, 8; xxxi, 16, 20; xxxiv, 8) “vṛṇoti, vṛṇute; vṛnāti, vriṇīte; varati, varate” (mostly cl. 5. and with the prep. “apa” or “vi”; of cl.9. only “avṛṇīdhvam” ; cl.1. only in [cf. also “ūrṇu”]; pf. “vavāra, vavre” &c. &c. [2. sg. “vavartha” ; “vavaritha, vavṛma” &c. Gr.; p. “vavrivas” gen. “vavavruṣas” ; aor. “avar” or “āvar, avṛta” [1. sg. “vam”, 2. du. “vartam”, 3. pl. “avran”, p. ā. “vrāṇa” q.v. Impv. “vṛdhi” ; “avārīt” ; “avarīṣṭa” Gr.; Subj. “varṣathas” ; Pot. “vriyāt, vūryāt, variṣīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “varītā, varīṣyati” ; inf. “vartum” , “varitum” , “varītum” ; ind. p. “vṛtvā” ; “vṛlvī” ; “vṛtvāya” ; “-vṛtya” , to cover, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct &c. &c.; to close (a door) ; to ward off, check, keep back, prevent, hinder, restrain Pass. “vriyate” (aor. “avāri”), to be covered or surrounded or obstructed or hindered Caus. “vārayati, -te” (aor. “avīvarat, avīvarata” ; “avāvarīt” ; Pass. “vāryate” &c.), to cover, conceal, hide, keep back, hold captive &c. &c.; to stop, check, restrain, suppress, hinder, prevent from (abl. or inf.; rarely two acc.) &c.; to exclude ; to prohibit, forbid ; to withhold &c.: Desid. of Caus. “vivārayiṣate” Desid. “vivarīṣati, vuvūrṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “vevrīyate, vovūryate, varvarti” ‘warjan’; Germ. ‘wehren’, ‘Wehr’; Eng. ‘weir’.] वृ – vṛ cl.5.9. P. ā. ( xxvii, 8; xxxi, 16, 20) “vṛṇoti, vṛṇute; vṛṇāti”, (mostly) “vṛṇīte” (in also “varas, -rat, -ranta”, but these may be Subj. aor.; pf. “vavāra” ; “vavre” [2. sg. “vavṛṣe”, 1. pl. “vavṛmahe”] &c. &c.; aor. “avri, avṛta” [Pot. “vurīta”, p. “urāṇa”] &c. &c.; “avṛṣi, -ṣata” [2. pl. “avṛḍhvam”] ; “avarīṣṭa” Gr.; Prec. “variṣīṣṭa” ; fut. “varītā” ; “variṣyate” ; “varīṣyate” Gr.; inf. “varītum” ; “varitum” Gr.; ind. p. “varitvā” or “vṛtvā” &c.; “varītvā” Gr.), to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as (“-arthe” or acc. of pers.) or for (“-artham” or dat., loc. instr. of thing) &c. &c.; to choose in marriage, woo &c.; to ask a person (acc.) for (acc.) or on behalf of (“kṛte”) ; to solicit anything (acc.) from (abl. or “-tas”), Kav. ; to ask or request that (Pot. with or without “iti”) ; to like better than, prefer to (abl., rarely instr.) ; to like, love (as opp. to “ate”) ; to choose or pick out a person (for a boon), grant (a boon) to (acc.) Caus. ( xxxv, 2) “varayati, -te” (ep. also “vārayati”; Pass. “varyate” ; to choose, choose for one’s self, choose as (acc. of pers.) or for (“-artham” dat. or loc. of thing), ask or sue for (acc.) or on behalf of (dat. or “-arthe”), choose as a wife (acc. with or without “patnīm, dārān”, or “patny-artham”) &c.; to like, love well ‘velle’; Slav. ‘voliti’; Got. ‘wiljian’; Germ. ‘wollan’, ‘wollen’, ‘Wahl’, ‘wohl’; Angl. Sax. ‘willan’; Eng. ‘will’.]
sṛ सृ – sṛ (cf. “sal”) cl.1.3. P. ( xxii, 37; xxv, 17) “sarati” (ep. also “-te” and accord. to “dhāvati”), and “sisarti” (the latter base only in Veda; 3. du. “sisratuḥ”, 3. pl. “sisrate” ; p. “sisrat” [q.v.] ; pf. “sasāra, sasre” &c.; 1. du. “sasriva” ; p. “sasṛvas, sasrāṇa” and “sasṛmāṇa” ; aor. “asārṣīt” Gr.; Subj. “sarṣat” ; Prec. “sriyāt” Gr.; fut. “sartā” ; “sariṣyati” &c.; inf. “sartum” &c.; “sartave, -tavai” ; ind. p. “sṛtvā” ; “-sṛtya, -sāram” &c.), to run, flow, speed, glide, move, go (with “uccakais”, “to spring up”; with “vājam”, or “ājim”, “to run a race” i.e. “exert one’s self”) c. &c.; to blow (as wind) ; to run away, escape ; to run after, pursue (acc.) ; to go towards, betake one’s self to (acc. or “tatra” &c.) ; to go against, attack, assail ; to cross, traverse (acc.) ; (ā.) to begin to flow (said of the fluid which surrounds the fetus) Pass. “sriyate” (aor. “asāri” , to be gone &c., Gr.: Caus. “sārayati” or cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 107) to cause to run ; to set in motion, strike (a lute) ; to remove, push aside (a braid of hair) ; put in array, to arrange (with “dyūtam”, “the men on a chess-board”) ; to make visible, show, manifest ; to nourish, foster (gen.) ; ā. “sārayate” (for “sarayate” see “saraya”, p.1182, col.1), to cause one’s self to be driven, drive (in a carriage) pass. “sāryate”, to be made to flow, discharge (excrement) Desid. “sisīrṣati”, to wish to run (“vājam”, “a race”) Intens. (cf. “sarisrara”) “sarsṛte” (p. “sarsrāṇa” see “pra-sṛ”) or “sarīṣarti”, to stride backwards and forwards ; to blow violently (as the wind) ; [characters]; Lat. ‘salire’.]
hṛ हृ – hṛ cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii, 2) “harati, -te” (once in “harmi”, and once in on “-jiharti”; pf. P. “jahāra, jahartha, jahruḥ” [“-jaharuḥ” ?] &c.; ā. “jahre” &c.; aor. “ahār, ahṛthās” ; “ahārṣīt” &c. &c.; 3. pl. ā. “ahṛṣata” ; Prec. “hriyāt, hṛṣīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “hartā” &c.; “hariṣyati, -te” ; Cond. “ahariṣyat” ; inf. “hartum, -tos, -tave, -tavai” ; “haritum” ; ind. p. “hṛtvā, -hāram” &c.; “-hṛtya” &c.), to take, bear, carry in or on (with instr.), carry, convey, fetch, bring &c. &c.; to offer, present (esp. with “balim”) &c. &c.; to take away, carry off, seize, deprive of, steal, rob ; to shoot or cut or hew off, sever (the head or a limb) &c.; to remove, destroy, dispel, frustrate, annihilate ; to turn away, avert (the face) ; ā. (older and more correct than P.), to take to one’s self, appropriate (in a legitimate way), come into possession of (acc.), receive (as an heir), raise (tribute), marry (a girl) &c.; to master, overpower, subdue, conquer, win, win over (also by bribing) &c.; to outdo, eclipse, surpass ; to enrapture, charm, fascinate &c.; to withhold, withdraw, keep back, retain &c.; to protract, delay (with “kālam”, “to gain time”) ; (in arithm.) to divide Pass. “hriyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “ahāri”), to be taken or seized &c. &c. &c.: Caus. “hārayati, -te” (aor. “ajīharat”; Pass. “hāryate”), to cause to be taken or carried or conveyed or brought by (instr. or acc.; cf. or to (dat.) &c.; to cause to be taken away, appropriate, seize, rob ; to have taken from one’s self, be deprived of, lose (esp. at play) ; (“harayate”) see “pra-hṛ”; (“hārāpayati”), to lose (at play) Desid. “jihīrṣati, -te” (cf. “jihīrṣā, -ṣu”), to wish to take to one’s self or appropriate, covet, desire, long for &c. &c.; (with “kālam”), to wish to gain time Intens. “jehrīyate; jarharīti, jarīharīti, jarharti, jarīharti” (cf. “saṁ-hṛ”) Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]. ]) हृ – hṛ or hṝ cl.9.ā. “hṛṇīte” (only p. “hṛṇāna” ; Pot. “[abhi]-hṛṇīthāḥ” “ahṛṇāt”, śāṅkhBr. xxiii, 4), to be angry or wroth.
का – kā onomat. imitation of the cry of the ass का – kā = “kad”2 and 1. “ku” in comp. to express depreciation e.g. “kākṣa, kā-patha, kāpuruṣa, koṣṇa”, qq. vv. का – kā = “kan” (perf. “cake, cakāna”; see “kāyamāna” s.v.), to seek, desire, yearn, love (with acc. and dat.) ; to like, enjoy, be satisfied with (loc. gen. or inst.) Intens. (p. “cākat”) to please, be sought after, be wished for, satisfy (cf. “anu-, ā-, saṁ-” 3. “kā, kāti”.)
khā खा – khā mfn. digging (ifc. e.g. “kūpa-; bisa-khā”) खा – khā see “khan”, p.337, col.1.
गा – gā cl.3.P. “jigāti” (; “jagāti”, Nalgh. ii, 14 (v.l.); Subj. “jigāt”; Impv. “jigātu”; aor. “agāt”; 3. pl. “agan” ; Subj. [1. sg. “geṣam” see “anu-” and “upa-“], 2. sg. “gās”, 3. sg. “gāt”, 2. pl. “gāta”, 3. pl. “gur”; [perf. “jigāya” see “ud-“], perf. Pot. “jagāyāt” [ ii, 14] ; inf. “gātave” ; in Class. Sanskṛit only the aor. P. “agāt” occurs, for ā. see “adhi-“; aor. Pass. “agāyi, agāsātām” on ; cl.2. P. “gāti” ; ā. “gāte” to go, go towards, come, approach (with acc. or loc.) &c.; to go after, pursue ; to fall to one’s (dat.) share, be one’s (acc.) due, viii, 45, 32 ; to come into any state or condition (acc.), undergo, obtain &c.; to go away (from abl.; to any place loc.) ; to come to an end ; to walk (on a path acc. or instr.) ; (“jigāti”) to be born on Desid. “jigīṣati”, to desire to go ([cf. [characters], Old Germ. ‘gam’, ‘gas’, &c.; Goth. ‘ga-tvo’; Eng. ‘go’.]) गा – gā mfn. Ved. ifc. “going” (cf. “a-gā; agre-, tamo-, puro-, samana-“and”svasti-gā”) गा – gā mfn. ( “gai”) ifc. “singing” see “sāma-gā” गा – gā f. see s.v. 3. “ga”.
ghā घा – ghā f. a stroke घा – ghā f. a tinkling ornament worn by women round the waist.
ṭā टा – ṭā f. the earth
ḍā डा – ḍā f. a ḍākinī m. a basket &c. carried by a sling
chā छा – chā f. covering, concealing (cf. “chad”) mfn. a mark, sign छा – chā m. a young animal
जा – jā mfn. (Ved. for 2. “ja” cf. ifc. “born, produced” see “agra-, adri-, apsu-jā” &c. जा – jā mfn. (“ās”) mf. offspring pl. descendants
jhā झा – jhā f. a water-fall
ता – tā f. impassableness, insurmountableness inaccessibility f. inviolability. ता – tā f. indisposition, sickness. ता – tā f. Lakṣmī
दा – dā f. id. दा – dā f. heat, pain दा – dā cl.3. “dadāti” (pl. “-dati” &c.; ā. “datte” ; 1. sg. “dadmi” if.; Impv. “dadātu” pl. “-dahu”; 2. sg. “daddhi” f. iv, vi, viii, x; “dehi” [ 6-4, 119] f. viii, x f. &c.; “nigaḍāni” to put on or apply fetters “pāvakam”, to set on fire; “agnīn” to consume by fire ; “śāram”, to move a chess-man ; “argalam”, to draw a bolt, bar ; “jānu”, to kneel upon (gen.) iii f.; “padam”, to tread upon [loc.] ; to direct the steps 74; “viṣam”, to poison acc.!); “garam” id. gen.); — ā. to carry, hold, keep, preserve ; to show (aor. “adadiṣṭa; aded-” fr. “diś” Caus. “dāpayati” ( vii, 3, 36; aor. “adīdapat”, 4, 1 and 58 to cause to give or be given, cause to bestow or present or give up, oblige to pay, make restore &c.; to demand from (abl.) ; to cause to utter or speak 15782 “ghoṣaṇām”, to cause to be made known lxiv, 86; to cause to place or advance, xii, 160; to cause to perform, v, 112 to cause to be put on (loc.) Desid. “ditsati” ( 7-4, 54 and 58; p. “didāsat” ; “ditsat”, ii, vii-ix ; Pot. “-tseyam” ; pf. 2. sg. “didāsitha” ; cf. to wish to give, be ready to bestow &c.; to wish to give in marriage &c.: Intens. “dedīyate” ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘do’; &c.]) दा – dā m. a giver (dat. “de”); vi, 16, 26 (nom. “dās”) दा – dā ifc. “giving, granting” see “an-aśva-, a-bhikṣa-, aśva-, ātma-“, &c. “-dā” दा – dā m. “an-āśīr-“. दा – dā For “do”, to cut q.v. दा – dā cl.4.P. “dyati” (cf. “ā-” 4. “dā”), to bind, only in “dīṣva” ([cf. [characters] ]). दा – dā For “de” q.v. दा – dā f. ( “de”), protection, defence दा – dā For “dai” q.v. दा – dā f. ( “das”) cleansing, purifying
dhā धा – dhā cl.3.P. ā. “dadhāti, dhatte” &c. &c. (P. du. “dadhvas, dhatthas, dhattas” [ 8-2, 38]; pl. “dadhmasi” or “-mas, dhattha, dādhati”; impf. “adadhāt” pl. “-dhur”, 2. pl. “adhatta” or “adadhāta” ; Subj. “dadhat” or “-dhāt” [ 7-3, 70 , “-dhas, -dhatas, -dhan”; Pot. “dadhyāt”; Impv. “dādhātu” pl. “-dhatu”; 2. sg. “dhehi” [fr. “dhaddhi”; cf. “dhattāt” ; 2. pl. “dhatta”, i, 64, 15, “dhattana”, i, 20, 7, “dadhāta”, vii, 32, 13, or “-tana”, x, 36, 13 [cf. ; p. “dadhat, -ti” m. pl. “-tas”; ā. 1. sg. “dadhe” [at once 3. sg. = “dhatte” and = pf. ā.], 2. sg. “dhatse”, viii, 85, 5 or “dhatse” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”; 2. pl. “-dhidhve” [cf. pf.]; 3. pl. “dadhate” ; impf. “adhatta, -tthās”; Subj. “dadhase”, viii, 32, 6 [ 3-4, 96 ; Pot. “dadhīta” “dadhīta”, v, 66, 1; Impv. 2. sg. “dhatsva”, x, 87, 2 or “dadhiṣva”, iii, 40, 5 &c.; 2. pl. “dhaddhvam” [ 8-2, 38 or “dadhidhvam” “dadhatām” ; p. “dadhāna”); rarely cl.1. P. ā. “dadhati, -te” ; only thrice cl.2. P. “dhāti” ; and once cl.4. ā. Pot. “dhāyeta” (pf.P. “dadhau, -dhātha, -dhatur, -dhimā, -dhur” &c.; ā. “dadhe” [cf. pr.], “dadhiṣe” or “dhiṣe” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”, 2. pl. “dadhidhve” [cf. pr.]; 3. pl. “dadhire, dadhre”, x, 82, 5; 6, or “dhire”, i, 166, 10 &c.; p. “dadhāna” [cf. pr.]; aor. P. “adhāt, dhāt, dhās; adhur, dhur” &c.; Pot. “dheyām, -yur; dhetana” ; 2. sg. “dhāyīs” ; Impv. “dhātu” [cf. 6-i, 8 3 ; 2. pl. “dhāta” or “-tana”, 3. pl. “dhāntu” ; ā. “adhita, -thās, adhītām, adhīmahi, dhīmahi, dhimahe, dhāmahe” ; 3. sg. “ahita, hita” ; Subj. “dhethe” , “dhaithe”, vi, 67, 7; Impv. “dhiṣvā”, ii, 11, 18, &c.; P. “adhat” ; “dhat” ; P. “dhāsur” Subj. “-sathas” and “-satha” ; ā. “adhiṣi, -ṣata” ; Pot. “dhiṣīya” [P. vii, 4, 45]; “dheṣīya” ; fut. “dhāsyati, -te” or “dhātā” &c.; inf. “dhātum” &c.; Ved. also “-tave, -tavai, -tos; dhiyadhyai” ; Class. also “-dhitum”; ind. P. “dhitvā” ; “hitvā” [ 7-4, 42], “-dhāya”and”-dhām” Pass. “dhīyate” &c. [ 6-4, 66], p. “dhīyamāna” ; aor. “adhāyi, dhāyi” [ 7-3, 33 ; Prec. “dhāsīṣṭa” or “dhāyiṣīṣṭa” [vi, 4, 62]) to put, place, set, lay in or on (loc.) &c. &c. (with “daṇḍam”, to inflict punishment on [with loc. gen. ; with “tat-padavyām padam”, to put one’s foot in another’s footstep i.e. imitate, equal ii. 64); to take or bring or help to (loc. or dat.; with “āre”, to remove) ; (ā.) to direct or fix the mind or attention (“cintām, manas, matim, samādhim” &c.) upon, think of (loc. or dat.), fix or resolve upon (loc. dat. acc. with “prati” or a sentence closed with “iti”) ; to destine for, bestow on, present or impart to (loc. dat. or gen.) &c. (Pass. to be given or granted, fall to one’s [dat.] lot or share ; to appoint, establish, constitute ; to render (with double acc.) iii. 82; to make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect, perform, execute &c. (aor. with “pūrayām, mantrayām, varayām” &c. = “pūrayām” &c. “cakāra”); to seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support, wear, put on (clothes) &c.; (ā.) to accept, obtain, conceive (esp. in the womb), get, take (with “okas” or “canas”, to take pleasure or delight in [loc. or dat.]) ; to assume, have, possess, show, exhibit, incur, undergo Caus. “-dhāpayati” (see “antar-dhā, śrad-dhā” &c.): Desid. “dhitsati, -te” ( 7-4, 54), to wish to put in or lay on (loc.) (Class. Pass. “dhitsyate; dhitsya” see s.v.); “didhiṣati, -te”, to wish to give or present ; (ā.) to wish to gain, strive after (p. “didhiṣāṇa”, x, 114, 1) with “avadyam”, to bid defiance (cf. “didhiṣāyya, didhiṣu”): Intens. “dedhīyate” ‘da’, ‘dadaiti’; Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘dedu’, ‘deti’; Slav. ‘dedja’, ‘diti’; Old Sax. ‘duan’, ‘don’, Angl. Sax. ‘don’, Engl. ‘do’; Germ. ‘tuan’; ‘tuon’, ‘thun’.] धा – dhā mfn. putting, placing, bestowing, holding, having, causing &c. (ifc.; cf. 2. “dha”) धा – dhā m. placer, bestower, holder, supporter &c. धा – dhā m. N. of Brahmā or Bṛihas-pati धा – dhā f. see 2. “dha” धा – dhā instr. (= nom.) perhaps in the suffix “dhā” (which forms adverbs from numerals e.g. “eka-dhā, dvi-dhā” &c.)
ना – nā see 2. “na”.
पा – pā f. guarding, protecting पा – pā f. = “pūta” and “pūritaka”. पा – pā cl.1.P. ( xxii, 27) “pibati” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “-te”; rarely “pipati, -te” cl.2. “pāti, pāthas, pānti” ; p. ā. “papāna” , “pipāna” (pf. P. “papau”, 2. sg. “papātha” ; “papitha” ; “papīyāt” ; p. “papivas” ; ā. “pape, papire” ; p. “papāna” ; aor. or impf. “apāt” [cf. pl. “apuḥ” [?] ; “-pāsta” Prec. 3. sg. “peyās” ; fut. “pāsyati, -te” &c.; “pātā” Gr.; ind. p. “pītvā” &c. &c., “-tvī” ; “-pāya” &c. &c.; “pītyā” ; “pāyam” ; inf. “pibadhyai” ; “pātum” &c.; “pātave” ; “pātavaī” , to drink, quaff, suck, sip, swallow (with acc., rarely gen.) &c. &c.; (met.) to imbibe, draw in, appropriate, enjoy, feast upon (with the eyes, ears &c.) &c.; to drink up, exhaust, absorb ; to drink intoxicating liquors Pass. “pīyate” &c. &c.: Caus. “pāyayati, -te” (pf. “pāyayām āsā” ; aor. “apīpyat” ; ind. p. “pāyayitvā” ; inf. “pāyayitavai” , to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle) &c. &c.: Desid. “pipāsati” ( also “pipīṣati”), to wish to drink, thirst Desid. of Caus. “pipāyayiṣati”, to wish or intend to give to drink Intens. “pepīyate” (p. “-yamāna” also with pass meaning), to drink greedily or repeatedly [characters] -[characters] -[characters]; Aeol. [characters] -[characters] = [characters]; Lat. ‘pa-tus’, ‘potum’, ‘bibo’ for ‘pi-bo’; Slav. ‘pi-ja’, ‘pi-ti’] पा – pā mfn. drinking, quaffing &c. (cf. “agre-, ṛtu-, madhu-, soma-” &c. ) पा – pā cl.2.P. (Dhāt. xxiv, 48) “pāti” (Impv. “pāhi”; pr. p. P. “pāt” ā. “pāna” ; pf. “papau” Gr.; aor. “apāsīt” Subj. “pāsati” ; fut. “pāsyati, pātā” Gr.; Prec. “pāyāt” ; inf. “pātum” , to watch, keep, preserve; to protect from, defend against (abl.) &c. &c.; to protect (a country) i.e. rule, govern ; to observe, notice, attend to, follow Caus. “pālayati” see “pāl”: Desid. “pīpāsati” Gr.: Intens. “pāpāyate, pāpeti, pāpāti” ‘pa’, ‘paiti’; Gk. [greek] &c.; Lat. ‘pa-sco’, ‘pa-bulum’; Lith. ‘pe-mu-‘] पा – pā mfn. keeping, protecting, guarding &c. (ef. “apāna-, ritā-, go-, tanū-” &c.)
phā फा – phā m. (nom. “phās”) heat m. idle talk m. increase or increaser
bhā भा – bhā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 43) “bhāti” (pr. p. “bhāt” f. “bhāntī” or “bhātī” ; Pot. “bhāyāt” ; pl. “babhau” &c.; aor. “abhāsīt” Gr. ; fut. “bhāsyati” &c.), to shine, be bright or luminous &c. &c.; to shine forth, appear, show one’s self ; to be splendid or beautiful or eminent &c. (with “na”, to cut a poor figure ; to appear as, seem, look like, pass for (nom. with or without “iva” adv. in “vat”) &c.; to be, exist ; to show, exhibit, manifest (v.l.): Pass. “bhāyate”, impers, radiance is put forth by (instr.) Caus. “bhāpayate”; aor. “abībhapat” Gr.: Desid. “bibhāsati” Intens. “bābhāyate, bābheti, bābhāti” “bhan, bhāṣ, bhās”; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘fari’ &c.; Germ. ‘Bann’; Eng. ‘ban’.] भा – bhā f. (nom. prob. “bhās”) light, brightness, splendour &c. (cf. f. of 4. “bha”) भा – bhā m. the sun (cf. 2. “bhās”).
मा – mā ind. (casting a following “ch” to be changed to “cch” not, that not, lest, would that not &c. &c.; a particle of prohibition or negation = Gk. [greek] most commonly joined with the Subjunctive i.e. the augmentless form of a past tense (esp. of the aor. e.g. “mā no vadhīr indra”, do not slay us, O Indra ; “mā bhaiṣīḥ” or “mā bhaiḥ”, do not be afraid ; “tapovana-vāsinām uparodho mā bhūt”, let there not be any disturbance of the inhabitants of the sacred grove ; often also with “sma” e.g. “mā sma gamaḥ”, do not go cf. ; 176 in the sense of, “that not, lest” also “yathā mā” e.g. “yathā mā vo mṛtyuḥ pari-vyatkā iti”, that death may not disturb you, PraśuUp.; or “māyathā” e.g. “mā bhūt kālātyayo yathā”, lest there be any loss of time ; “mā na” with aor. Subj. = Ind, without a negative e.g. “mā dviṣo na vadhīr mama”, do slay my enemies cf. ; rarely with the augmentless impf. with or without “sma” e.g. “maīnam abhibhāṣathāḥ”, do not speak to him ; “mā sma karot”, let him not do it ; exceptionally also with the Ind. of the aor. e.g., “mā, kālas tvām aty-agāt”, may not the season pass by thee ; cf. ; or with the Impv. (in only viii, 103, 6, “mā no hṛṇītām” [ “hṛṇītās] agniḥ”, may Agni not be angry with us; but very often in later language e.g. “mā kranda” do not cry ; “gaccha vā mā ā”, you can go or not go ; “ripur ayam mājāyatām”, may not this foe arise, śalntiś.; also with “sma” e.g. “mā sva kiṁ cid vaco vada” do not speak a word ; or with the Pot. (e.g. ma “yamam paseyam”, may l not see Yama; esp. “mābhujema” in ; or with the Prec. (only once in “mā bhūyāt”, may it not be [B.] ii, 75, 45); or sometimes with the fut. (= that not, lest e.g. “mātvāṁ śapsye”, lest I curse thee cf. ; or with a participle (e.g. “mājīvanyo duḥkhadagdho jīvati”, he ought not to live who lives consumed by pain ; “gataḥ sa mā”, he cannot have gone ; “maīvamprārthyam”, it must not be so requested ; sometimes for the simple negative “na” (e.g. “katham mā bhūt”, how may it not be ; “mā gantum arhasi”, thou oughtest not to go, R; “mā bhūd āgataḥ”, can he not i.e. surely he must have arrived ; occasionally without a verb (e. g. “mā śabdaḥ” or “śabdam”, do not make a noise ; “mā nāma rakṣiṇaḥ”, may it not be the watchmen ; “mā bhavantam analaḥ pavano vā”, may not fire or wind harm thee ; esp. = not so e.g. “mā prātṛda”, not so, O Prātṛida ; in this meaning also “mā mā, mā maivam, mā tāvat”); in the Veda often with “u” (“mo”) = and not, nor (e.g. “mā maghonaḥ pari khyatam moasmākam ṛṣṇām”, do not forget the rich lords nor us the poets ; and then usually followed by “ṣu” = “su” e.g. “mo ṣu ṇaḥ nirṛtir vadhīt”, let not Nirṛitir on any account destroy us, i, 38, 6); in “sma mā” – “mo sma” = neither – nor (in a prohibitive sense). मा – mā cl.3.P. “mirnāti” (accord. to ā. “mimīte” “mimeti”; Pot. “mimīyat” ; pf, “mimāya”; aor. “amīmet” Subj. “mīmayat”; inf. “mātavai”), to sound, bellow, roar, bleat (esp. said of cows, calves, goats &c.) Intens., only pr. p. “memyat”, bleating (as a goat) मा – mā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 54) “māti”; cl.3. ā. (xxv, 6) “mimīte”; cl.4. (xxvi, 33) “māyate” (Ved. and ep. also “mimāti” Pot. “mimīyāt” Impv., “mimīhi”; Pot. “mimet” ; pf. “mamau, mame, mamire” ; aor. “aināsi” Subj. “masātai” ; “amāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “māsīṣṭa, meyāt” ; fut. “mātā; māsyati, māsyate” ; inf. “me” “-mai” ; “mātum” ; ind. p. “mitvā, -māya” &c. &c.), to measure, mete out, mark off &c. &c.; to measure across = traverse ; to measure (by any standard), compare with (instr.) ; (“māti”) to correspond in measure (either with gen., “to be large or long enough for” ; or with loc., “to find room or be contained in” ; or with “na” and instr., “to be beside one’s self with ; to measure out, apportion, grant ; to help any one (acc.) to anything (dat.) ; to prepare, arrange, fashion, form, build, make ; to show, display, exhibit (“amimīta”, “e displayed or developed himself”, iii, 29, 11) ; (in phil.) to infer, conclude; to pray (“yācṇā-karmaṇi”) Pass. “mīyate” (aor. “amāyi”); to be measured &c. &c. &c.: Caus, “māpayati, -te” (aor. “amīmapat” 2 , to cause to be measured or built, measure, build, erect &c.: Desid. “mitsati, -te” (cf. “nir-mā”): Intens. “memīyate” ‘ma’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘metior’, ‘mensus’, ‘mensura’; Slav. ‘mera’; Lith. ‘mera’.] मा – mā f. see under 4. ma, p.751, col.2.
या – yā f. going, a car m. restraining, religious meditation m. attaining m. pudendum muliebre m. N. of Lakṣmī. या – yā (collateral form of 5. “i”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 41) “yāti” (1. pl. “yāmahe” ; impf. 3. pl. “ayuḥ” ; “ayān” ; pf. “yayau, yayātha, yaya, yayuḥ” &c. &c.; “yaye” ; aor. “ayāsam” or “ayāsiṣam”; Subj. “yāsat, yeṣam, yāsiṣat” ; Prec. “yāsiṣīṣṭhās” ; fut. “yātā” &c.; “yāsyati” ; “-te” ; inf. “yātum” &c.; Ved. inf. “yai, yātave” or “-vai”; ind. p. “yātvā” ; “-yāya, -yāyam” , to go, proceed, move, walk, set out, march, advance, travel, journey (often with instr. or acc. of the way, esp. with “gatim, mārgam, adhvānam, panthānam, padavīm, yātrām”) &c. &c.; to go away, withdraw, retire &c.; (also with “palāyya”) to flee, escape (with “kṣemeṇa” or “svasti”, to escape unscathed ; to go towards or against, go or come to, enter, approach, arrive at, reach &c. &c. (with acc. often followed by “prati” e.g. with “gṛham”, to enter a house; with “ripum prati”, to march against the enemy; with “mṛgayām”, to go out hunting; with “śirasāmahīm”, to bow down to the ground with the head; with “prakṛtim”, to return to one’s natural state; with “karṇau”, to come to the ears, be heard; with “utsavād utsavam”, to go from one festival to another; with “hastam” ifc., to fall into the hands of; with “patham” or “gocaram” ifc., to come within range of; esp. with the acc. of an abstract noun = to go to any state or condition, become, be e.g. “vināśaṁ yāti”, he goes to destruction i.e. he is destroyed; “kāṭhinyaṁ yāti”, it becomes hard; “dveṣyatāṁ yāti”, he becomes hated; similarly “nidhanaṁ-yā”, to die; “nidrāṁ-yā”, to fall asleep; “udayaṁ-yā”, to rise, said of stars &c.; sometimes also with loc. e.g. “yāhi rājṇah sakāśe”, go into the presence of the king ; or even with dat. e.g. “yayatuḥ sva-niveśāya”, both went home ; “na cātmane kṛpaṇasya dhanaṁ yāti”, nor does the wealth of the miser go to [i.e. benefit] himself. ; “phalebhyo yāti”, he goes to [fetch] fruits ; to go to for any request, implore, solicit (with two acc.) ; (with “striyam”) to go to a woman for sexual intercourse ; to go to for any purpose (inf.) ; often with adverbs e.g. with “bahir”, to go out ; with “adho”, to go down, sink ; with “khaṇḍaśo” or “dalaśo”, to fall to pieces ; with “śata-dhā”, to fall into a hundred pieces ; to extend to (acc.) ; to last for (acc.) ; to pass away, elapse (said of time) &c.; to vanish, disappear (as wealth) ; to come to pass, prosper, succeed ; to proceed, behave, act ; to find out, discover ; to receive or learn (a science) from (abl.) ; to undertake, undergo (acc.) ; Impv. “yātu”, be it as it may Pass. “yāyate”, to be gone or moved Caus. “yāpayati” (aor. “ayīyapat”), to cause to depart, cause to go or march, dismiss ; to cause to go towards (acc.) (cf. “yāpita”); to direct (the gaze) towards (loc.) (v.l. “pātayati”); to drive away remove, cure (a disease) ; to cause to pass or elapse, pass or spend (time) &c.; to live (Pāli “yāpeti”) ; to cause to subsist, support, maintain ; to induce Desid. “yiyāsati”, to intend or be about to go, desire to proceed &c.: Intens. “īyāyate” (?), to move ; “yāyayate, yāyeti, yāyāti” Gr. या – yā (ifc.) going, moving (see “ṛṇa-” “eva-, tura-, deva-yā”). या – yā f. of 3. “ya” q.v.
रा – rā f. (only amorous play (= “vibhrama”) रा – rā or rās cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 49) “rāti” (Ved. also ā. “rāte”; Impv. “rirīhi, rarāsva, raridhvam”; p. “rarāṇa”; 3. sg. “rarate” and “rāsate”; pf. “rarima, rare”; aor. “arāsma” Subj. “rātat” &c. Pot. “rāsīya”; Class-forms are only pr. “rāti”; fut. “rātā” ; “rāsyati” inf. “rātave” , to grant, give, bestow, impart, yield, surrender रा – rā (ifc.) granting, bestowing रा – rā f. see 3. “rai”. रा – rā see under 3. “ra”.
ला – lā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 50) “lāti” (pf. “lalau” ; aor. “alāsīt” ; fut. “lātā, lāsyati” Gr.; ind. p. “lātvā” , to take, receive, obtain ; to undertake, begin ; to give , ‘lenA’.] ला – lā f. the act of taking or giving
वा – vā ind. or (excluded, like the Lat. ‘ve’, from the first place in a sentence, and generally immediately following, rarely and only m.c. preceding, the word to which it refers) &c. &c. (often used in disjunctive sentences; “vā-vā”, “either” — “or”, “on the one side” — “on the other”; “na vā” — “vā” or “na” — “vā”, “neither” — “nor”; “vā na-vā”, “either not” — “or”; “yadi vā-vā”, “whether” — “or”; in a sentence containing more than two members “vā” is nearly always repeated, although if a negative is in the first clause it need not be so repeated; “vā” is sometimes interchangeable with “ca” and “api”, and is frequently combined with other particles, esp. with “atha, atho, uta, kim, yad, yadi” q.v. [e.g. “atha vā”, “or else”]; it is also sometimes used as an expletive); either-or not, optionally &c. (in gram. “vā” is used in a rule to denote its being optional e.g. ; as, like (= “iva”) &c.; just, even, indeed, very (= “eva”, laying stress on the preceding word) ; but even if, even supposing (followed by a future) ; however, nevertheless ; (after a rel. or interr.) possibly, perhaps, I dare say &c. (e.g. “kiṁ vā śakuntalety asya mātur ākhyā”, “is his mother’s name perhaps śakuntalā?” ; “ko vā” or “ke vā” followed by a negative may in such cases be translated by “every one, all” e.g. “ke vā na syuḥ paribhava-padaṁ niṣphalāram-bha-yatnāḥ”, “everybody whose efforts are fruitless is an object of contempt” वा – vā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 42) “vāti” (pf. “vavau” &c.; aor. “avāsīt” ; fut. “vāsyati” ; inf. “vātum” , to blow (as the wind) &c. &c.; to procure or bestow anything (acc.) by blowing ; to blow towards or upon (acc.) ; to emit an odour, be diffused (as perfume) ; to smell (trans.) (v.l.); to hurt, injure Caus. “vāpayati” see “nir-vā” and cf. “vājaya”: Desid. “vivāsati” see 1. “van”. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘ventus’; Slav. ‘vejati’; Goth. ‘waian’, ‘winds’; Germ. ‘wajan’, ‘woejen’, ‘wehen’, ‘Wind’; Angl. Sax. ‘wawan’; Eng. ‘wind’.])
सा – sā f. of 4. “sa” q.v. सा – sā f. of 6. “sa” q.v. सा – sā (weak form of “san”), giving, bestowing, granting (cf. “ap-, aśva-sā” &c.) सा – sā = “so” q.v.
हा – hā ind. an exclamation expressive of pain, anger, astonishment, satisfaction &c. (= ah! alas! oh! ha! often before or after a voc. case, also repeated “hā-hā” cf. 1. “hahā” above, or followed by other particles, esp. “dhik, hanta, kaṣṭam” &c.) , हा – hā (not always separable fr. 3. “hā”) cl.3.ā. ( xxv, 7) “jihīte” (p. “jihāna” [q.v.]; pf. “jahire” ; aor. “ahāsta” &c.; fut. “hātā” Gr.; “hāsyate” ; inf. “-hātum” ; ind. p. “hātvā” Gr.; “-hāya” , to start or spring forward, bound away, give way to (dat.) ; to spring or leap upon (?) ; to go or depart or betake one’s self to have recourse to (acc.) ; to fall or come into any state Pass. “hāyate” (aor. “ahāyi”) Gr.: Caus. “hāpayati” (aor. “ajīhapat”) Desid. “jihāsate” Intens. “jahāyate, jāhāti, jāheti” हा – hā cl.3.P. ( xxv, 8) “jahāti” (rarely cl.1. “jahati” 3. du. “jahltaḥ” Impv. “jahihi” [or “jahāhi” ; “jahītāt” ; Pot. “jahyāt” &c.; pf. “jahau, jahuḥ” &c.; “jahe” ; aor. “ahāt” &c.; “ahāsīt” Gr.; 3. sg. “ahās” ; “ahāsi” ; “hāsiṣṭa” ,; fut. “hātā” Gr.; “hāsyati, -te” &c, “jahiṣyati” &c.; inf. “hātum” ; ind. p. “hitvā”. [q.v.] &c.; “hitvī” “-tvāya” ; “-hītvā” Gr.; “-hāya” , “hīyam” , to leave, abandon, desert, quit, forsake, relinquish (with “śarīram, deham, prāṇān, asūn, jvitam” &c. – “to die”) &c, &c.; to discharge, emit ; to put away, take off, remove, lay aside, give up, renounce, resign, avoid, shun, abstain or refrain from &c.; to disregard, neglect ; to lose, be deprived of. ; to get rid of. escape from &c.; to cause to emit (with “śardham”, “to cause to break wind”) Pass. “hīyate” or “hīyate” (ep. also “hīyati”; aor. “ahāyi”), to be left or abandoned or deserted &c.; to be left behind, fall short of (abl.) &c. &c.; to be excluded from or bereft of (abl. or instr.; with “prāṇaiḥ”, “to die”) &c.; to be overtaken by (instr.) ; to be deficient or wanting, suffer loss or injury, fail (also in a lawsuit), decrease, wane, decline, come to an end &c.; to weigh less (at the ordeal of the balance) ; to be given up or avoided (v.l.); to be subtracted ; to become detached from (with abl. or instr.), fall out (as hair) Caus. “hāpayati” (m.c. also “-te” aor. “ajīhapat; -jīhipaḥ” , to cause to leave or abandon &c.; to omit, neglect &c.; to fall short of. be wanting in (acc.) ; to give up (“asūn”, “life”) ; to lose (“kālam”, “time”) ; to abandon (“pratijṇām”, “a thesis”) Desid. “jihāsati”, to wish to leave or abandon ; to wish to reject or disdain ; to wish to escape Intens. “jehīyate, jāhāti, jāheti” Gr.
गी – gī (in comp. for 1. “gir”).
ḍī डी – ḍī cl.1.4. ā. “ḍayate, ḍīyate” ( ii, 14 7 ; pf. “ḍiḍye”, viii, 4, 54 ; pr. p., “ḍayamāna”, 59 ; aor. “aḍayiṣṭa” to fly ; cf. “uḍ-, proḍ-“.
जी – jī m. “sir, mister, Mr.” (attached to names as a mark of respect)
दी – dī (cf. “ḍi”) cl.4.P. ā. “dīyati, -te”, to soar, fly Intens. inf. “dedīyitavai”, to fly away “ḍī”; Gk. [greek]. ] दी – dī (“dīdī” or “dīdi”). cl.3.P. 3. pl. “dīdyati” (Impv. “dīdihi” and “didīhi” ; impf. “adīdet” ; pf. “dīdāya” or () “dīdaya; dīdetha, didiyus” ; Subj. “dīdayati, -yat” ; “dīdayat” ; “dīdāyat” ; “dīdayante” ; Prec. “dīdyāsam” ; p. Pres. P. “dīdiat” ā. “dīdiāna”, p. pf. “dīvas”) to shine, be bright; to shine forth, excel, please, be admired ; bestow upon (loc. or dat.) by shining दी – dī cl.4.ā. “dīyate”, to decay, perish ( xxvi, 25; “didīye; dāsyate, dātā; adāsta” Caus. “dāpayati” Desid. “didiṣate”and”didāsate” दी – dī f. decay, ruin.
dhī धी – dhī cl.3.ā. “dīdhīte”, &c. (cf. “dīdhī”; the forms “dhīmahi” and “adhāyi” belong rather to 1. “dhā”; pf. “dīdhaya, -dhima, -dhiyur” or “-dhyur, -dhire” to perceive, think, reflect; wish, desire: Intens. “dedhyat” धी – dhī f. thought, (esp.) religious thought, reflection, meditation, devotion, prayer (pl. Holy Thoughts personified) f. understanding, intelligence, wisdom (personified as the wife of Rudra-Manyu f. mind, disposition, intention, design (ifc. intent upon f. notion, opinion, the taking for (comp.) &c. &c. (“yathā dhiyā” or “dhiyā na”, according to thy wisdom or will; “itthā dhiyā” or “dhiyaḥ”, willingly lit. such is thy will f. N. of the 5th house from the Lagna धी – dhī cl.4.ā. “dhīyate”, to contain, bold (Pass. of 1. “dhā”?); to slight, disregard; to propitiate (?) धी – dhī f. for “dī”, splendour
नी – nī for “nis” (q.v.) before r. नी – nī (for 1. see p.543, col.3) cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii. 5) “nayati” “-te” (pf. P. “nināya”, 2. sg. “ninetha” pl. “nīnima” ; Subj. “ninīthas” Pot. “ninīyāt” ; Impv. “ninetu” ; ā. “ninye” &c.; “-nayām āsa” ; “-nayāṁ cakre” ; aor. P. 3. du. “anītām” Subj. “neṣi, nethā” ; “anaiṣīt” Subj. “neṣati, -ṣat”, 3. pl. ā. “aneṣata” ; “anayīt” ; fut. “neṣyati” ; “-te” ; “nayiṣyati, -te” ; “nitā, nayitā” ; ind. p. “nītvā” ; “nayitvā” ; “nīya” &c.; inf. “neṣaṇi” ; “netavai, -tos”and”nayitum” ; “netum” &c. &c.), to lead, guide, conduct, direct, govern (also with “agram” and gen.; cf. “agra-ṇī”) &c. &c.; to lead &c. towards or to (acc. with or without “prati” dat., loc. or “artham” ifc.) ; to lead or keep away, exclude from (abl.) ; (ā.) to carry off for one’s self (as a victor, owner &c.) ; (ā., rarely P.) to lead home i.e. marry ; to bring into any state or condition (with acc. e.g. with “vaśam”, to bring into subjection, subdue [ā. ; P. ; with “śūdra-tām”, to reduce to a śūdra ; with “sākṣyam” [ā.], to admit as a witness, viii, 197; with “vyāghra-tām”, to change into a tiger ; with “vikrayam”, to sell ; with “paritoṣam”, to satisfy ; with “duḥkham”, to pain ; rarely, with loc. e.g. “duhitṛ-tve”, to make a person one’s daughter ; or with an adv. in “-sāt” e.g. “bhasmasāt” to reduce to ashes ; to draw (a line &c.) ; to pass or spend (time) &c.; (with “daṇḍam”) to bear the rod i.e. inflict punishment (with “vyavahāram”) to conduct a process ; (with “kriyām”) to conduct a ceremony, preside over a religious act ; to trace, track, find out, ascertain, settle, decide (with “anyathā”, “wrongly”) &c.; (ā.) to be foremost or chief Caus. “nāyayati, -te”, to cause to lead &c.; to cause to be led by (instr.) (cf. 5 Desid. “ninīṣati, te” ( xix, 50, 5, w. r. “nineṣati”), to wish to lead or bring or carry to or into (acc. or dat.) &c.; to wish to carry away ; to wish to spend or pass (time) ; to wish to exclude from (abl.) ; to wish to find out or ascertain, investigate Intens. “nenīyate” to lead as a captive, have in one’s power, rule, govern नी – nī mfn. leading, guiding, a leader or guide (mostly ifc., cf. “agra-ṇī, agreṇī”; but also alone cf. vi, 4, 77; 82 &c.) नी – nī P. “ny-eti” (3. pl. “ni-yanti”; p. “-yat”; impf. “ny-āyan” ind. p. “nītya”), to go into (cf. “nyāya”), enter, come or fall into, incur (acc.) ; to under go the nature of i.e. to be changed into (“-bhāvam”) नी – nī in comp.= 1. “ni” (p. 538, col.3).
पी – pī (connected with 1 “pā” to which belong pass. “pīyate”, pp. “pīta, pītvā” &c.) cl.4.ā. “pīyate”, to drink पी – pī or pi (connected with “pyai”), cl.1.ā. “payate” (cl.2.ā. pr.p. “piyāna” cl.3.P. Impv. “pīpihī”; impf. “apīpet, apīpayat”; Subj. “pipyatam, -tām; pīpayat” ā. “-yanta”, p. ā. “pāpyāna”; pf. P. “pīpāya”. 2. sg. “pīpetha”, 3. pl. “pipyur”; p. ā. “pīpyāna”), to swell, overflow, be exuberant, abound, increase, grow; (trans.) to fatten, cause to swell or be exuberant, surfeit
bhī भी – bhī cl.3.P. ( xxv, 2) “bibheti” (du. “bibhītas” or “bibhitas” Pot. “bibhīyāt” or “bibhiyāt” ; Pot. 3. pl. “bibhyeyuḥ” ; impf. 3. pl. “abibhayuḥ” ; ep. also ā. 1. sg. “bibhye” and and P. 3. sg. “bibhyati” pl. “bibhyanti”; Ved. also cl.1. A. “bhayate”, and accord, to P. “bhāyayati”; pf. “bibhāya”, 3. pl. “bibhyuḥ” &c. &c.; “bībhāya” ; “bibhayāṁ cakara” cf. ; aor. “abhaiṣīt, -ṣma, -ṣuḥ” &c., 2. sg. “bhaiṣīs” , “bhais” &c., esp. in “mābhais”, “do not be afraid”; once for pl. = “mā bhaiṣṭa” ; “bhes” ; “bhema” ā. “bhiyāna” ,; fut. “bhetā” Gr.; cond, “abheṣyat” ; inf. “bhiyase” ; “bhetum” &c.), to fear, be afraid of (abl. or gen., rarely instr, or acc.) &c. &c.; to fear for, be anxious about (abl.) Pass. “bhīyate”, aor, “abhāyi” Gr.: Caus. “bhīṣayate” ( &c.; cf. , “bhīṣayati” (; once m.c. “bhiṣ-” ; p. “bhīṣayāṇa” ; aor. “bībhiṣaḥ” , “-ṣathāḥ” , “bhāyayati, -te” ( 1-3, 68 ; Pot. “bhāyayes” 61; v.l. “bhīṣayes”; aor “bībhayat, abībhayanta” ; ind. p. “-bhāyya” , “bhāpayate” ( 6-1, 56 , to terrify, put in a fright, intimidate &c. &c.: Desid. “bibhīṣati” Gr.: Intens. “bebhīyate, bebhayīti, bebheti” “bhyas”; Lith. ‘bijotis’; Slav. ‘bojati’; Germ. ‘biben’, ‘beben’.] भी – bhī f. fear, apprehension, fright, alarm, dread of (abl. loc. acc. with “prati”, or comp.)
मी – mī cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 4) “mīnāti, mīnīte” (Ved. also “mināti” and “minoti; mīyate” or “mīyate” [ xxvi, 28]; “mimītas, mimīyāt” [?]; pf. “mimāya” ; “mīmaya” ; “mamau, mimye” Gr.; aor. “amāsīt, amāsta” Gr.; “meṣṭa” ; aor. Pass. “amāyi” ; Prec. “mīyāt, māsīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “mātā, māsyati, -te” Gr.; “meṣyate” ; inf. “-miyam, -miye” ; “metos” ; ind. p. “mītvā, -mīya, māya” Gr.), to lessen, diminish, destroy (A. and Pass. to perish, disappear, die) ; to lose one’s way, go astray ; to transgress, violate, frustrate, change, alter Caus. “māpayati” aor. “amīmapat”. see “pra-mī”; Desid. “mitsati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “memīyate, memayīti, memeti” ; Lat. ‘minuere’; Slav. ‘minij’; Germ. ‘minniro’, ‘minre’, ‘minder’; Angl. Sax. ‘min’.] मी – mī see “manyu-mī”. मी – mī cl.1.10. P. “mayati” or “māyayati”, to go, move ; to understand
री – rī f. going, motion री – rī or ri (cf. “li”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 30) “riṇāti” cl.4. P. ( xxvi, 29) “rīyate” (“riṇīte” ; “riyati” ; impf. “ariṇvan” ; “rirāya, rirye”; aor. “araiṣīt, areṣṭa”; fut. “retā; reṣyati, -te”; inf. “retum”), to release, set free, let go ; to sever, detach from (abl.) ; to yield, bestow ; (ā.) to be shattered or dissolved, melt, become fluid, drop, flow Caus. “repayati” (aor. “arīripat”) Gr.: Desid. “rirīṣati, -te” Intens, “rerīyate, rerayīti” री – rī = “rai” in “ṛdhad-rī” q.v. री – rī f. see under 3. “ra”, p.859, col.3.
ली – lī (cf. “rī”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 31) “lināti”, to adhere, obtain (not usually found); cl.1. P. “layati” (xxxiv, 6), to melt, liquefy, dissolve (not usually found); cl.4. ā. (xxvi, 30) “līyate” (Ved. also “lāyate”; pf. “lilye, lilyuḥ” &c.; “lilāya, lalau” Gr.; aor. “aleṣṭa” ; “alaiṣīt, alāsīt, alāsta” Gr.; fut. “letā, lātā; leṣyati” or “lāsyati, -te” ; inf. ‘letum’ or ‘latum’ ; ind. p. “-lāyam” ; “līya” Rc.), to cling or press closely, stick or adhere to (loc.) &c.; to remain sticking ; to lie, recline, alight or settle on, hide or cower down in (loc.), disappear, vanish &c.: Caus. P. “lāpayati” or “lāyayati”, to cause to cling &c. &c.; ā. “lāpayate”, to deceive; to obtain honour; to humble Desid. “lilīṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “lelīyate, lelayīti, leleti” (cf. “lelāya”). ली – lī f. clinging to, adhering &c. ली – lī f. = “capala” ली – lī “lī-” f. = “lomāvali”
वी – vī cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 39) “veti” (accord. to some in the conjug. tenses substituted for “aj”; 2. sg. “veṣi” also as Impv. ; 3. pl. “vyanti” ; Subj. 2. 3. sg. “ves” ; Impv. “vīhi, vītāt” ; 3. pl. “viyantu” ; p. ā. “vyāna” ; pf. “vivāya, vivye” ; aor. “avaiṣīt” Gr.; 3. pl. “aveṣan” Subj. “veṣat” ; fut. “vetā, veṣyati” inf. “vetum” Gr.), to go, approach, (either as a friend i.e. “seek or take eagerly, grasp, seize, accept, enjoy”, or as an enemy i.e. “fall upon, attack, assail, visit, punish, avenge”) ; to set in motion, arouse, excite, impel ; to further, promote, lead or bring or help any one to (two acc.) ; to get, procure Pass. “-vīyate” &c. Caus. “vāyayati” or “vāpayati” (aor. “avīvayat”), to cause to go or approach &c.; to impregnate Desid. “vivīṣati” Gr.: Intens., see “ā-vī” and “vevī”. ([Cf. accord. to some, Lat. ‘ve-nari’; Germ. ‘weida’, ‘Weide’, ‘weiden’.]) वी – vī mfn. going to, eager for, desirous or fond of (gen.) (cf. “deva-vī, pada-vī”) mfn. set in motion (see “parṇa-v-“) वी – vī m. the act of going, motion वी – vī (“vi-” 5. “i”) P. “vy-eti” (3. pl. “viyanti”; impf. “vy-ait”; pf. “vīyāya”; inf. “vy-etum”; for “vyayati, vyayayati” see “vyay”), to go apart or in different directions, diverge, be diffused or scattered or distributed or divided or extended &c. &c.; to be lost, perish, disappear &c.; to go through, traverse Intens. (or cl. 4.) ā. “vīyate”, to pass through, traverse वी – vī mfn. (weak form of “vye”) covered (cf. “hiraṇya-vī”). वी – vī m. = “vi”1, a bird (see “takva-vī”) वी – vī f. a female bird वी – vī in comp.= 3. “vi” (in “vī-kāśa, -cayana, -taṁsa, -nāha, -barha, -mārga, -rudh, -vadha, -vāha, -vidha, -vṛta, -sarpa, -hāra”, qq.vv.)
śī शी – śī cl.2.ā. “śete” (with Guṇa throughout the pr. stem: thus, “śaye” [in also 3. sg.], “śeṣe” &c., 3. pl. “śerate” [in also “śere” and Class. “śayire”]; Pot. “śayīta” &c.; Impv. “-śetām” and “śayām” ; impf. “aśeta” &c., 3. pl. “aśerata” [in also “aśeran”], p. “śayāna” &c.; Ved. and ep. also cl.1. “śayate, -ti”; impf. “aśayat” and “aśāyata” ; pf. “śiśye, śiśyire” ; p. Ved. “śaśayāna”, Class. “śiśyāna”; aor. “aśayiṣṭa” Subj. “śeṣan” ; fut. “śayitā” sg. “-tāse” ; “śayiṣyate, -ti” ; “śeṣyate, -ti” ; inf. “śayadhyai” ; “śayitum” ; ind. p. “śayitvā” &c.; “-śayya” , to lie, lie down, recline, rest, repose &c. &c.; to remain unused (as Soma) ; to lie down to sleep, fall asleep, sleep &c.; (with “patye”) to lie down to a husband (for sexual intercourse) ; (“madanena-śī” = “to be impotent”) Pass. “śayyate” Gr. (aor. “aśāyi” “śīyat”): Caus. “śāyayati, -te” (aor. “aśīśayat”), to cause to lie down, lay down, put, throw, fix on or in (loc.) &c.; to cause to lie down, allow to rest or sleep Desid. “śiśayiṣate”, to wish to rest or sleep Intens. “śāśayyate, śeśayīti, śeśeti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] “to lie”; [characters] “a bed.”]) शी – śī mfn. (ifc.) lying, resting(see “jihma-, madhyama-śī”, &c.) शी – śī f. sleep, repose शी – śī f. devotion, tranquillity शी – śī (connected with 2. “śad”; cf. cl.4.ā. “śīyate”, to fall out or away, disappear, vanish
सी – sī a word used in learning letters (?) सी – sī (either invented to account for “sītā” below or a lost root meaning) “to draw a straight line”
ही – hī ind. (an exclamation of surprise or astonishment or horror or sorrow or hilarity or satisfaction, usually translatable by) ah! oh! alas l &c.; (also said to be so used in giving a reason or cause, and translatable by) therefore, so, because, for (cf. 2. “hi”) &c.; (it is sometimes repeated cf. “hīhī”)
कू – kū or ku cl.2.P. “kauti” (Ved. “kavīti” , or cl.1. ā. “kavate” ( xxii, 54), or cl.6. “kuvate” ( xxviii, 108), or cl.9. P. ā. “kūnāti, kūnāte” (perf. 3. pl. “cukuvur” , to sound, make any noise, cry out, moan, cry (as a bird), coo, hum (as a bee) &c. cl.1. “kavate”, to move Intens. ā. “kokūyate” ( P. ā. “kokavīti” and “cokūyate” ( 7-4, 63 , to cry aloud ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ]) कू – kū ind. (= “kva”) where? कू – kū f. a female Piśāca or goblin
गू – gū = 4. “gu” q.v. गू – gū mfn. “going.” see “agre-gū”.
जू – jū (cf. “jinv”), cl, i. ā., 9. P. “javate, junāti” ( “ju” cl.1.P. “javati” v.l.; a Sautra root ; Subj. 2. sg. “junās”; aor Subj. “jūjuvat”; pf. 3. pl. “jūjuvur”) to, press forwards, hurry on, be quick ; to impel quickly, urge or drive on, incite ; to scare ; to excite, promote, animate, inspire Caus. aor. “ajījavat” Caus. Desid. “jijavayiṣati” ; cf. “pra-“. जू – jū mfn. ( 3-2, 177 and 178 2) quick, speedy, (m.) courser जू – jū mfn. (ii, 14, 3? acc. pl.; see 2. “jur”) mfn. inciting, driving , जू – jū f. speed जू – jū f. the atmosphere जू – jū f. a female goblin जू – jū f. Sarasvatī जू – jū f. a spot on the forehead (?) of horses and oxen जू – jū f. cf. “apī-, kaśo-, dhī-, nabho-, mano-, yātu-, vayo-, vasū-, viśva-, sadyo-, sanā-“, and “senā-jū”.
दू – dū in comp. for “dus” above. दू – dū f. (fr. 2. “du”) pain, distress. दू – dū = “duvas”2, only nom. acc. pl. “duvas” (cf. “a-dū”).
dhū धू – dhū cl.5.P. ā. “dhūnoti, -nute” ; “dhunoti, -nute” &c. &c.; cl.6. P. ( xxvii, 9) “dhuvati” (cf. “ni-“; Pot. “dhūvet” ; cl.9. P. ā. (xxxi, 17) Pot. “dhunīyāt” ; p. ā. “dhunāna” ; cl.1. P. (xxxiv, 29) “dhavati”; cl.2. ā., 3. pl. “dhuvate” (“dhunvate”?) ; p. “dhuvāna” (pf. “dudhāva” , “-dhuve” ; “dudhuvīta” and “dūdhot” aor. “adhūṣṭa”, 3. pl. “-ṣata” ; “adhoṣṭa, adhaviṣṭa; adhauṣīt, adhāvīt” Gr.; fut. “dhaviṣyati, -te” &c.; “dhoṣyati, -te, dhotā” & “dhavitā” Gr.; ind. p. “dhūtvā” , “-dhūya” &c.; inf. “dhavitum” Gr.) to shake, agitate, cause to tremble &c. &c.; to shake down from (e.g. fruits [acc.] from a tree [acc.]) ; (oftener ā.) to shake off, remove, liberate one’s self from (acc.) &c.; to fan, kindle (a fire) &c.; to treat roughly, hurt, injure, destroy ; to strive against, resist Pass. “dhūyate” &c. (p. “dhūyat” Caus. “dhāvayati” (Dhāt.xxxiv, 29) and “dhūnayati” (see “dhūna”): Desid. “dudhūṣati, -te” Gr.; Intens. “dodhavīti” (p. “dodhuvat davidhvat” ; “dodhūyate”, p. “-yamāna”and”-yat” ; so shake or move violently (trans. and intr.); to shake off or down; to fan or kindle. [Cf. “dhav” and “dhāv”; Gk. [greek]. ] धू – dhū f. shaking, agitating
पू – pū cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxj, 12) “punāti, punīte” (3. pl. ā. “punate” , “punate” ; 2. sg. Impv. P. “punīhi” &c., “punāhi” ; ci. 1. ā. (xxii 70) “pavate” (of P. only Impv. “-pava” gen. pl. “pavatām” ; p. ā. “punāna” below, “pavamāna” see p.610, col.3; 1. sg. ā. “punīṣe” ; pf. “pupuvuh. -ve” ; “apupot” ; aor. “apāviṣuḥ” Subj. “apaviṣṭa” ; fut. “paviṣyati, pavitā” Gr.; ind., p. “pūtvā” ; “pūtvī” ; “pavitvā” Gr.; “-pūya” and “-pāvam” &c.; inf. “pavitum” , to make clean or clear or pure or bright, cleanse, purify, purge, clarify, illustrate, illume (with “saktum”, “to cleanse from chaff, winnow”; with “kratum” or “manīṣām”, “to enlighten the understanding”; with “hiraṇyam”, “to wash gold”) &c. &c.; (met.) to sift, discriminate, discern; to think of or out, invent, compose (as a hymn) ; (ā. “pavate”) to purify one’s self. be or become clear or bright; (esp.) to flow off clearly (said of the Soma) ; to expiate, atone for ; to pass so as to purify; to purify in passing or pervading, ventilate &c. (cf. “pav”): Pass. “pūyate”, to be cleaned or washed or purified; to be freed or delivered from (abl.) &c.: Caus. “pavayati” or “pāvayati” (ep. also “-te”; aor. “apīpavat” Gr.; Pass. “pāvyate” , to cleanse, purify “pipāvayiṣati” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Umbr. ‘pir’; Germ. ‘Feuer’; Eng. ‘fire’.]) पू – pū mfn. cleansing, purifying (ifc.; cf. “annauda-, ghṛta-” &c.) पू – pū mfn. (1. “pā”) drinking (see “agre-pū”).
bhū भू – bhū cl.1.P. ( i, 1) “bhavati” (rarely ā. “-te”; pf. “babhūva”, 2. pers. “-ūtha” or “-ūvitha” cf. ; “babhūyās, -yār, babhūtu” ; ā. “babhūve” or “bubhūve” ; cf. below; aor. “abhūt, -ūvan”; Impv. “bodhi” [cf. “budh”], “bhūtu” ; aor. or impf. “abhuvat, bhuvat, bhuvāni” ; Prec. “bhūyāsam”, 2. 3. sg. “-yās” ; “bhūyāt” ; “bhūyiṣṭhās” ; “bhaviṣāt” [?] ; “abhaviṣṭa, bhaviṣīṣta”. Gr.; fut. “bhaviṣyati”, ep. also “-te” and 2. pl. “-ṣyadhvam; bhavitā” &c.; inf. “bhuve, -bhve, bhūṣaṇi” ; “bhavitum, -tos” ; ind. p. “bhūtvā; bhūtvī” ; “-bhūya” &c.; “-bhūyam, -bhavam” , to become, be (with nom, or adv. or indecl. words ending in “ī” or “ū” cf. “kṛṣṇī-bhū” &c.), arise, come into being, exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur &c. &c. (often used with participles and other verbal nouns to make periphrastical verbal forms; with a fut. p. = to be going or about to e.g. “anuvakṣyan bhavati”, he is going to recite ; the fut. of “bhū” with a pf. p. = a fut. pf. e.g. “kṛtavān bhaviṣyasi”, you will have done ; the pf. P. “babhūva” after the syllable “ām” is put for the pf. of verbs of the &c. [cf. 1. “as” and 1. “kṛ”]; the ā. appears in this meaning xiv. 46; observe also “bhavati” with a fut. tense, it is possible that, e.g. “bhavati bhavān yājayiṣyati”, it is possible that you will cause a sacrifice to be performed ; “bhavet”, may be, granted, admitted on P. iii, 2. 114; “bhavatu” id., well, good, enough of this ; “iticed bhavet”, if this question should be asked ; “kva tad bhavati”, what is to become of this, it is quite useless ; with “na” = to cease to exist, perish, die &c.; with “iha na”, not to be born on earth ; with “śata-dhā”, to fall into a hundred pieces ; with “dūrataḥ”, to keep aloof. ; with “manasi” or “cetasi” and gen., to occur to the mind of any one ; id. with gen. alone ; to fall to the share or become the property of, belong to (cf. “esse alicujus”; “with gen., rarely dat. or loc. accord. to also with “pari” or “prati” and preceding acc.) &c. &c.; to be on the side of, assist (with gen. or “-tas”) 1301 (cf. ; to serve for, tend or conduce to (with dat. of thing) &c. &c. (with “phalāya”. to bear fruit ; to be occupied with or engaged in, devote one’s self to (with loc.) ; to thrive or prosper in (instr.), turn out well, succeed ; to be of consequence or useful ; (also ā. to fall, or get into, attain to, obtain ; (with “idam”) to obtain it i.e. be successful or fortunate Pass. “bhūyate” (or “-ti” ; aor. “abhāvi”) sometimes used impers. e.g. “yair bhaviṣyate”, by whom it will be existed i.e. who will be Caus. “bhāvayati” (rarely “-te”; aor. “abībhavat” Gr.; inf. “bhāvitum” ; Pass. “bhāvyate” &c. , to cause to be or become, call into existence or life, originate, produce, cause, create ; to cherish, foster, animate, enliven, refresh, encourage, promote, further &c.; to addict or devote one’s self to, practise (acc.) ; to subdue, control ; (also ā. to obtain ; to manifest, exhibit, show, betray ; to purify ; to present to the mind, think about, consider, know, recognize as or take for (two acc.) &c.; to mingle, mix, saturate, soak, perfume (cf. “bhāvita”, p.755, col.1): Desid. of Caus. “bibhāvayiṣati” ( 7-4, 80 , to wish to cause to be &c. Desid. “bubhūṣati” (“-te”), to wish or strive to become or be &c. &c.; (with “kṣipram”), to strive to be quickly possessed ; to want to get on, strive to prosper or succeed ; to want to have, care for, strive after, esteem, honour ; to want to take revenge Intens, “bobhavīti, bobhavati, bobhoti, bibhūyate”, to be frequently, to be in the habit of ; to be transformed into (acc.) ; (with “tiraḥ”), to keep anything (instr.) secret ‘bu’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fuit’, ‘fuat’ &c.; Slav. ‘byti’; Lith. ‘buti’; Germ. ‘bim’, ‘bim’; Angl. Sax. ‘beo’; Eng. ‘be’.] भू – bhū mfn. becoming, being, existing, springing, arising (ifc.; cf. “akṣi-, giri-, citta-, padmabhū” &c.) भू – bhū m. N. of Viṣṇu () भू – bhū m. of an Ekāha भू – bhū f. the act of becoming or arising भू – bhū f. the place of being, space, world or universe (also pl.) भू – bhū f. the earth (as constituting one of the 3 worlds, and therefore a symbolical N. for the number “one”) &c. भू – bhū f. one of the three Vyāhṛitis (see “bhuvas, bhūr”, pp. 760 and 763) भू – bhū f. earth (as a substance), ground, soil, land, lauded property भू – bhū f. floor, pavement भू – bhū f. a place, spot, piece of ground &c. &c. भू – bhū f. the base of any geometrical figure भू – bhū f. object, matter (see “vivādasaṁvāda-bhū”) भू – bhū f. a term for the letter “l” भू – bhū f. a sacrificial fire
मू – mū (cf. “mav” and 1. “mīv”) cl.1.ā. “mavate”, to bind, tie, fix Caus. aor. “amīmavat” Desid. of Caus. “mimāvayiṣati” Intens. “māmoti, māmavīti” on मू – mū mfn. binding, tying, fixing मू – mū f. the act of binding or tying मू – mū weak form of “mīv” q.v.
यू – yū m. (or f.) soup, pease-soup, broth (= “yūṣa”)
लू – lū cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 13) “lunāti, lunīte” (Ved. also “lunoti” pf. “lulāva” ; 2. sg. “lulavitha” ; 2. pl. “luluvidhve” or “-viḍhve” ; aor. “alāvīt, alaviṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “lavitā, laviṣyati, -te” ; inf. “lavitum” ; ind. p. “lūtvā” ; “-lāvam” , to cut, sever, divide, pluck, reap, gather &c. &c.; to cut off, destroy, annihilate Pass. “lūyate” (aor. “alāvi”), to be cut Gr.: Caus. “lāvayati” (aor. “alīlavat, -vata”), to cause to cut Gr.: Desid. of Caus. “lilāvayiṣati” Desid. “lulūṣati, -te” Intens. “lOluyate, loloti” Desid. of Intens. “lolūyiṣate” (ind. p. “-yam”) ‘so-luo’, ‘solvo’; Goth ‘fra-liusan’; Germ. ‘vir-lisosan’, ‘ver-lieren’; Angl. Sax. ‘for-leosan’; Eng. ‘lose’.] लू – lū mfn. cutting, dividing &c. (cf. “eka-lū”).
śū शू – śū a weak form of “śvi” q.v. शू – śū (ifc.) see “surā-śū”. शू – śū (onomat.), in comp.
सू – sū (not separable in all forms fr. 2. “sū”; cf. 1. “su-ṣū, asu-sū”, and 4. “su”) cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 115) “suvati” (in also “-te”, and accord. to “savati” and “-sauti”; pf. “suṣuve” ; p. “suṣuvāṇa” q.v.; aor. “asāvīt, sāviṣat” Pass. “sūyate” &c.), to set in motion, urge, impel, vivify, create, produce &c. &c.; to hurl upon ; to grant, bestow (esp. said of Savitṛi) ; to appoint or consecrate to (ā. “to let one’s self be consecrated”) ; to allow, authorize Intens. “soṣavīti”, to urge or impel violently (said of Savitṛi) सू – sū (cf. 1. “sū” and 5. “su”) cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 21) “sūte” (1. sg. pr. “suve”, 3. sg. impf. “asūta”; in later language also “sūyate” [xxvi, 31] and in comp. with “pra” also “-savati” and “-sauti” [cf. xxiv, 31]; pf. “sasūva” ; “suṣuve” &c.; “susāva” &c.; aor. “asuṣot” ; “-ṣavuḥ” ; “asoṣṭa” ; “asauṣīt” and “asaviṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “sotā, savitā” ; “soṣyati, -te” &c.; “saviṣyati, -te” &c.; p. f. “sūṣyantī” ; _ “soṣyantī” [s. v.] ; inf. “sūtave” ; “sūtavai” ; “savitave” ; “sotum” or “savitum” Gr.; ind. p. “sūtvā” ; “-sūya” &c.; “-sutya” , to beget, procreate, bring forth, bear, produce, yield &c. &c.: Pass. “sūyate” (aor. “asāvi”), to be begotten or brought forth &c.: Caus. “sāvayati” Gr.: Desid. “-susūṣati” सू – sū mfn. begetting, procreating, bringing forth, producing (mostly ifc.; see “a-, ambhaḥ-, karṇa-sū” &c.) सू – sū m. one who begets, a father सू – sū m. a mother सू – sū m. child-bearing, parturition ‘sus’; Angl. Sax. ‘su’; Eng. ‘sow’; Germ. ‘Sau’.] सू – sū ind., Ved. and in some comp. = “su”, well, good &c. (cf. “sū-nara, sū-nṛta” &c.)
हू – hū weak form of “hve”, p.1308. हू – hū mfn. calling, invoking (see “indra-, deva-, pitṛ-hū” &c.) हू – hū ind. an exclamation of contempt, grief &c. (“hū hū”, the yelling of a jackal
kṝ कृऋ – kṝ cl.6.P. “kirati” ( 7-1, 100; perf. “-cakāra” ; 2nd fut. “kariṣyati”; 1st fut. “karitā” or “karītā” ; aor. “akārīt” [Ved. “saṁ kāriṣat”]; ind. p. “-kīrya”; Pass. “kīryate”), to pour out, scatter, throw, cast, disperse &c.; to throw up in a heap, heap up ā. “kirate”, to throw off from one’s self P. to strew, pour over, fill with, cover with ; (perf. 3. pl. “cakarur”) Desid. “cikariṣati” Intens. “cākarti” ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ]) कृऋ – kṝ (or v.l. “kṛ”) cl.5.9.P.ā. “kṛṇoti, -ṇute, -ṇāti, -ṇīte”, to hurt, injure, kill ; “kṛṇvati” कृऋ – kṝ (v.l. for “gṝ”) cl.10.ā. “kārayate”, to know ; to inform
gṝ गृऋ – gṝ cl.9.P. ā. “gṛṇāti, -ṇīte” (1. sg. ā. and 3. sg. Pass. “gṛṇe” ; 1. sg. ā. “gṛṇīṣe” ; 2. pl. “gṛṇatā” ; p. P. “gṛṇat” &c.; ā. & Pass. “gṛṇāna” ; Ved. inf. Impv. “gṛṇīṣaṇi” , to call, call out to, invoke ; to announce, proclaim ; to mention with praise, praise, extol ; to pronounce, recite ; to relate, teach in verses, 4, 9 ; ([cf. [characters]; Hib. ‘goirim’; Old Germ. ‘quar’, ‘quir’, &c.; Old Pruss. ‘gerbu’, “to speak”; Angl. Sax. ‘gale’; Germ. ‘Nachtigal’; Lat. ‘gallus’ ?]) गृऋ – gṝ cl.6.P. “girati” or (cf. P. viii, 2, 21) “gilati” ( i ā. “girate” (1. sg. “girāmi” ; perf. “jagāra” ; aor. Subj. 3. pl. “garan” , to swallow, devour, eat &c.; to emit or eject from the mouth Caus. (aor. 2. sg. “ajīgar”) to swallow Intens. “jegilyate” Desid. “jigariṣati”, vii, 2, 75; ([cf. 2. “gal”, 2 “gir, gila”, 2. “gīrṇa”; Lith. ‘gerru’, “to drink”; Lat. ‘glu-tio’, ‘gula’; Slav. ‘gr-lo’; Russ. ‘zora’.]) गृऋ – gṝ (= 3. “kṝ”) cl.10.ā. “gārayate”, to know ; to make known, teach
jṝ जृऋ – jṝ (cf. “jur”) cl.1.P. (3. pl. “jaranti”; Impv. 2. du. “jaratam”; p. “jarat” see s.v.) to make old or decrepit ; to cause to grow old, vii, 67, 10; (1. “jṛ”) to humiliate cl.4.P. “jīryati” ( &c.; also ā. “-te”; p. “jīryat”, rarely “-yamāṇa”; once cl.1. ā. Subj. 3. pl. “jaranta” ; cl.9. “jṛṇāti” ; cl.10. “jārayati”, xxxiv, 9; pf. “jajāra”, AX, x, 8, 26 &c.; once “jāgāra”, v, 19, 10; 3. pl. “jajarur” and “jerur” ; aor. “ajarat” and “ajārīt”, iii, 1, 38; Subj. 3. pl. “jāriṣur” ; fut. 1st “jaritā” and “-rītā” ; ind. p. “-ritvā” and “-rītvā” to grow old, become decrepit, decay, wear out, wither, be consumed, break up, perish &c.; to be dissolved or digested ; Bhaṭt.: Caus. “jarayati” (ep. also ā. “-te”; p. “-rayat” [once, “jar-“, i, 124, 10] &c.) to make old, wear out, consume &c.; to digest ; to cause to be digested जृऋ – jṝ (= “gṝ”) cl.1.ā. “jarate” (p. “jaramāṇa”) to crackle (as fire) ; ( iii, 14) to call out to, address, invoke, praise ; cf. [characters].
jhṝ झृऋ – jhṝ (= “jṝ”) cl.4.9. “jhiryati, jhriṇāti”, to become old ; cf. “jharjharita”.
tṝ तृऋ – tṝ cl.1.P. (rarely ā.) “tarati” (Subj. “tarat” impf. “atarat”, p. “tarat” inf. “taradhyai, -rīṣani” cl.5. “tarute” (x, 76, 2; Pot. 1. pl. “turyāma”, v f.) cl.3. “titarti” (; p. nom. pl. “titratas” ; Pot. “tuturyāt”, v f. viii), with prepositions Ved. chiefly cl.6. P. ā. (“tirate” Subj. “tirāti” impf. “atirat”, p. “tirat” inf. “tiram, tire” ; -aor. “atārīt”, i, vii; 1. pl. “-riṣma” i, vii, “-rima” viii, 13, 21; “taruṣante” v, “-ta” i, “-ṣema” vii [cf. ; ā. and Pass. “-tāri” ; P. “atārṣīt” ; “-ṣam” ; pf. “tatāra” &c.; 3. pl. “titirur”, i f.; “teritha, -ratur” ; p. “titirvas” gen. “tataruṣas” ; fut. “tariṣyati, -rīṣ-, taritā, -rītā” [cf. “pra-tar-“] ; “tarutā” ; Prec. “tīryāt, tariṣīṣṭa” ; inf. “tartum” ; “-rīt-” iv f. “-rit-” ; ind. p. “tīrtvā” ; “-tūrya” see “vi-“) to pass across or over, cross over (a river), sail across &c.; to float, swim lxxx, 14 ; to get through, attain an end or aim, live through (a definite period), study to the end &c.; to fulfil, accomplish, perform i f.; to surpass, overcome, subdue, escape &c.; to acquire, gain, viii, 100, 8 ; ā. to contend, compete ; to carry through or over, save, vii, 18, 6 Caus. “tārayati” (p. “-rayat”) to carry or lead over or across &c.; to cause to arrive at ; to rescue, save, liberate from (abl.) &c.: Desid. “titīrṣati” (also “titariṣati, -rīṣ-” ; p. ā. “titīrṣamāṇa” to wish to cross or reach by crossing iv: Intens. “tartarīti” (2. du. “-rīthas”; p. gen. “tarilratas” [ 7-4, 65]; see also “vi-; tātarti”, 92 to reach the end by passing or running or living through ; ([cf. “tara, tiras, tīrṇa”; Lat. ‘termo’, ‘trans’; Goth. ‘thairh’.])
dṝ दृऋ – dṝ cl.9.P. “dṛṇāti” Pot. “-dṛṇīyāt” ; cl.2. P. 2. sg. Subj. “darṣi”, 2. 3. sg. “dart” impf. 2. sg. “adar” (pf. “dadāra”, [2. sg. “dadaritha” ; 3 pl. “dadrur” or “dadarur”, vii, 4, 12 aor. “adarat” [Ved. “adārīt”] ; Subj. P. “darṣasi, darṣat”; ā. “darṣate”; Pot. “-ṣīṣṭa” ; Prec. “dīryāt” 15177) to burst, break asunder, split open (cf. above ); to cause to burst, tear, rend, divide Pass. “dīryate” (“-ti” “dīryamāṇa” and “dīryat”; pf. “dadre” ( xiv, 27, 2) to be split, break open, fall asunder, decay ; to be dispersed or scattered (as an army) ; to be frightened or afraid (also “darati”) Caus. P. “darayati”, to split, tear, break open ; P. ā. “dārayati, -te”; aor. “adadarat” ( 7-4, 95) to tear asunder, divide by splitting or digging &c.; to scatter, disperse Intens. P. “dardarti” or “dādarti”; Impv. 2. sg. “dādṛhi”; Subj. 3. sg. “dardirat”; impf. 2. 3. sg. “adardar”, 3. pl. “adardirur” = Caus. ‘diru’; Slav. ‘drati’; Goth. ‘tairan’; Angl. Sax. ‘teran’; Eng. ‘to tear’; Germ. ‘zerren’, ‘zehren’.]
dhṝ धृऋ – dhṝ cl.9.P. “dhṛṇāti”, to be or grow old ( xxxi, 24 v.l. for “jṝ”, or “jhṝ”).
nṝ नृऋ – nṝ cl.9.P. “nṛṇāti”, to lead
pṝ पृऋ – pṝ cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 19) “pṛṇāti” ; cl.6. P. ( “pṛṇ”, xxviii, 40) “priṇati” ; cl.3. P. (xxv, 4) “piparti” (also ā.; Impv. “pipīpṛhi” ; pf. “papāra”, 3. pl. “paparuḥ”, or “papruḥ” ; “pupūre, -rire” ; “-pupūryās” ; “papṛvas” [?] ; aor. “apārīt” Gr., “pūriṣṭhās” ; Impv. “pūrdhi” ; Prec. “priyāsam” , “pūryāt” Gr.; fut. “parīṣyati, parītā” Gr.; ind. p. “pūrtvā” Gr., “-pūrya” ; “-pūram” [in comp. with its object; cf. “udara-p-, goṣpada-p-, carma-p-“. and ; inf. “pṛṇadhyai” ; “-puras” ; “pūritum” , to fill (ā. “one’s self”) ; to fill with air, blow into (acc.) ; to sate, cherish, nourish, bring up ; to refresh (as the Pitṛis) (aor. “apārīt” v.l. “atārpsīt”); to grant abundantly, bestow on (dat.), present with (instr.) (often p. “pṛṇat” = bounteous, liberal, ungrudging); to fulfil, satisfy (as a wish) Pass. “pūryate” (ep. also “-ti”, and ā. “pūryate”, p. “pūyamāṇa”), to be filled with, become full of (instr.), be sated &c.; to become complete (as a number) Caus. “pārayati”, to fill ; to fulfil (only aor. “pīparat”) ; “pūrayati” ( xxxiii, 126), “-te” (Pass. “pūryate” [cf. above]; aor. “apūri, apūriṣṭa”), to fill, fill up with (instr.) &c.; to fill (with a noise, said also of the noise itself) ; to fill with wind, blow (a conch) ; to draw (a bow or an arrow to the ear) ; to make full, complete, supplement (a sentence) ; to cover completely, overspread, bestrew, surround &c.; to load or enrich or present with (instr.) ; to fulfil (a wish or hope) &c. &c.; to spend completely (a period of time) Desid. “piparīṣati, pupūrṣati” Gr.: Intens. “pāparti, popūrti, popūryate” Lat. ‘plere’, ‘plenus’; Lit. ‘pilti’, ‘pilnas’; Slav. ‘plunu’; Goth. ‘fulls’; Germ. ‘voll’; Eng. ‘full’.]
bṝ बृऋ – bṝ see “vṝ”
bhṝ भृऋ – bhṝ cl.9.P. “bhṛṇāti”, to bear; to blame; to fry; to be crooked
mṝ मृऋ – mṝ (cf. “mṛ” and “mṛṇ”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 22; 26) “mṛnāti” (Impv. “mṛnīhi” ; Subj. “mumurat” ; pf. “mamāra” Gr.; aor. “amārīt” ; Caus. aor. “amīmṛṇan” Pass. “mūryate” , to crush, smash, break, kill, destroy
vṝ वृऋ – vṝ ( xxxi, 16; 20). see 2. “vṛ”.
śṝ शृऋ – śṝ cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 18) “śṛṇāti” (pr. p. ā. “śṛṇāna” ; Impv. “śṛṇa” ; pf. “śaśāra”, 2. sg. “śaśaritha”, 3. pl. “śaśaruḥ”, or “śaśruḥ” Gr.; “śaśre” ; aor, “aśarīt, aśarait” ; “aśārīt” Gr.; Prec. “śīryāt” ; fut. “śarītā, śarīṣyati” ; “śariṣyate” ; inf. “śarītum” Gr.; “śarītos” ; “śaritos” ; ind. p. “-śīrya” , to crush, rend, break (ā. with reference to self, as “to break one’s own arm”) ; to kill (game) Pass. “śīryate” (m.c. also “-ti”; aor. “aśāri, śāri”), to be crushed or broken or rent or shattered &c. &c.; to fall out or off &c.; to be worn out, decay, wither, fade &c.: Caus. “śārayati” (aor. “aśīśarat”) Gr.: Desid. “śiśarīṣati, śiśīrṣati” Intens. “śeśīryate, śāśarti”
sṝ सृऋ – sṝ (cf. “śṝ, svṝ”) cl.9.P. “sṛṇāti”, to hurt injure, kill (v.l.)
khe खे – khe loc. of 3. “kha”, in comp.
de दे – de cl.1.ā. “dayate” ; pf. “digye” , to protect, defend: Desid. “ditsate”, 54. [Cf. 1. “datta”; 4. 5. “dā”.]
dhe धे – dhe cl.1.P. (Dhāt. xxii, 6) “dhayati” &c. &c. (pf. “dadhau”, 3. pl. “-dhur” ; aor. “-adhāt” ; “adhāsīt” or “adadhat” ; Prcc. “dheyāt”, vi, 4, 67; fut. “dhāsyati” , “dhātā” Gr.; dat. inf. “dhātave” ; ind. p. “dhītvā” and “-dhīya” ; “-dhāya” Gr.) to suck, drink, suck or drink in, take to one’s self, absorb, appropriate &c. &c.: Pass. “dhīyate” Gr.: Caus. “dhāpayāte” (cf. 1 to give suck, nourish ; “-ti” (cf. “anu-” “dhe”); aor. “adīdhapat” Gr.: Desid. “dhitsati” Intens. “dedhīyate, dādheti”, and “dādhāti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fe-lare’; Goth. ‘dadd-jan’; Germ. ‘ta-an’, ‘ta-jan’.])
me मे – me cl.1.ā. ( xxii, 65) “mayate” (ep. also P. “mayati”; pf. “manme” Gr.; aor. “amāsta” ; fut. “mātā, māsyate” ; ind. p. “-mitya” or “-māya” to exchange, barter (cf. “apa-“. and “ni-me”): Caus. “māpayati” Desid. “mitsate” intens. “memīyatc, māmeti, māmāti” मे – me (onomat.) imitative of the sound of a bleating goat (“me-me-kṛ”, to bleat)
re रे – re ind. a vocative particle (generally used contemptuously or to express disrespect; often doubled)
ve वे – ve (cf. “ūy”) cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 37) “vayati, -te” (pf. p. “vavau” or “uvāya”; 2. sg. “uvayitha” Gr.; 3. pl. “vavuḥ” ; “ūvuḥ” ; “ūyuḥ” ; ā. “vave, ūve, ūye” Gr.; aor. “avāsīt, avāsta” Gr.; Prec. “ūyāt, vāsīṣṭa” ; fut. “vātā” ; “vāsyati, -te” ; “vayiṣyati” ; inf. “otum, otave, otavai” ; “vātave” , to weave, interweave, braid, plait (fig. to string or join together artificially, make, compose e.g. speeches, hymns) &c. &c.; to make into a cover, into a web or web-like covering, overspread as with a web (said of a cloud-like mass of arrows filling the air) Pass. “ūyate” (aor. “avāyi”) Gr.: Caus. “vāyayati” Desid. “vivāsati, -te” Intens. “vāvāyate, vāveti, vāvāti” वे – ve m. a bird (strong stem of 1. “vi” q.v.)
se से – se 2. sg. ā. of 1. “as”. से – se m. and f. “si” n. serving से – se f. service से – se f. N. of the wife of Kāma
he हे – he ind. a vocative particle (“oh!” “o!” &c.; also said to express envy or ill-will or disapprobation)
ko को – ko ind. Oh no! (?) ; a prefix in “ko-jāgara, ko-mala, ko-vida”, &c., related to 1. “ku” (cf. the prefixes “ka, kava, kā, kim, ku”.)
go गो – go “gaus” (acc. “gām” instr. “gavā” dat. “gave”, gen. abl. “gos” loc. “gavi”; du. “gāvā” [Ved.], “gāvau”; pl. nom. “gāvas” acc. “gās” [rarely “gāvas” ii] instr. “gobhis” dat. abl. “gobhyas”, gen. “gavām” [once at the end of a Pāda at the end of Pādas only cf. “gonām” loc. “goṣu”) m. an ox f. a cow, (pl.) cattle, kine, herd of cattle &c. (in comp. before vowels [cf. “gav, gava”, qq. vv.; cf. also “gavām, gavi, gāṁ” ss.vv.; “gavāṁ vrata” N. of a Sāman; “gavāṁ tīrtha” see “go t-; goṣu-gam”, to set out for a battle [to conquer cows] ; “anything coming from or belonging to an ox or cow”, milk (generally pl.), flesh (only pl. ; “fat” ( x, 27, 22 ; = “go-ṣṭoma” (q.v.) (see also “go-āyus”); (pl.) “the herds of the sky”, the stars ; (m. [also f. rays of light (regarded as the herds of the sky, for which Indra fights with Vṛitra) 2943 &c.; m. the sign Taurus xl f. ; the sun (cf. “-putra”) ; the moon ; a kind of medicinal plant (“ṛṣabha”) ; a singer, praiser (fr. “gai”) ; “a goer”, horse (fr. 1. “gā”) on ; N. of two ṛiṣis of the (with the patr. āṅgirasa [ xvi] and Māyūka); N. of a man (who with Pushkara is said to be the “balādhyakṣa” of the sons and grandsons of Varuṇa) (cf. ; m. or f. (?) the sun’s ray called Suṣumṇa ; water f. pl., xi, 7, 50); an organ of sense ; the eye 70; a billion ; mf. the sky ; the thunderbolt on ; the hairs of the body ; f. an offering in the shape of a cow (= “dhenu” q.v.) ; a region of the sky ; ( i, 1) the earth (as the milk-cow of kings) &c.; (hence) the number “nine” ; = “go-vīthī” on ; a mother (cf. ; ( i, 11) speech, Sarasvatī (goddess of speech) ; voice, note (fr. “gai”) ; N. of Gaurī ; of the wife [or of a daughter-in-law of śuka (a daughter of the manes called Sukālas) 986 ; N. of a daughter of Kakut-stha and wife of Yayāti ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘bos’; Old Germ. ‘chuo’; Mod. Germ. ‘Kuh’; Eng. ‘cow’; Lett. ‘gohw’; cf. also [characters]; Goth. ‘gavi’ and Mod. Germ. ‘Gau’.])
cho छो – cho cl.4. “chyati” (vii, 3, 71; perf. 3. pl. “cacchur” cf. 4, 83 2 ; aor. “acchāt” and “acchāsīt”, ii, 4, 78) to cut off, cut xiv f.: Caus. “chāyayati” ; cf. “anu-, ava-, ā-“.
do दो – do cl.2.4. P. “dāti” &c.; “dyati” &c. (pf. 3 pl. ā. “-dadire” ; aor. “adāsīt” and “adāt” ; Prec. “deyāt”, vi, 4, 67; “dāyāt”, Kaṭh.; “-diṣīya” ; cf. “ava-do”) to cut, divide, reap, mow &c.: Pass. “dīyate”, prob. to be cast down or, dejected Desid. “ditsati” Intens. “dedīyate”, vi, 4, 66 (cf. “day” and 3. “dā”).
no नो – no see s.v. नो – no ind. (fr. 2. “na” + “u”) and not = “na”, “not”, for which it is generally used to suit the verse; “no ced” see under “ced; no vā” “or not”).
po पो – po (nom. “pauḥ”), fr. Nom. “pāvaya” 2
bho भो – bho see “bhos”, p.768, col.2. भो – bho in comp. for “bhos”.
mo मो – mo = “mā” + “u” (see under 3. “mā”).
lo लो – lo mfn. (fr. “lavaya”; nom. “laus”) 1-i, 58 2 लो – lo m. N. of a man
ṣo षो – ṣo in comp. for “ṣaṣ”.
śo शो – śo (cf. 1. “śi”) cl.3.P. ā. “śiśāti, śiśīte” (accord to cl.4. P. “śyati” cf. “ni-śo”; pf. “śaśau” Gr.; p. “śaśāna” ; aor. “aśīta” cf. “saṁ-śo; aśāt” or “aśāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “śāyāt” ; fut. “śātā, śāśyati” ; ind. “śāya” , to whet, sharpen (ā. “one’s own” weapons or horns) Pass. “śāyate” Gr.: Caus. “śāyayati” ; Desid. “śiśāsati” Intens. “śāśāyate, śaśeti, śāśāti”
so सो – so (usually with prepositions; see “ava-, vy-ava-, adhy-ava-so” &c.) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 38) “syati” (pf. “sasau” aor. “asāt” or “asāsīt” &c.), to destroy, kill, finish Pass. “sīyate” (aor. “asāyi”), Gr.: Caus. “sāyayati” or “sāpayati” Desid. “siṣāsati” Intens. “seṣīyate, sāsāti, sāseti” सो – so f. (nom. “sos”) N. of Pārvatī सो – so = “sā” (f. of 6. “sa”) + “u”
ho हो – ho ind. (a vocative particle [g. “cādi”] used in calling to a person or in challenging) ho! hallo! &c. (also expressive of surprise &c.)
kai कै – kai cl.1.P. “kāyati”, to sound
khai खै – khai cl.1.P. “khāyati”, to make firm ; to be firm or steady ; to strike, injure, kill ; (derived fr. “khāyate” Pass. of “khan”) to dig ; to mourn, sorrow
gai गै – gai cl.1.P. “gāyati”, rarely ā. “-te” (1. sg. “gāye” [ viii, 46, 17] & “gāyiṣe” [ vii, 96, 1] &c.), exceptionally cl.2. “gāti” ( iii, 15850; xii, 10299: cl.3. P. “jigāti” ; perf. “jagau” &c.; aor. “agāsīt”; Prec. “geyāt” ; pr. p. P. “gāyat” &c.; ind. p. “gītvā” [with prep. “-gāya” ( 6-4, 69) “-gīya” &c.]; inf. “gātum”), to sing, speak or recite in a singing manner, sing to (dat. acc.), relate in metrical language &c.; to sing before (acc.) Pass. “gīyate” (p. “-yamāna”), to be sung or praised in song &c.; to be called xci (perf. “jage”), &c.: Caus. “gāpayati” (Pot. 3. pl. “gāyayeyur” , to cause to sing or praise in song &c.: Intens. “jegīyate” ( 6-4, 66), to sing ; to be sung or praised in song ; to be asserted obstinately ; ([cf. 3. “gā”; cf. also Lith. ‘zaidziu’.])
jai जै – jai cl.1. “jāyati”, to wane, perish ; cf. “kṣai”.
dai दै – dai cl.1.P. “dāyati”, to purify, cleanse (cf. 5. “dā”).
nai नै – nai Vṛiddhi form of “ni” in comp.
pai पै – pai cl.1.P. “pāyati”, to dry, wither
rai रै – rai cl.1.P. ( xxii, 23) “rāyati”, to bark, bark at (acc.) ‘latrare’; Lith. ‘reti’, ‘loti’; Slav. ‘lajati’; Goth. ‘laian’.] रै – rai m. (nom. “rās”?) barking, sound, noise रै – rai m. rarely f. (fr. “rā” nom. “rās” acc. “rāyam” or “rām” instr. “rāyā” dat. “rāye”; abl. gen. “rāyas” loc. “rāyi”; du. “rāyau, rābhyām, rāyos”; pl. nom. “rāyas”; acc. “rāyas, rāyas” or “rās”; instr. “rābhis”; dat. abl. “rābhyas” gen. “rāyām” loc. “rāsu”; cf. the cognate stems 3. “rā” and “rayi” and Lat. res, rem), property, possessions, goods, wealth, riches रै – rai m. (“rai”) ind. g. “cādi”.
vai वै – vai (orig. identical with 2. “vā”) cl.1.P. ( xxii, 24) “vāyati”, to become languid or weary or exhausted (“śoṣaṇe” ; to be deprived of (gen.) ; P. and (ep. also ā.), to blow वै – vai ind. a particle of emphasis and affirmation, generally placed ‘after’ a word and laying stress on it (it is usually translatable by “indeed”, “truly”, “certainly”, “verily”, “just” &c.; it is very rare in the ; more frequent in the ; in the Sūtras it is less frequent and almost restricted to the combination “yady u vai”; in Manu and the Kāvyas it mostly appears at the end of a line, and as a mere expletive. In it is frequently followed by “u” in the combination “vā u” [both particles are separated, v, 18, 3]; it is also preceded by “u” and various other particles e.g. by “id, aha, uta”; in the Brāhmaṇas it often follows “ha, ha sma, eva”; in later language “api” and “tu”. Accord. to some it is also a vocative particle).
śai शै – śai v.l. for “śyai” and “śrai”.
sai सै – sai (cf. 3. “sā”, 1. “so”) cl.1.P. “sāyati”, to waste away, decline
hai है – hai ind. (g. “svar-ādi”) a vocative particle (used in calling or vociferating)
nau नौ – nau encl. acc. dat. gen. du. of 1st pers. pron. (cf. &c. &c. ( also “ṇau”; cf. नौ – nau f. a ship, boat, vessel &c. &c. नौ – nau f. (in astrol.) N. of a partic. appearance of the moon or of a constellation नौ – nau f. = “vāc” (either because prayer is a vessel leading to heaven or fr. “nu”4, “to praise”). ([Cf. 2. “nāva” and 7. “nu”; Gk. [greek] &c.; Lat. ‘navis’, ‘nau-ta’, ‘nau-fragus’ &c.; Icel. ‘nor’; (?) Germ. ‘Nachen’.])
śaṁ शं – śaṁ in comp. for 2. “śam”.
saṁ सं – saṁ (in comp.) = “sam”2 q.v.



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