Some Verbs of  X class conjugation

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Some Verbs of  X class conjugation
(from Monier Wiliams Sanskrit-English dictionary L.1899)


Verbs Translation

अंश् – aṁś cl.10.P. “aṁśayati”, to divide, distribute ; also occasionally ā. “aṁśayate” ; also “aṁśāpayati”
अंह् – aṁh (cf. “aṅgh”) cl.1.ā. “aṁhate”, to go, set out, commence ; to approach ; cl.10. P. “aṁhayati”, to send ; to speak ; to shine
अघ् – agh cl.10.P. “aghayati”, to go wrong, sin
अङ्क् – aṅk cl.1. (connected, with, “aṇc”) ā. “aṅkate, ānaṅke, aṅkiṣyate, aṅkitum”, to move in a curve ; cl.10.P. “aṅkayati”, to move in a curve ; to mark, stamp, brand.
अङ्ख् – aṅkh cl.10.P. (p. “aṅkhayat”), to stir up, mix
अङ्ग् – aṅg cl.1.P. “aṅgati, ānaṅga, aṅgitum”, to go (cf. “ag”); cl.10. P. “aṅgayati”, to mark (cf. “aṅk”)
अण्च् – aṇc (connected with “ac” q.v.) cl.1.P. ā. “aṇcati, -te, ānaṇca, -ce, aṇci-ṣyati, -te, aṇcitum”, to bend, curve, incline, curl; to reverence (with inclined body), to honour; to tend, move, go, wander about; to request cl.10. or Caus. “aṇcayati”, to unfold, make clear, produce. Desid. P. ā. “aṇciciṣati, -te”, to be desirous of bending: Pass. “aṇcyate” or “acyate”, to be bent.
अट्ट् – aṭṭ cl.1.ā. “aṭṭate, ānaṭṭe, aṭṭitum”, to exceed ; to kill cl.10. P. “aṭṭayati”, to contemn ; to lessen, diminish
अन्ध् – andh cl.10.P. “andhayati”, to make blind
अर्थ् – arth cl.10.ā. “arthayate” (2. du. “arthayāse” ; Subj. 2. sg. “arthayāse” ; rarely cl.1. ā. (1. pl. “arthāmahe” to strive to obtain, desire, wish, request, ask for (acc.; rarely Inf. [ “yoddhum”]); to supplicate or entreat any one (acc., rarely abl. [); to point out the sense of. comment upon on
अवलोक् – avalok “ava-lok” cl.1.ā. “-lokate”, to look cl.10.P. “-lokayati” (p. “-lokayat”; ind. p. “-lokya”) to look upon or at, view, behold, see, notice, observe
इल् – il cl.6.P. “ilati” (“iyela, eliṣyati, ailīt, elitum” to come ; to send, cast ; to sleep cl.10. P. “ilayati” (Impv. 2. pl. “ilayatā” or “elayati” ( 3-1, 51) aor. “aililat” or “ailayīt”, to keep still, not to move; to become quiet ; ([a various reading has the form “iL”: cf. Old Germ. ‘illu’, ‘Illo’, for ‘Ilju’; Mod. Germ. ‘Eile’; Cambro-Brit. ‘il’, “progress, motion”; Gk. [greek] ])
उध्रस् – udhras cl.10.P. ā. “udhrāsayati, -te” aor. “audidhrasat, -ta”, to glean; to throw or cast upwards
उलड् – ulaḍ cl.10.P. “ulaṇḍayati, aulilaṇḍat”, to throw out, eject ; (see “olaḍ”.)
कट्ट् – kaṭṭ cl.10.P. “kaṭṭayati”, to heap, cover with earth
कण् – kaṇ cl.1.P. “kaṇati, cakāṇa, kaṇiṣyati, akaṇīt”, or “akāṇīt, kaṇitā”, to become small; to sound, cry ; to go, approach cl.10. P. “kāṇayati”, to wink, close the eye with the lids or lashes Caus. “kāṇayati” (aor. “acīkaṇat” and “acakāṇat” on , to sigh, sound; ([cf. “can” and “kvan”.])
कण्ठ् – kaṇṭh cl.1.P. ā. “kaṇṭhati, -te”: cl.10. P. “kaṇṭhayati”, to mourn; to long for, desire (cf. 2. “ut-kaṇṭha”) ; xxxiv, 40.
कण्ड् – kaṇḍ cl.1.P. ā. “kaṇḍati, -te”, to be glad or wanton: cl.10. P. “kaṇḍayati”, to separate (the chaff from the grain) (cf. “kaḍ”.)
कत्र् – katr cl.10.P. “katrayati”, to loosen, slacken, remove (cf. “kart, kartr”.)
कथ् – kath cl.10.P. (ep. also ā.) “kathayati” (“-te”) aor. “acakathat” ( 7-4, 93 and “acīkathat” (), to converse with any one (instr., sometimes with “saha”) ; to tell, relate, narrate, report, inform, speak about, declare, explain, describe (with acc. of the thing or person spoken about) &c.; to announce, show, exhibit, bespeak, betoken 291, 4 &c.; to order, command 57, 22; to suppose, state Pass. “kathyate”, to be called, be regarded or considered as, pass for ; ([fr. “katham”, “to tell the how”; cf. Goth. ‘qvithan’; Old High Germ. ‘quethan’ and ‘quedan’; Eng. ‘quoth’ and ‘quote’.])
कल् – kal cl.10.P. (rarely ā.) “kālayati” (“-te”), to push on, drive forward, drive before one’s self or away, carry off ; to go after (with hostile intention), persecute ; to count, tell over ; to throw ; to announce the time (?).
कर्ण् – karṇ cl.10.P. “karṇayati”, to pierce, bore ; (“ā-karṇaya”, p.126, col.2, is a Nom. fr. the next.)
कर्त्र् – kartr cl.10.P. “kartrayati”, to unloose, remove 1. “kṛt”).
कव् – kav cl.1.ā. “kavate”, to describe (as a poet) ; to praise ; to paint, picture cl.10. P. ā. “kāvayati, -te”, to compose (as a poet) ; ([cf. “kab”.])
किल् – kil cl.6.P. “kilati”, to be or become white (or “to freeze”) ; to play cl.10. P. “kelayati”, to send, throw
किष्क् – kiṣk cl.10.ā. “-ṣkayate”, to injure, kill
कीट् – kīṭ cl.10.P. “kīṭayati”, to tinge or colour ; to bind
कीर्त् – kīrt cl.10.P. “kīrtayati” (rarely ā. “-yate”) aor. “acikīrtat” or “acīkṛtat” ( 7-4, 7 , to mention, make mention of, tell, name, call, recite, repeat, relate, declare, communicate, commemorate, celebrate, praise, glorify (with gen. ; with acc.
कुट् – kuṭ cl.6.P. “kuṭati”, to become crooked or curved, bend, curve, curl ; ? ; to be dishonest, cheat cl.4. P. “kuṭyati”, or cl.10. ā. “koṭayate”, to break into pieces, tear asunder, divide ; to speak indistinctly ; to be warm, burn (cf. “kuṭṭ” and “kuṇṭ”.)
कुट्ट् – kuṭṭ cl.10. “kuṭṭayati” ( xxxii, 23), to crush, bruise Pariś.; to grind or pound, paw (the ground) ; to strike slightly on ; to multiply; to censure, abuse ; to fill
कुण् – kuṇ cl.6.P. “kuṇati”, to sound ; to support or aid (with gifts, &c.) ; to be in pain (?) cl.10. P. “kuṇayati”, to converse with, address, invite ([cf. Lat. ‘cano’])
कुण्ठ् – kuṇṭh cl.1.P. “kuṇṭhati” to be lame or mutilated or blunted or dulled ; to be lazy or stupid cl.10. “kuṇṭhayati”, to cover, conceal (cf. “guṇṭh”) (cf. “avakuṇṭhana”)
कुण्ड् – kuṇḍ cl.1.P. “kuṇḍati”, to mutilate cl.1. ā. “kuṇḍate”, to burn cl.10. “kuṇḍayati”, to protect
कुत्स् – kuts (perhaps related to “kutas”) cl.10.P. “kutsayati” ([also ā. “-yate” ; rarely cl.1. P. “kutsati” ; once cl.4. P. “kutsyati” , to despise, abuse, revile, contemn ([cf. Lith. ‘kussinu’.])
कुद् – kud cl.10.P. “kodayati”, to tell a lie ; (v.l. for “kundr”.)
कुन्द्र् – kundr cl.10.P. “kundrayati”, to tell a lie (cf. “kud” and “gundr”.)
कुप् – kup cl.10.P. “kopayati”, “to speak” or “to shine” ([cf. Hib. ‘cubhas’, “word, promise”, Lat. ‘nun-cupo’; Goth. ‘huf’, “to lament.”])
कुह् – kuh cl.10.ā. “kuhayate”, to surprise or astonish or cheat by trickery or jugglery
कूट् – kūṭ cl.10.P. “kūṭayati”, to burn ; to give pain ; to be distressed ; to counsel, advise ā. “kūṭayate”, to avoid or decline giving ; to render indistinct or unintelligible, render confused or foul ; to be distressed, despair
कूड् – kūḍ (= 2. “kūl”) cl.10.P. “kūḍayati” (subj. 3. du. “kūLayātas”), to burn, scorch ; (impf. “akūlayat”)
कूप् – kūp cl.10.P. “kūpayati”, to be weak, weaken
कृप् – kṛp cl.6.ā. “kṛpate” (impf. “akṛ-panta”; aor. 3. pl. “akṛpran” and “cakṛpanta”, 3. sg. “akrapiṣṭa”; pr. p. “kṛpamāṇa”), to mourn, long for (acc.) ; to lament, implore cl.10. P. “kṛpayati” (impf. “akṛpayat”; p. “kṛpayat” gen. sg. m. “kṛpayatas” , to mourn, grieve, lament (with acc.) ; to pity ; to be weak (cf. “kṛpāya” and “krap”.)
कृऋ – kṝ (v.l. for “gṝ”) cl.10.ā. “kārayate”, to know ; to inform
क्रुड् – kruḍ cl.6.P. “kruḍati”, to sink, dive ; to be or become thick on ; (cf. “kraḍana, kūḍ”, and “krūḍ”): Caus. or cl.10. P. fr. “krūḍ, krūdayati”, to make thick (?)
क्लीब् – klīb cl.1.ā. “klibate”, to be impotent, behave like a eunuch ; to be timorous or modest or unassuming cl.10. ā. “klībayate”, to be unmanly or timorous (v.l.)
क्षज् – kṣaj or kṣaṇj cl.1.ā. “kṣajate” or “kṣaṇj-” to go, approach ; to give cl.10. P. “kṣaṇjayati”, to live in pain or want
क्षप् – kṣap cl.10.P. “kṣapayati”, to throw, cast (cf. “kṣip”.)
क्षल् – kṣal (related to “kṣar”) cl.10.P. “kṣālayati” to wash, wash off; purify, cleanse, clean ; ([cf. Lith. ‘skalauju’, “to wash off”; ‘skalbju’, “to wash”; Mod. Germ. ‘spЃle’?])
क्षोट् – kṣoṭ cl.10.P. “kṣoṭayati”, to throw, cast (cf. “khoṭ”.)
खच् – khac cl.1.P. “-cati” (only p.p. “-cat”), to come forth, project (as teeth) ; xxvi: cl.9. P. “khacṇāti”, to be born again ; to cause prosperity ; to purify cl.10. P. “khacayati”, to fasten, bind
खट्ट् – khaṭṭ cl.10.P. “-ṭṭayati”, to cover, screen
खड् – khaḍ cl.10.P. “khāḍayati”, to divide, break (cf. “khaṇḍ”.)
खण्ड् – khaṇḍ cl.1.ā. “-ṇḍate”, to break, divide, destroy cl.10. P. “khaṇḍayati”, to break, tear, break into pieccs, crush, cut, divide (aor. “acakhaṇḍat”); to destroy, remove, annihilate ; to defeat, conquer ; to refute; to interrupt, disturb ; to disregard (an order) ; “to disappoint, deceive, cheat” see “khaṇḍita”.
खुण्ड् – khuṇḍ cl.1.ā. “-ḍate”, to break in pieces ; to limp cl.10. P. “khuṇḍayati” (v.l. “khoḍayati” cf. “kṣodayati” fr. “kṣudra”), to break in pieces
खेट् – kheṭ cl.10. “kheṭayati”, to eat, consume (v.l. “kheḍ”).
खोट् – khoṭ cl.1.P. “-ṭati” = “khor” cl.10. P. v.l. for “kṣoṭ” q.v.
खोड् – khoḍ cl.1.P. “-ḍati” = “khor” q.v. cl.10. P. = “kṣoṭ” q.v.
गज् – gaj (for “garj”) cl.1.P. “-jati” ( vii, 72), to sound, roar ; (derived fr. “gaja”) to be drunk or confused cl.10. P. “gajayati”, to sound, roar
गड् – gaḍ cl.1.P. “-ḍati”, to distil or drop, run as a liquid cl.10. P. “gaḍayati”, to cover, hide, xxxv, 84.
गण् – gaṇ cl.10.P. “gaṇayati” (ep. also ā. “-te”: aor. “ajīgaṇat” [ lxxviii] or “ajag-” ; ind. p. “gaṇayya” [with “a-” neg., iv, 7, 15]), to count, number, enumerate, sum up, add up, reckon, take into account &c.; to think worth, value (with instr. e.g. “na gaṇayāmi taṁ tṛṇena”, “I do not value him at a straw” ; to consider, regard as (with double acc.) ; xi ; to enumerate among (loc.) ; to ascribe, attribute to (loc.) ; to attend to, take notice of (acc.; often with “na”, not to care about, leave unnoticed) &c.; to imagine, excogitate 107; to count one’s number (said of a flock or troop)
गद् – gad cl.1.P. “-dati” (perf. “jagāda”; aor. “agadīt” [ xv, 102] or “agādīt” , to speak articulately, speak, say, relate, tell anything (acc.) to any one (acc.) &c.: cl.10. P. “gadayati”, to thunder Desid. “jigadiṣati”, to intend or wish to speak or tell ([cf. Lith. ‘gadijos’, ‘zadas’, ‘zodis’, ‘giedmi’; Pol. ‘gadae’; Hib. ‘gadh’.])
गन्ध् – gandh cl.10.ā. “gandhayate”, to injure, hurt ; to move or go
गर्द् – gard cl.1.P. “-dati”, to shout, give shouts of joy ; to emit any sound cl.10. “gardayati” id.
गवेष् – gaveṣ “gav-eṣ” cl.1.ā. “-ṣate”, to seek, search or inquire for (acc.) cl.10. “-ṣayati, -te” id.
गह् – gah (cf. “gabha” and “gāh”) cl.10.P. “gahayati”, to enter deeply into (acc.) (cf. “jaṁh”.)
गुण्ठ् – guṇṭh (cf. “guṇḍ, gudh”) cl.10.P. “-ṭhayati”, to enclose or envelop, surround, cover (v.l.) (cf. “ava-“.)
गुण्ड् – guṇḍ (cf. “guṇṭh”) cl.10. “-ḍayati”, to cover, conceal, protect ; to pound, comminute
गुर्द् – gurd or gūrd (q.v.) cl.1. “gurdate” or “gūrd-“, to play, sport, jump ; cl.10. “gurdayati” or “gūrd-“, to dwell, inhabit, xxxii, 125.
गूर्ध् – gūrdh cl.10.P. “-dhayati” ( iii, 14) to praise
गृऋ – gṝ (= 3. “kṝ”) cl.10.ā. “gārayate”, to know ; to make known, teach
घट्ट् – ghaṭṭ cl.1.ā. “-ṭṭate” see “vi-, saṁ-“: cl.10. P. “-ṭṭayati”, to rub (the hands) over, touch, shake, cause to move 6473 ; to stir round ; to have a bad effect or influence on (acc.) ; (cf. “ghaṭ”) to hurt with words, speak of malignantly “-ṭṭayāna”).
घर् – ghar cl.10.P. see 2. “ghṛ”, Caus.
घृ – ghṛ cl.3.P. “jigharti” (cl. 1. “gharati” , to besprinkle, wet, moisten Caus. (or cl.10. P.) “ghārayati” id.
घोल् – ghol (in Prākṛit for Caus. of “ghuṇ” = “ghūrṇ”) cl.10.P. “-layati”, to mix, stir together into a semi-fluid substance
टङ्क् – ṭaṅk (derived from “-ka”, “seal”), cl.10. “-kayati”, to (seal up, i.e. to) shut, cover
टिप् – ṭip cl.10.P. “ṭepayati” see “dip”.
डप् – ḍap cl.10.ā. “ḍāpayate”, to accumulate
डम्प् – ḍamp cl.10.ā. v.l. for “ḍap”.
डम्ब् – ḍamb cl.10. “-bayati”, to push, throw ( xxxii, 132); cf. “vi-“.
डम्भ् – ḍambh cl.10.ā., v.l, for “ḍap”.
डिप् – ḍip “ḍimp, ḍimbh” cl.10.ā. “ḍepayate, ḍimp-, ḍimbh-“, to heap together cl.4.6.10. P. “ḍipyati, ḍipati, depayati” (v.l. “ṭep-” ā. “ḍimbayate”, to throw
जल् – jal cl.1. “-lati” (pf. “jajāla” , “to be rich” or “to cover” (derived fr. “jāla”?) ; to be sharp ; to be stiff or dull (for “jaḍ”, derived fr. “jaḍa”) cl.10. “jālayati”, to cover, xxxii, 10.
जुड् – juḍ cl.6. “-ṭati”, to bind (v.l. “juṭ”); to go, 37 (v.l. “jun”); cl.10. “joḍayati”, to send, xxxii, 104.
जुल् – jul cl.10. “jolayati”, to grind
जृऋ – jṝ (cf. “jur”) cl.1.P. (3. pl. “jaranti”; Impv. 2. du. “jaratam”; p. “jarat” see s.v.) to make old or decrepit ; to cause to grow old, vii, 67, 10; (1. “jṛ”) to humiliate cl.4.P. “jīryati” ( &c.; also ā. “-te”; p. “jīryat”, rarely “-yamāṇa”; once cl.1. ā. Subj. 3. pl. “jaranta” ; cl.9. “jṛṇāti” ; cl.10. “jārayati”, xxxiv, 9; pf. “jajāra”, AX, x, 8, 26 &c.; once “jāgāra”, v, 19, 10; 3. pl. “jajarur” and “jerur” ; aor. “ajarat” and “ajārīt”, iii, 1, 38; Subj. 3. pl. “jāriṣur” ; fut. 1st “jaritā” and “-rītā” ; ind. p. “-ritvā” and “-rītvā” to grow old, become decrepit, decay, wear out, wither, be consumed, break up, perish &c.; to be dissolved or digested ; Bhaṭt.: Caus. “jarayati” (ep. also ā. “-te”; p. “-rayat” [once, “jar-“, i, 124, 10] &c.) to make old, wear out, consume &c.; to digest ; to cause to be digested
चक्क् – cakk cl.10.P. “-kkayati”, to suffer ; to give or inflict pain (?)
चप् – cap cl.1. “-pati”, to caress, soothe, console cl.10. “capayati”, “to pound, knead”, or “to cheat”, xxxii, 82.
चम्प् – camp (cf. “kamp, capala”) cl.10. “-payati” v.l. for “champ”
चर्च् – carc cl.1. “-cati”, to abuse, censure, menace ; to injure, xxviii, 17: cl.10. “-cayati”, to repeat a word (in reciting the Veda, esp. while adding “iti”) to talk over, discuss ; (also ā. to study
चर्व् – carv (cf. “cūrṇ”) cl.10. “carvayati” (inf. “-vitum”; Pass. “-vyate” cl.1. “-vati” to grind with the teeth, masticate, chew on and ; to taste
चिक्क् – cikk cl.10.P. = “cakk”
चिन्त् – cint (cf. 4. “cit”) cl.10. “-tayati” (cl. 1. “-tati” ; metrically also “-tayate” see also “-tayāna”) to think, have a thought or idea, reflect, consider &c.; to think about, reflect upon, direct the thoughts towards, care for (acc.; exceptionally dat. or loc. or “prati”) &c.; to find out ; to take into consideration, treat of. 69; to consider as or that, tax (with double acc. or acc. and “iti”) 14675
चीव् – cīv (or “cīb”) cl.1. “-vati, -vate”, to take ; to cover (derived fr. “cīvara”) cl.10. “cīvayati”, xxxiii, 101.
चुक्क् – cukk cl.10. to suffer pain
चुट्ट् – cuṭṭ cl.10. “ṭṭayati”, to become small, xxxii, 24; cf. “puṭṭ”.
चुण्ठ् – cuṇṭh cl.10. “ṭhayati”, to hurt
चुम्ब् – cumb cl.10. to hurt
चुर् – cur cl.10. “corayati” (rarely “-te” ; aor. “acūcurat” ; cl.1. “corati” , to steal &c.; to rob any one (acc.) 11146; to cause to disappear sg. “cūrayāmi”).
चुल् – cul cl.10. “colayati”, to raise ; (for “bul”) to dive into
चूण् – cūṇ cl.10. “-ṇayati”, to contract, shrink
चूर् – cūr cl.4. “-ryate”, to burn ; for cl.10. “-rayati” see “cur”.
चूर्ण् – cūrṇ cl.10. (or more property Nom. fr. “cūrṇa”) “-ṇayati” (Pass. “-ṇyate”) to reduce to powder or flour, pulverise, grind, pound, crush, bruise
च्यु – cyu (and “cyus”) cl.10. “cyāvayati” (“cyosay-“) = “sah” or “has”
च्युस् – cyus see 1 “cyu”; cl.10. “cyosayati”, to leave [Page 404,1]
छद् – chad or 2. “chand” cl.10. “chadayati” (also “-te” = “arc” [v.l., “-ti”]; Subj. “-yat” ; 2. pl. “-yātha”, i, 165, 12), “chandayati” (twice cl.1. “chandati” [= “arcati” ; ā. [Subj. “-yāte”] ; aor. “acacchadat” ; “acchān” ; 2. pl. “-nta”, i, 165, 12; 3. pl. “-ntsur”, x, 119, 3; Subj. “chantsat” [ ii, 6] ; 2. sg. “-tsi”, i, 163, 4; perf. “cacchanda”, vii, 73, 3; Pot. “cacchadyāt”, x, 73, 9) to seem, appear, be considered as ; to seem good, please (with dat.) ; (with acc, ) (cf. 7376); ā. to be pleased with, delight in (acc. or loc.) ; “chandayati”, to gratify any one (acc.; exceptionally gen. with anything (instr., esp. “vareṇa”, “with a boon” ; to try to seduce any one (acc.)
छम्प् – champ cl.10. to go
छल् – chal cl.10.Nom. fr. “chala”) P. “chalayati” (inf. “-litum” to deceive, cheat, delude, outwit ; to feign
छुट् – chuṭ cl.6. “-ṭati”, to bind cl.10. “choṭayati”, to cut, split (v.l. for “cuṭ”).
तड् – taḍ cl.10. “tāḍayati” (perf. “-ḍayāmāsa” “tatāḍa” vi f.; Pass. “tāḍyate”) to beat, strike, knock, strike (with arrows), wound, punish &c.; to strike a musical instrument 15092 &c.; (in astron.) to obscure or eclipse partially ; “to speak” or “to shine”
तर्क् – tark cl.10. “-kayati” (ep. also “-te”), to N. conjecture, guess, suspect, infer, try to discover or ascertain, reason or speculate about &c.; to consider as (with double acc.), = ; to reflect, think of, recollect, have in one’s mind, intend (with inf. ; to ascertain , “to speak” or “to shine” ; ([cf. ‘torqueo’, &c.])
तुम्ब् – tumb cl.1. “-bati”, to distress, xi, 38: cl.10. “-bayati”, “id.”, or “to be invisible”, xxxii, 114.
तुल् – tul cl.10. “tolayati”, or “tul-” (only “tul-” also fig.; ā. to lift up, raise (fut. Pass. “tolayiṣyate”); to determine the weight of anything by lifting it up, weigh, compare by weighing and examining, ponder, examine with distrust &c.; to make equal in weight, equal, compare (with instr. e.g. “na brāhmaṇais tulaye bhūtam anyat”, “I do not compare any other being with Brāhmans” ; or with an adv. terminating in “-vat”) &c.; to counterbalance, outweigh, match, possess in the same degree, resemble, reach ; (pf. p. “tulita”) iii & ([cf. Lat. ‘te-tul-i’ &c.; [characters] &c.; Goth. ‘thulan’.])
तूण् – tūṇ (cf. “kūṇ, cūṇ”) cl.10. “-ṇayati”, to contract, xxxii, 99; xxxv, 42; “-te” (fr. “tūṇa”) to fill (also “tūlay-“
त्रस् – tras cl.10.P. “trāsayati” (ind. p. “-sayitvā”) to seize ; to prevent
दंस् – daṁs cl.10. (Subj. 2. sg. “-sayas”, nom pl. of “-si” to destroy (?) ; cl.1.P.10.ā. (for 2. “daṁś”)to bite
दंह् – daṁh cl.10. “-hayati”, to shine, burn
दिम्प् – dimp cl.10.ā. “dimpayate”, to accumulate in
दिम्भ् – dimbh cl.10.ā. “dimbhayate” id. P. “-ti”, to order, direct id.
दिव् – div cl.1.P. “-devati” cl.10. P. “-deyavati”, to cause to lament, to pain, vex; to ask, beg; to go; ā. “-te”, to suffer pain
दुल् – dul cl.10.P. “dolayati”, to swing, throw up, shake to and fro (cf. “tul, dola, dolāya”).
धक्क् – dhakk cl.10.P. “dhakkayati”, to destroy, annihilate
धूश् – dhūś or dhūṣ or “dhūs” ( xxxii, 97) cl.10.P. “dhūśayati” &c., to embellish.
नक्क् – nakk cl.10.P. “nakkayati”, to destroy, kill
नड् – naḍ cl.10.P. “nāḍayati”, to fall in (cf. “naṭ”).
नल् – nal cl.1.P. to smell or to bind “gandhe” and “bandhe”?); cl.10. P. “nālayati”, to speak or shine, xxxiii, 127; to bind or confine
निष्क् – niṣk cl.10.ā. “niṣkayate”, to measure, weigh ; (prob. artificially formed to explain the next, or Nom. fr. it.)
पट् – paṭ cl.1.P. “paṭati”, to go, move ; to flow (pf. “papāṭa”) ; to split, open, burst asunder (intr.) ; cl.10.orCaus. “paṭayati”, to string together, wrap (“granthe”, or “veṣṭane”; cf. “paṭa”) ; “pāṭayati”, to speak or shine ; “-ti” or () “-te”, to split, burst (trans.), cleave, tear, pierce, break, pluck out, remove &c.: Pass. “pātyate”, to split, burst, open (intr.)
पण्ड् – paṇḍ (prob. invented to serve as the root of the words below) cl.1.ā. “paṇḍate”, to go, move ; cl.10. P. “paṇḍayati”, to heap together, pile up (v.l. for “piṇḍ”), xxxii, 130 ; cl.1. or 10. P. “paṇḍati, -ḍayati”, to destroy, annihilate, xxxii, 73 (v.l. for “paṁs”).
पर्ण् – parṇ cl.10.P. “parṇayati” ( xxxv, 84, a), to be green or verdant (prob. Nom. fr. next or invented to explain it).
पश् – paś cl.10.P. “pāśayati”, to fasten, bind “paṣ” and “pas”; Zd. ‘pas’; Lat. ‘pac-iscor’, ‘pax’; Goth. ‘fahan’; Angl. Sax. ‘fAn’.]
पस् – pas cl.1.P. ā. “pasati, -te” (v.l. for “spaś” ; cl.10. P. “pāsayati”, to bind (v.l. for “paś”, xxxiii, 45).
पाल् – pāl cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 69) “pālayati” (“-te”; also regarded as Caus. of 2. “pā” [ 7-3, 37 2, “pat”.], but rather Nom. of “pāla” below; p. P. “pālayat” ā. “-layāna”; pf. “-layām āsa”; aor. “apīpalat”), to watch, guard, protect, defend, rule, govern; to keep, maintain, observe (a promise or vow)
पिच्च् – picc cl.10.P. “piccayati”, to press flat, squeeze (v.l. for “pich” q.v.)
पिछ् – pich cl.10.P. “picchayati”, to press flat, squeeze, expand, divide xxxli, 20 (v.l. “pice”; cf. above ); cl.6. P. “picchati”, to inflict pain, hurt
पिण्ज् – piṇj cl.2.ā. “piṅkte”, to tinge, dye, paint ; to join (cf. “pṛc”); to sound ; to adore ; cl.10. P. “piṇjayati”, to kill; to be strong; to give or to take (?); to dwell ; to shine; to speak, xxxiii, 84; to emit a sound ‘pingo’?]
पिल् – pil cl.10.P. “pelayati”, to throw, send, impel, incite (cf. “pel, vil”).
पिस् – pis cl.4.P. ( ii, 14) “pisyati” (pf. 3. pl. “pipisuḥ”), to stretch, expand ; cl.1. “pesati”, to go, move ; cl.10. “pesayati” id.; to hurt; to be strong; to give or to take; to dwell, xxxii, 32 (cf. “piṣ”, Caus.)
पीड् – pīḍ (prob. fr. “pisd” = “pi-” “sad”) pf. “pipīḍe”, to be squeezed or pressed out (as Soma) ; cl.10.P. or Caus. “pīḍayati” (ep. also “-te”; aor. “apipīḍat”, or “apīpiḍat” ; to press, squeeze (“kālaṁ kālena pīḍayan”, “Pressing time against time” i.e. “leaving everything to time” &c. &c.; to hurt, harm, injure, oppress, pain, vex to beleaguer (a city) ; to break (a vow) ; to neglect (one’s family) ; (in astrol.) to cover (esp. with something inauspicious), to eclipse, obscure Pass. “pīḍyate”, to be pressed or pained or afflicted &c.; to cause pain, hurt
पुंस् – puṁs cl.10. “puṁsayati”, to crush, grind (Nom. fr. next?).
पुट् – puṭ cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 74) “puṭati”, to clasp, fold, envelop in (instr.) ; to rub together with (instr. ; cl.1. P. “poṭati”, to grind, pound (v.l. for “muṭ”); cl.10. P. “puṭayati”, to be in contact with, xxxv, 58 “poṭayati”, to speak or to shine (“bhāṣārthe” or “bhāsārthe”), xxxiii, 80; to grind or pound, xxxii, 72 ; to be small, xxxii, 24 (v.l. for “puṭṭ”).
पुट्ट् – puṭṭ cl.10.P. “puṭṭayati”, to be or become small, diminish (v.l. “puṭ”).
पुण् – puṇ cl.6.P. “puṇati”, to act piously or virtuously (invented to serve as base for “puṇya, ni-puṇa” &c.?); cl.10. P. “poṇayati”, to collect, accumulate (v.l. for “pūl, pūlyati”).
पुण्ट् – puṇṭ cl.10.P. “puṇṭayati”, to speak or to shine
पुर्व् – purv (cf. “pṝ”) cl.1.P. “pūrvati”, to fill ; cl.10. “pūrvayati”, to dwell, xxxii, 126.
पुस् – pus cl.10.P. “posayati”, to discharge, emit
पुस्त् – pust cl.10.P. “pustayati”, to respect or disrespect (?) ; to bind (cf. “bust”).
पूज् – pūj cl.10.P., ( xxxii, 100) “pūjayati” (ep. also ā. “-te” and cl.1.P. “pūjati”; pf. “pupūjire” ; aor. “apūpujat” Gr.; ind. p. “pūjayitvā” &c.; “pūjya” , to honour, worship, revere, respect, regard &c.; to honour or present with (instr.) ; to initiate, consecrate
पूण् – pūṇ cl.10.P. “pūṇayati”, to collect or heap together (v.l.); cf. “puṇpūl”.
पृथ् – pṛth cl.10.P. “parthayati”, to extend (cf. “prath”, of which it is only the weak form).
प्रथ् – prath or pṛth cl.10.P. “prāthayati” or “parthayati”, to throw, cast; to extend
प्रुष् – pruṣ cl.5.P. ā. “pruṣṇoti, -ṇute” (fut. “proṣiṣyate” ; pf. “puproṣa” aor. “aproṣīt”, Gṛ.), to sprinkle, shower, wet, moisten ; cl.10. P. ā. (or Nom.) “pruṣāyati, -te” id. ; cl.9. P. ( xxxi, 55) “pruṣṇāti” (p. “pruṣṇat” , id.; to become wet, fill ; cl.4. P. “pruṣyati” see “vi-pruṣ”. ([Cf. Lat. ‘pruina’ for ‘prusvina’; Goth. ‘frius’; Germ. ‘friosan’, ‘frieren’; Eng. ‘freeze’.])
बर्ह् – barh or varh (cf. “bṛh, vṛh”) cl.1.ā. “barhate” (only , to speak; to hurt; to give or cover (“dāna” v.l. “chādana”); cl.10. P. (xxxiii, 96) to speak; to shine.
बल् – bal cl.1.P. “balati”, to breathe, live ; “to hoard grain” or “to prevent wealth” (“dhānyāvarodha”) ; to be distressed (?) ; ā. “balate” (v.l. for “bhalate”), to mention; to hurt; to give, xiv, 24; cl.10. P. “balayati”, to live, xxxii, 84; “bālayati” aor. “abībalat”, to nourish, rear, xxxii, 68; ā. “bālayate” (v.l. for “bhāl-“), to explain, describe, xxxiii, 27. [Page 722,3]
बुन्ध् – bundh cl.10.P. “bundhayati”, to bind (cf. “buna”).
बुल् – bul cl.10.P. “bolayati”, to cause to sink, submerge ; to sink, dive, plunge into and emerge again
बुस्त् – bust cl.10.P. “bustayati”, to honour, respect &c. (= or v.l. for “pust” q.v.)
बृह् – bṛh or bṛṁh (also written “vṛh” or “vṛṁh”). cl.1.P. ( xvii, 85) “bṛnhati” (or “barhati”; 3. pl. pf. ā. “babṛiṁhire” , to roar, bellow, trumpet (said of an elephant) &c.; also cl.10.P. ( xxxiii, 95) to speak; to shine.
भक्ष् – bhakṣ (prob. a secondary form fr. “bhaj”, or Nom. fr. “bhakṣa”; cf. also “bhikṣ” and “bhaṇj”) cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 22) “bhakṣayati” (rarely ā. “-te”), and in later language also cl.1. P. ā. ( xxi, 27) “bhakskati, -te” (pf. “bhakṣayām āsa” &c. fut. “bhakṣayiṣyati, -te” ; aor. “ababhakṣat” ; Pass. “abhakṣi” ; inf. “bhakṣayitum” , “-kṣitum” ; ind. p. “bhakṣayitvā” ; “-bhakṣya” ; “-bhakṣam” , to eat or drink, devour, partake of (with acc., in Ved. also with gen.; in the older language usually of fluids, in the later only exceptionally so) &c. &c.; to sting, bite ; to consume, use up, waste, destroy &c.; to drain the resources of, impoverish Caus. “bhakṣayati” see above; to cause anything (acc.) to be eaten by (acc. or instr.) 7 Desid. “bibhakṣiṣati” or “-kṣayiṣati”, to wish to eat or devour (cf. “bibhakṣayiṣu”). [Page 742,3]
भट् – bhaṭ cl.1.P. “bhaṭati”, to hire, nourish, maintain ; cl.10. P. “bhaṭayati”, to speak, converse, xix, 18: Caus. “-bhāṭayati”, to hire (prob. Nom. fr. next).
भण्ट् – bhaṇṭ cl.10.P. “bhaṇṭayati”, to deceive
भर्त्स् – bharts cl.10.ā. ( xxxiii, 9) “bhartsayate” (really P. “bhartsayati” and once ā. p. “-sayamāna” [B]; rarely cl.1. “bhartsati”; fut. “bhartsyāmi” [],prob. w.r.; Pass. “bhartsyate” , to menace, threaten, abuse, revile, deride
भल् – bhal (or “bal”) cl.1.ā. “bhalate”, to describe or expound or hurt or give ; cl.10. ā. “bhālayate”, to describe or behold; to throw up(?), xxxiii, 27 (cf. “ni-, nir-, śam-bhal”).
भ्रूण् – bhrūṇ cl.10.ā. “bhrūṇayate”, to hope or wish or fear
मण्ज् – maṇj (prob. invented to account for the following words of more or less uncertain origin; cf. “mārj, mṛj”) cl.10.P. “maṇjayati”, to cleanse or be bright; to sound, Dhātu. xxxii, 106
मण्ट् – maṇṭ cl.10.P. “maṇṭayati”, to act as an intermediator ()
मन्त्र् – mantr (properly a Nom. fr. “mantra”, p.785, col.3), cl.10.ā. ( xxxiii, 6) “mantrayate” (rarely P. “-ti”; Subj. “mantrayaithe, -te” ; Pot. “mantrayīta” ; inf. “mantrayitum” , to speak, talk, say ; to deliberate, take counsel, consult with (instr. with or without “saha”) or about (dat.) &c. &c.; to resolve upon, determine to (inf.) ; to deliberate on, discuss (acc.) &c.; to counsel, advise, propose any measure, give any one advice (with acc. of pers., or with gen. of pers. and acc. of thing) &c.; to consecrate with sacred or magical texts, enchant with spells or charms
मर्च् – marc (cf. “mṛc”) cl.10.P. “marcayati”, to sound (v.l. for “mārj”); to seize, take (cf.
मार्ज् – mārj (rather Caus. of “mṛj” q.v.) cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 106 “mārjayati”, to wipe, cleanse, purify; to sound (?)
मिण्ज् – miṇj cl.10.P. “miṇjayati”, to speak or to shine
मिद् – mid or mind cl.1.ā. or 4. P. ( xviii, 3 and xxvi, 133) “medate” or “meiyati” (of the former only 3. sg. Impv. “medatām” ; pf. “mimeda, mimide”; aor. “amidat, amediṣṭa”; fut. “meditā, mediṣyati, -te”; ind. p. “miditvā” or “meditvā” Gr.; Pass., “midyate” impers. , to grow fat ; cl.10. P. ( xxxii, 8) “mindayati” or “medayati” (cf. “mitra”); the latter also as Caus. “to make fat”
मिश्र् – miśr (also written “misr”, properly Nom. fr. “miśra” below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 67) “miśrayati” (or “miśrāpayati” , to mix, mingle, blend, combine (“with”, instr.) &c.; to add ‘miscere’; Slav. ‘mesiti’; Lith. ‘misti’, ‘maisztas’; Germ. ‘misken’, ‘mischen’; Angl. Sax. ‘miscian’; Eng. ‘mix’.]
मुज् – muj or muṇj cl.1.P. “mojati” or “muṇjati”, to give out a partic. sound ; (accord. to also) cl.10. P. “mojayati” or “muṇjayati”, “to sound” or “to cleanse.”
मुद् – mud cl.10.P. “modayati”, to mix, mingle, blend, unite
मुस्त् – must (prob. artificial) cl.10.P. “mustayati”, to gather, collect
मृच् – mṛc (cf. “marc”) cl.10.P. “marcayati” (cl. 4. P. “mṛcyati” [?] ; Prec. “mṛkṣīṣṭa”), to hurt, injure, annoy
मृज् – mṛj (cf. “marj, mārj” and “mṛś”) cl.2.P. “mārṣṭi” (Ved. also ā. “mṛṣṭe” and cl.6. P. ā. “mṛjati, -te”, 3. pl. “mṛṇjata” ; Pot. “mṛṇjyāt” ; cl.1. P. “mārjati, -te” ; pf. “mamārja, mamṛje” &c.; 3. pl. “mamārjuḥ” ; “māmṛjuḥ” ; ā. “māmṛje, -jīta” ; aor. “amṛkṣat, -ṣata” ; “amārkṣīt” and “amārjīt” ; fut. “mraṣṭā” ; “mārṣṭā” or “mārjitā” Gr.; “mrakṣyate” or “mārkṣyate” &c.; “mārjiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “marṣṭum, mārṣṭum” and “mārjitum” &c.; ind. p. “mṛṣvā” ; “-mṛjya” ; “-mārjya” , to wipe, rub, cleanse, polish, clean, purify, embellish, adorn (ā. also “one’s self”) &c. &c.; to make smooth, curry (e.g. a horse or other animal) ; to stroke ; to wipe off or out, remove, destroy &c.; to wipe off or transfer (impurity, debt &c.) from one’s self upon (loc.) ; to carry away, win ; (“mārṣṭi”), to go ( xiii, 3): Caus. or cl.10. “marjayati, -te” (Ved., “mārjayati, -te” &c.; aor. “amamārjat” Gr.; “amīmṛjanta” ; Pass. “mārjate” , to wipe, rub, cleanse, purify, adorn &c. &c.; to wipe off, remove, destroy ; (“marjayate”), to move about, roam Desid. “mimārjiṣati” and “mimṛkṣati” Gr.: Intens. “marmṛjīti” (“-jma, -janta”, p. “-jāna”), “marmṛjyate” ; “marīmṛjyate” ; “marmārṣṭi” Gr.; to rub or wipe off, clean, purify (A. also “one’s self”). [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘mulgere’; Slav. ‘mlesti’; Lith. ‘milsti’; Germ., ‘melke’, ‘Milch’; Eng. ‘milk’.]
मृड् – mṛḍ ( “mṛL”) cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 38), “mṛḍati” (“mṛLati”; once ā. “mṛḍase” P. “mṛḍnāti” (xxxi, 44), cl.10., “mṛḍayati” (“mṛLayati”), “-te; mṛṇḍayati” (?), xxxii, 117 (pf. “mamarḍa” Gr.; “mamṛḍyuḥ” ; “amarḍīt” Gr.; fut. “marḍitā, -ḍiṣyati” ; inf. “marḍitum” ; ind. p. “mṛḍitvā” , to be gracious or favourable, pardon, spare (with dat. of pers. and acc. of, thing) &c. &c.; to treat kindly, make happy, rejoice, delight (with acc.) Caus. “marḍayati” (aor. “amīmṛḍat”, or “amamarḍat”) Gr.: Desid. “mimarḍiṣati” Intens. “marīmṛḍyate, marīmarṭṭi”
मृष् – mṛṣ (often confounded with 1. “mṛś”) cl.4.P. ā. ( xxvi, 55) “mṛṣyati, -te” (in only ; accord. to cl.1.P. ā. “marṣati, -te” cf. 3. “mṛṣ”; pr.p. “mṛṣat” ; pf. “mamarṣa” , “mamṛṣe” &c.; aor., “mṛṣṭhās, mṛṣantta” ; “marṣiṣṭhās” ; “arnriṣat” ; “amarṣrīt” Gr.; fut., “marṣitā; marṣiṣyati, -te” ; inf. “-mṛṣe” ; ind. p., “marṣitvā, mriṣitvā” or “mṛṣṭvā” Gr.; “-mṛṣya” , to forget, neglect ; to disregard, not heed or mind, mind, bear patiently, put up with (acc.) &c. &c.; to pardon, forgive, excuse, bear with (gen.) ; to suffer, permit to (inf.) ; to like (with, “as”, dislike) Caus. (or cl.10. ) “marṣayati, -te” (aor. “amīmṛṣat” or “amamarṣat”), to cause to forget ; to bear, suffer, overlook, pardon, excuse &c. &c. (mostly with acc.; sometimes with Pot. or fut. or with Pot. after “yad, yac ca-yadi, yadā, jātu” e.g. “na marṣayāmi yat-“, I cannot ; to put up with anything from (gen.) ; (with “na”), not to let alone, molest Intens. “māmriṣat”, to bear, suffer
मोक्ष् – mokṣ cl.1.ā. “mokṣate” (rather Desid. fr. 2. “muc”; fut. “mokṣiṣyate” , to wish to free one’s self. seek deliverance (cf. ; to free one’s self from (acc.), shake off ; cl.10. P. (; rather Nom. fr. “mokṣa”, below), “mokṣayati” (m.c. also ā. “-te”; Impv. “mokṣayadhvam” ; fut. “mokṣayiṣyati, -te” ; inf. “mokṣitum” v.l.), to free or deliver from (abl.) &c.; to liberate, emancipate (from transmigration) ; to loosen, Untie, undo ; to detach, extract, draw out of (abl.) ; to wrest or take away anything from (abl.) ; to shed, cause to flow (blood) ; to cast, hurl, fling
म्रक्ष् – mrakṣ or mṛkṣ cl.1.P. ( xvii, 12) “mrakṣati” or “mṛkṣati” (pf. “mimṛkṣuḥ”), to rub, stroke, curry ; to smear ; to accumulate, collect Caus. (or cl.10. ) “mrakṣayati” or “mṛkṣayati”, to rub, smear, anoint ; to accumulate ; to speak indistinctly or incorrectly ; to cut
म्लक्ष् – mlakṣ cl.10.P. “mlakṣayati”, to cut, divide (v.l.)
म्लेछ् – mlech (= “mlich”) cl.1.P. ( vii, 25) “mlecchati” (Gr. also pf. “mimleccha” fut. “mlecchitā” &c.; Ved. inf. “mlecchitavai” , to speak indistinctly (like a foreigner or barbarian who does not speak Sanskṛit) Caus. or cl.10. P. “mlecchayati” id.
यक्ष् – yakṣ (perhaps Desid. of a “yah”, from which “yahu” and “yahva”) cl.1.P. ā. “yakṣati, -te”, (prob.) to be quick, speed on (only in “pra-yakṣ” q.v.; and once in “yakṣāmas”, to explain “yakṣa” , cl.10. ā. “yakṣayate”, to worship, honour
यत् – yat cl.1.ā. (prob. connected with “yam” and orig. meaning, “to stretch” “yatate” (Ved. and ep. also P. “-ti”; p. “yatamāna, yatāna” and “yatāna” ; pf. “yete”, 3. pl. “yetire” &c.; aor. “ayatiṣṭa” ; fut. “yatiṣyate” , “-ti” ; inf. “yatitum” ; ind. p. “-yatya” , (P.) to place in order, marshal, join, connect ; (P. or ā.) to keep pace, be in line, rival or vie with (instr.) ; (ā.) to join (instr.), associate with (instr.), march or fly together or in line ; to conform or comply with (instr.) ; to meet, encounter (in battle) ; to seek to join one’s self with, make for, tend towards (loc.) ; to endeavour to reach, strive after, be eager or anxious for (with loc. dat. acc. with or without “prati”, once with gen.; also with “arthe, arthāya, artham” and “hetos” ifc.; or with inf.) &c.; to exert one’s self, take pains, endeavour, make effort, persevere, be cautious or watchful ; to be prepared for (acc.) Caus. (or cl.10. ) “yātayati” (or “-te”; aor. “ayīyatat”; Pass. “yātyate”), to join, unite (ā. intrans.) ; to join or attach to (loc.) P. ; to cause to fight ; to strive to obtain anything (acc.) from (abl.) ; (rarely ā.) to requite, return, reward or punish, reprove (as a fault) &c. &c.; (ā.) to surrender or yield up anything (acc) to (acc. or gen.) ; (P. ā.) to distress, torture, vex, annoy ; accord. to also “nikāre” (others “nirākāre” or “khede”) and “upaskāre”: Desid. “yiyatiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “yāyatyate” and “yāyatti”
यन्त्र् – yantr (rather Nom. fr. “yantra” see col.3) cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 3) “yantrayati” (or 1. P. “yantrati”), to restrain, curb, bind (“saṁkocane”) ; to bind up, bandage
रक् – rak cl.10.P. “rākayati”, to taste, relish; to obtain, get (v.l. “rag, ragh”).
रग् – rag cl.1.P. “ragati” (pf. “rarāga” aor. “aragīt” &c., Gr.), to doubt, suspect ; cl.10. P. “rāgayati” (v.l. for “rak, rākayati”)
रङ्घ् – raṅgh (cf. “raṁh”) cl.1.ā. ( iv, 33) “raṅghate”, to hasten, run (cf. : Caus. or cl.10. ( xxxiii, 120) to speak; to shine.
रच् – rac cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 12) “racayati” (pf. “racayām-āsa” ; irr. fut. “raciṣyati” [with v.l. “kariṣyati”]; and ind. p. “racayitvā” , to produce, fashion, form, make, construct, complete, cause, effect &c. (with “ciṅtām”, or “cintāḥ”, to be anxious ; to make into (with double acc.) ; to compose, write (a book or any literary work) ; to place in or on (loc.) ; to adorn, decorate ; to cause to make or do (with double acc.) ; to cause to move, put in motion (a horse)
रण् – raṇ cl.10.P. “raṇayati”, to go
रस् – ras (rather Nom. fr. “rasa” below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv. 77) “rasayati” (rarely ā. “-te” ep. also “rasati” and “rasyati”), to taste, relish &c.; to feel, perceive, be sensible of ; to love Desid. “rirasayiṣati”, to desire to taste
रह् – rah cf. 1. P. ( xvil, 82) “rahati” (pf. “rarāha” &c. Gr.; inf. “-rahitum” see “vi-rah”), to part, separate (v.l.); to leave, quit, abandon ; Caus. or cl.10.P. (xxxv, 6) to leave, abandon ; to cause to give up or abandon
रिच् – ric cl.7.P. ā. ( xxix, 4) “riṇakti, riṅkte” cl.1. P. ( xxxiv, 10) “recati”; cl.4. ā. (cf. Pass.) “ricyate” (ep. also “-ti”; pf. “rireca, ririce” &c. &c.: “riricyām, arirecīt” ; p. “ririkvas, riricāna” ; aor. “āraik” ; “arikṣi” ; “aricat” ; fut. “rektā” Gr., “rekṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “rektum” Gr.), to empty, evacuate, leave, give up, resign ; to release, set free ; to part with i.e. sell (“for” instr.) ; to leave behind, take the place of (acc.), supplant ; to separate or remove from (abl.) Pass. “ricyate” (aor. “areci”), to be emptied &c. &c.; to be deprived of or freed from (abl.) ; to be destroyed, perish Caus. (or cl.10. ; aor. “arīricat”), to make empty ; to discharge, emit (as breath, with or scil. “mārutam”), AmṛitUp. ; to abandon, give up Desid. “ririkṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “rericyate, rerekti” ‘ric’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘linquo’, ‘licet’; Lith. ‘likti’; Goth. ‘leihwan’; Angl. Sax. ‘leon’; Eng. ‘loan’, ‘lend’; Germ. ‘lihan’, ‘leihen’.]
रुट् – ruṭ (cf. “ruṭh” and “luṭ”) cl.1.ā. “reṭate”, to strike against ; to shine ; cl.10. P. “roṭayati” to be angry, xxxii, 131 (v.l.); to speak or to shine (“bhāthārthe”, or “bhāsārthe”), xxxiii, 110.
रुष् – ruṣ (cf. “ruś”) cl.1.4.P. (; xxvi, 120) “roṣati” or “ruṣyati” (rarely “-te”, and “ruṣati”, cf. “ruṣat”; Gr. also pf. “ruroṣa”; aor. “aruṣat” or “aroṣīt”; fut. “roṣitā, roṣṭā; roṣiṣyati”; inf. “roṣitum” or “roṣṭum”; ind. p. “ruṣya” , to hurt, injure, kill (“hiṁsāyām”) ; (cl. 1.) to be hurt or offended by, take offence (acc.) ; to displease, be disagreeable to (gen.) (cf. “ruṣat” and 1. “ruśat”); (cl. 4.) to be vexed or cross, be angry with (gen.) &c.: Caus. (or cl.10. ) “roṣayati, -te” (aor. “arūruṣat”; Pass. “roṣyate”), to vex, annoy, displease, irritate, exasperate &c.; to be furious or angry Desid. “ruruṣiṣati, ruroṣiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “roruṣyate, roroṣṭi”
रूक्ष् – rūkṣ (rather Nom. fr. “rūkṣa”) cl.10.P. “rūkṣayati” ( also “rūkṣāpayati”; aor. “arurūkṣat”), to be rough or harsh ; to make dry or emaciated ; to soil, smear ; to injure, offend, exasperate
रूप् – rūp (prob. Nom. fr. “rūpa”) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 79) “rūpayati”, to form, figure, represent (esp. on the stage), exhibit by gesture, act, feign &c.; to view, inspect, contemplate ; (ā. “-yate”) to show one’s self, appear
रूष् – rūṣ cl.1.P. “rūṣati”, to adorn, decorate ; to cover, strew, smear (see “rūṣita”): Caus. (or cl.10. P.) “rūṣayati”, “to tremble” or “to burst” (“visphuraṇe”)
लक् – lak (cf. “rak”) cl.10.P. “lākayati”, to taste; to obtain v.l. (Prob. artificial and of very questionable connection with the following words.)
लक्ष् – lakṣ cl.1.ā. “lakṣate”, to perceive, observe ; (P. “-ti”), to recognise ; cl.10. P. ā. ( xxxii, 5; xxxiii, 23; rather Nom. fr. “lakṣa” below) “lakṣayati, -te” (aor. “alalakṣat, -ta”; inf. “lakṣayitum”; ind. p. “lakṣayitvā, -lakṣya”), to mark, sign ; to characterize, define (in Comms.); to indicate, designate indirectly ; to aim, it (as to aim an arrow at any object), direct towards, have in view, mean on ; to consider or regard any one (acc.) as (acc. with or without “iva”) ; to suppose of any one (acc.) that he will &c. (oratio recta with “iti”) ; to know, understand, recognise by (instr.) or as (acc.) or that &c. (oratio recta with “iti”) ; to notice, perceive, observe, see, view &c.: Pass. “lakṣyate”, to be marked &c.; to be meant or intended on ; to be named or called (with double nom.) ; to be perceived or seen, appear, seem, look like (nom. with or without “iva”) Desid. see “lilakṣayiṣita”.
लग् – lag (cf. “lakṣ, lakṣa” &c.) cl.1.P. ( xix, 24) “lagati” (accord. to “lagyati”; pf. “lalāga” Gr.; aor. “alagīt” ; fut. “lagitā” ; “lagiṣyati” ; ind. p. “lagitvā, -lagya” , to adhere, stick, cling or attach one’s self to (loc.) &c. (with “hṛdi” and gen., “to penetrate to a person’s heart” ; to take effect upon (loc.) ; to meet, come in contact, cut (as lines) ; to follow closely, ensue or happen immediately ; to pass away (as time) Caus. or cl.10. ( xxxiii, 63) “lāgayati”, “to taste” or “to obtain” (“āsvādane”, or “āsādane”). ([In Hindi this root often means “to begin.”])
लङ्घ् – laṅgh (cf. “raṁh” and “laghu”) cl.1.P. ā. ( iv, 34; v. 55) “laṅghati, -te” (Gr. also “lalaṅgha, -ghe”; aor. “alaṅghīt, -ghiṣṭa”; fut. “laṅghitā; -ghiṣyati, -te”; inf. “laṅghitum”), to leap over, go beyond (ā.) ; to ascend, mount upon (P.) ; to pass over meals, abstain from food, fast (P.) ; to dry, dry up, waste, consume Caus. or cl.10. P. ( xxxiii, 87; 121) “laṅghayati” (m.c. also “-te”; Pass. “laṅghyate”), to leap over, cross, traverse &c.; to mount, ascend, tread upon, enter ; to overstep, transgress, violate, neglect ; to get over, avoid, shun, escape from ; to frustrate, prevent, avert ; to disregard, slight, offend, insult, injure &c.; to excel, surpass, outshine, obscure, eclipse ; to remove, transport ; to cause to pass over meals i.e. fast Desid. of Caus. “lilaṅghayiṣati”, to intend to step over
लज् – laj (cf. 2. “laṇj”) cl.10.P. “lajayati”, to appear (“prakāśane”)
लण्ज् – laṇj (cf. “luṇj”) cl.10.P. “laṇjayati”, to be strong; to strike; to dwell; to give (v.l.); to speak; to shine, xxxiii, 111; to manifest (also “laṇjāpayati”), xxxv, 66 (v.l.)
लड् – laḍ (cf. “lal”) cl.1.P. ( ix, 76) “laḍati”, to play, sport, dally ; cl.10. P. “laḍayati”, to loll the tongue, put out the tongue, lick ; (“lāḍayati”), to throw, toss ; to cherish, foster ; (“lāḍayate”), to wish, desire
लण्ड् – laṇḍ (cf. “olaṇḍ”) cl.10.P. “laṇḍayati”, to throw or toss up ; to speak
लर्द् – lard cl.10.P. “lardayati”, to load (cf. Hindī “lāḍ”).
लश् – laś cl.10.P. “lāśayati”, to exercise an art (v.l. for “las”).
लष् – laṣ (cf. “las”) cl.1.4.P. ā. ( xxi, 23; cf. “laṣati, -te, laṣyati, -te” (pf. “lalāṣa, leṣe”; aor. “alāṣīt, alaṣiṣṭa”; fut. “laṣitā; -ṣiṣyati, -te”; inf. “laṣitum”), to wish, desire, long for (acc.) &c. (mostly with prep. “abhi”); to strive after, approach (acc.) Caus, or cl.10.P. “lāṣayati” (aor. “alīlaṣat”), to exercise an art (v.l. for “las”): Desid. “lilaṣiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “lālaṣyate, lālaṣṭi”
लस् – las cl.1.P., ( xvii, 64) “lasati” (only p. “lasat, lasamāna”, and pf. “lalāsa”; Gr. also aor. “alasīt”; fut, “lasitā, lasiṣyati”), to shine, flash, glitter &c.; to appear, come to light, arise ; to sound, resound (cf. “ras”); to play, sport, frolic ; to embrace Caus, or cl.10. ( xxxiii 55), “lāsayati” (aor. “alīlasat”; Pass. “lāsyate”), to dance ; to cause to teach to dance ; to exercise an art (cf. “laś”) ‘lascivus’, ‘lascivire’.]
लाड् – lāḍ (cf. “laḍ”) cl.10.P. “lāḍayati”, to throw (v.l.)
लाभ् – lābh cl.10.P. “lābhayati”, to throw, direct
लिङ्ग् – liṅg (cf. “ā-” “liṅg”) cl.1.P. “liṅgati”, to go ; cl.10. P. “liṅgayati”, to paint, variegate (“citrī-karaṇe”) ; to change or inflect a noun according to its gender
लुट् – luṭ (cf. “rut” and 1. “luṭh”) cl.1.ā. “loṭate”, to resist; to suffer pain; to shine ; cl.10. P. “loṭayati”, to speak; to shine, xxxiii, 81.
लुट् – luṭ (connected with 2. “luṭh”) cl.1.4. P. “loṭati, luṭyati” (only p. “luṭyat”, rolling, in ; Gr. also pf. “luloṭa” &c.), to roll, roll about, wallow ; xxvi, 113; cl.1.ā. “loṭate”, to go : Caus. or cl.10. P. “loṭayati” see under 1. “luṭ”.
लुठ् – luṭh cl, 1. P. “loṭhati” (pf. “luloṭha” &c.), to strike, knock down to roll, wallow (see 2. “luṭh”); cl 1. ā. “loṭhate” (pf. “luluṭhe”; aor. “aluṭhat, aloṭhiṣṭa” to resist; to suffer pain ; to go : Caus. or cl.10.P. “loṭhayati”, to rob, pillage, sack
लुण्ट् – luṇṭ (cf. “ruṇṭ” and “luṇḍ”) cl.1.P. ( ix, 42) “luṇṭati”, to rob, plunder ; cl.10. P. “luṇṭayati” id. ( “to despise”).
लुम्ब् – lumb cl.1.P. “lumbati”, to torment, harass ; cl.10. P. “lumbayati” id., xxxii, 113; to be invisible (“adarśane” v.l. for “ardane”).
लूष् – lūṣ (cf. “luṣ” and “rūṣ”) cl.1.P. “lūṣati”, to adom, decorate ; cl.10. P. “lūṣayati” (aor. “alūluṣat”), to hurt, injure, kill ; to steal, xxxii, 27 ()
लोक् – lok (connected with 1. “ruc”) cl.1.ā. ( iv, 2), “lokate” (pf. “luloke” ; inf. “-lokitum” , to see, behold, perceive: Caus. or cl.10. ( xxxiii, 103) “lokayati” (aor. “alulokat”) id. ; to know, recognize ‘look’.]
लोच् – loc (connected with “ruc” and “lok”) cl.1.ā. ( vi, 3) “locate” (pf. “luloce”; fut. “locitā” &c. Gr.), to see, behold, perceive (see “ā-” and “nir-loc”): Caus. or cl.10. P. “locayati” (aor. “alulocat”), to speak; to shine (“bhāṣārthe”, or “bhāsārthe”) Desid. “lulociṣate” Gr.: Intens. “lolocyate”
वट् – vaṭ (prob. invented to serve as a root for the words below; cf. 1. “vṛt”) cl.1.P., “vaṭati” (pf. “vavāṭa” &c.), to surround, encompass ; cl.10.P. “vaṭayati”, to tie, string, connect, xxxv, 5; to divide, partition, xxxv, 65; to speak, xix, 1 7: Pass. “vaṭyate” (only “vaṭyante” , to be crushed or pounded or ground down.
वण्ड् – vaṇḍ (connected with “vaṇṭ”) cl.1.ā. “vaṇḍate”, to partition, share, divide ; to surround, cover (v.l. “veṣṭane” for “vibhājane”); cl.10. P. “vaṇḍayati”, to partition, share, divide, xxxii, 48 (v.l.)
वर्ण् – varṇ (rather Nom. fr. “varṇa”) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 83) “varṇayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor. “avavarṇat”; inf. “varṇayitum” or “varṇitum”), to paint, colour, dye. ; to depict, picture, write, describe, relate, tell, explain &c.; to regard, consider ; to spread, extend ; to praise, extol, proclaim qualities Pass. “varṇyate” (aor. “avarṇi”), to be coloured or described &c.
वर्ध् – vardh cl.10.P. “vardhayati” (also “vardhāpayati”; cf. below), to cut, divide, shear, cut off ; to fill (in this sense rather Caus. of “vṛdh”).
वल्क् – valk cl.10.P. “valkayati”, to speak
वल्ह् – valh (also written “balh”; cf. “barh”) cl.1.ā. “valhate” to be excellent ; to speak; to kill; to hurt; “to give” or “to cover” (“dāna” v.l. “chādana”) 40; cl.10.P. “valhayati”, “to speak” or “to shine” (“bhāchārthe”, or “bhāsārthe”)
वस् – vas cl.10.P. “vāsayati” (aor. “avīvasat”), to love; to cut off; to accept, take; to offer; to kill (“ni-vāsita”, killed) prep.; see “pari-vas”; but accord. to some the Impv. “vasiṣva” [ viii, 70, 10] and “uṣa”, “a lover” [x, 95, 5], and “vasiṣṭha” [ib. 17] belong also to this root, which has developed an obscene meaning = Gk. [greek] futuere).
वस् – vas cl.1.P. ( xxiii, 36) “vasati” (m.c. also “-te”; pf. “uvāsa, ūṣuḥ” &c. &c.; p. “vāvasāna” ; “-vāsāṁ cakre” ; aor. “avātsīt” ; “avāksam” [where it is artificially connected with “vāc”]; “avāstam” ; fut. “vastā” Gr.; “vatsyati, -te” &c.; “vasiṣyati” ; inf. “vastum, vasitum” &c.; ind. p. “uṣitvā” ; “uṣṭvā” ; “-uṣya” &c.), to dwell, live, stop (at a place), stay (esp. “overnight”, with or without “rātrim” or “rātrīs”) &c. &c.; to remain, abide with or in (with loc. of pers.; loc. or acc. of place, esp. with “vāsam” or “vasatim”) &c. &c.; to remain or keep on or continue in any condition (with a pp., e.g. with “channa”, “to continue to be covered” ; or with an acc., with “brahmacaryam”, “to practise chastity” ; or with an adv. e.g. with “sukham”, “to live pleasantly or at ease”; with or without “dūratas”, “to keep aloof”) &c. &c.; to have sexual intercourse with (loc.) ; to rest upon (loc.) ; to charge or entrust with (instr.) ; cl.10. P. “vasayati”, to dwell Pass. “uṣyate” (aor. “avāsi”), to be dwelt &c. &c.: Caus. “vāsayati, -te” (cf. ; aor. “avīvasat” Pass. “vāsyate” , “-ti” , to cause to halt or stay (overnight), lodge, receive hospitably or as a guest &c.; to cause to have sexual intercourse with (loc.) ; to let anything stand overnight (with “tisro”, scil. “ratrīs”, “three nights”) ; to cause to wait, keep in suspense ; to delay, retard ; to cause to exist, preserve ; to cause to be inhabited, populate (a country) ; to put in, place upon (loc.) (“anadhyāyam mukhe”, to put restraint on the mouth, refrain from speaking); to produce Desid. “vivatsati”, to wish to dwell Intens. “vāvasyate, vāvasti”, to remain, be in, be engaged in ‘wisan’; Germ. ‘wesan’, ‘ge-wesen’, ‘war’ &c.; Angl. Sax. ‘wesan’; Eng. ‘was’, ‘were’.]
वस्त् – vast cl.10.ā. “vastayate”, to waste, hurt ; to go ; to ask
वात् – vāt cl.10.P. “vātayati”, to fan (cf. “vātaya”, p.935, col.2); to fan; to serve, make happy; to go
वास् – vās cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 32; perhaps only Nom. fr. next) “vāsayati” (ep. also “-te”; aor. “-avavāsat”), to perfume, make fragrant, scent, fumigate, incense, steep
विछ् – vich cl.10.P. ( xxxiii, 109) “vicchayati”, to speak or to shine; “vicchāyati” (xxviii, 129; cf. , to go (with “ny-ā”, to press or rub one’s self against): Caus. “vicchāyayati”, to press, bring into straits (perhaps
विण्ट् – viṇṭ cl.10.P. “viṇṭayati”, “to kill” or “to perish” (v.l.)
वित्त् – vitt cl.10.P. “vittayati”, to abandon, give away ()
विल् – vil cl.6.P. “vilati”, to cover, conceal, clothe ; cl.10. P. “velayati”, to throw, cast, send (cf. “pil”); to break or divide (cf. “bil”).
विष्क् – viṣk cl.10.P. “viṣkayati” to see, perceive v.l.
वीज् – vīj (cf. 1. “vij”) cl.1.P. ā. “vījati, -te” (pf. “vivyajuḥ”), to fan, cool by blowing upon or fanning, Hāriv.; to sprinkle with water (according to ā. “to go”): Caus. or cl.10. ( xxxv, 84), “vījayati” (Pass. “vījyate”), to fan, blow, kindle (fire) &c.; to stroke, caress
वीर् – vīr cl.10.ā. ( xxxv, 49; rather Nom. fr. “vīra” below) “vīrayate”, to be powerful or valiant, display heroism ; (P. “vīrayati”) to overpower, subdue
वुण्ट् – vuṇṭ (= “viṇṭ”) cl.10.P. “vuṇṭayati”, “to hurt, kill”, or “to perish”
वेक्ष् – vekṣ (prob. for “avekṣ” q.v.) cl.10.P. “vekṣayati”, to see (v.l. “vlekṣ”).
वेल् – vel (rather Nom. fr. “velā” below) cl.10.P. “velayati”, to count or declare the time “ud-vela” &c.)
व्यप् – vyap (v.l. “vyay” see 2. “vyay”) cl.10.P. “vyāpayati”, to throw ; to throw away, waste, diminish (cf. “vyay”)
व्यय् – vyay cl.1 P. ā. “vyayati, -te” (rather Nom. fr. “vyaya” below), to expend, spend, waste ; cl.10.P. “vyayayati” id. ; to go, move
व्यय् – vyay (v.l. for “vyap”) cl.10.P. “vyāyayati”, to throw
व्युष् – vyuṣ (also read “pyuṣ”) cl.4.P. “vyuṣati”, to burn (in this sense perhaps = “vy-uṣ”) ; to divide, distribute (in this sense also written “pyus, puṣ, byus, bus”) 108; cl.10. P. “vyoṣayati”, to reject, discharge, emit (in this sense also written “pus”)
व्रज् – vraj cl.1.P. ( viii, 79) “vrajati” (m.c. also “-te”; pf. “vavrāja” &c. &c.; aor. “avrājīt” ; fut. “vrajitā” Gr.; “vrajiṣyati” &c.; inf. “vrajitum” ; ind. p. “vrajitvā, -vrajya, -vrājam” &c.), to go, walk, proceed, travel, wander, move (also applied to inanimate objects; with acc. or instr. of the road acc. of the distance, and acc., rarely loc. or dat., of the place or object gone to; with or scil. “padbhyām”, “to go on foot”; with “upānadbhyām” id. lit. “with shoes”; with “dhuryais”, “to travel by means of beasts of burden”; with “paramāṁgatim”, “to attain supreme bliss”; with “śaraṇam” and acc., “to take refuge with”; with “mūrdhnā pādau” and gen., “to prostrate one’s self at anyone’s feet”; with “antam” and gen., “to come to the end of”; with “anyena, anyatra” or “anyatas”, “to go another way or elsewhere”; with “adhas”, either “to sink down [to hell]” or “to be digested [as food]”; with “punar”, “to return to life”) &c. &c.; to go in order to, be going to (dat. inf. or an adj. ending in “aka” [e.g. “bhojako vrajati”, “e is going to eat”]) ; to go to (a woman), have sexual intercourse with (acc.) ; to go against, attack (an enemy; also with “vidviṣam, dviṣato’bhimukham, abhy-ari” &c.) ; to go away. depart from (abl.), go abroad, retire, withdraw, pass away (as time) &c.; to undergo, go to any state or condition, obtain, attain to, become (esp. with acc. of an abstract noun e.g. with “vināśam”, “to go to destruction, become destroyed”; with “chattratām”, “to become a pupil”; with “nirvṛtim”, “to grow happy” [cf. “gam, yā” &c.]; with “sukham”, “to feel well”; with “jīvan”, “to escape alive”) Caus. or cl.10. P. ( xxxii, 74) “vrājayati”, to send, drive, ; to prepare, decorate Desid. “vivrajiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “vāvrajate, vāvrakti”, to go crookedly
व्रण् – vraṇ (rather Nom. fr. “vraṇa” below) cl.1.P. “vraṇati”, to wound ; cl.10. P. ( xxxv, 82) “vraṇayati” id.
व्रीड् – vrīḍ cl.1.ā. “vrīḍate” (accord. to P. “vrīḍyati”; pf. “vivrīḍa” Gr.; aor. “avrīḍīt” ; fut. “vrīḍitā, vrīḍiṣyati” , to be ashamed, feel shame, be bashful or modest &c.; (cl. 4. P.) to throw, hurl Caus. (or cl.10. P.) “vrīḍayati” = “vīḍayati”, to make firm (cf. “vīḍ”).
षट्ट् – ṣaṭṭ cl.10.P. “ṣaṭṭayati” (“niketane, hiṁse, dāne, bale”) cf. “saṭṭ”.
शट् – śaṭ (prob. artificial) cl.1.P. “śaṭati”, to be sick; to divide, pierce; to be dissolved; to be weary or dejected; to go cl.10. “śāṭayate” v.l. for 1. “śaṭh”.
शठ् – śaṭh (cf. “śaṭ, śal”) cl.10.ā. “śāṭhayate”, to praise, flatter
शठ् – śaṭh (cf. 1. “śvaṭh”) cl.10.P. “śaṭhayati”, to speak ill (according to others “to speak well”); to be true
शठ् – śaṭh (cf. 2. “śvaṭh, saṭh, svaṭh”) cl.10.P. “śāṭhayati”, to accomplish, adorn (others “to leave unfinished or unornamented”); to go, move
शठ् – śaṭh cl.1.P. “śaṭhati”, to deceive; to hurt; to suffer pain ; cl.10. P. “śāthayati” (cf. “śuṭh”), to be idle or lazy
शब्द् – śabd (rather a Nom. “śabdaya” fr. “śabda”) cl.10.P. ( xxxiii, 40) “śabdayati”, to make any noise or sound, cry aloud ; to call, invoke ; (“śabdāpayati, -te”), to call, address Pass. “śabdyate”, to be sounded &c.; to be called ; (impers.) it is chattered
शम्ब् – śamb cl.1.P. “śambati”, to go (); cl.10. P. “śambayati”, to collect (v.l.)
शल् – śal cl.1.ā. “śalate”, “to shake” or “to cover” ; cl.1. P. “śalati”, to go, move comp. with prep. cf. “uc-chal, proc-chal, sam-uc-chal”); cl.10. ā. “śālayate”, to praise
शील् – śīl (rather Nom. fr. “śīla” below) cl.1.P. “śīlati” (pf. “śiśīla” &c.), to meditate, contemplate ; to serve, worship ; to act, do, practise, make Caus. (or cl.10.P. “śīlayati” (aor. “aśiśīlat”), to do, make, practise repeatedly or exceedingly, be intent upon or engaged in (acc.), exercise, cultivate &c.; to wear, put on ; to visit, frequent (cf. “śīlita”); to exceed, excel
शुठ् – śuṭh cl.1.P. “śoṭhati”, “to limp” or “to be obstructed or impeded” (“gati-pratighāte”) (cf. “śuṇṭh”); cl.10. P. “śoṭhayati”, to be dull or slow (cf. 4. “śaṭh”).
शुण्ठ् – śuṇṭh cl.1.P. “śuṇṭhati”, to limp, be lame (cf. “śuṭh”); to dry, become dry (“śoṣaṇe”) 60; cl.10. P. “śuṇṭhayati”, to dry, become dry (“śoṣaṇe”)
शुल्क् – śulk (prob. artificial) cl.10.P. “śulkayati”, to pay, give ; to gain, acquire ; to leave, forsake ; to narrate, tell (cf. “śvalk”), xxxii, 34.
शुल्ब् – śulb or śulv (prob. artificial or Nom. fr. next) cl.10.P. “śulbayati”, to mete out ; to create
शूर् – śūr (also written “sūr”) cl.4.ā. “śūryate”, to hurt, injure, kill (only in pf. “śuśūre”, “e cut off [the head]” ; to be or make firm ; cl.10. ā. to be powerful or valiant (in this sense rather Nom. fr. next)
शूर्प् – śūrp (prob. Nom. fr. “śūrpa” below) cl.10.P. “śūrpayati”, to measure, mete out
श्रण् – śraṇ (only in “vi-śraṇ” q.v.) cl.1.P. ( xix, 36) “śraṇati”, or cl.10. P. (xxxii, 42) “śrāṇayati” (aor. “aśiśraṇat”, or “aśaśrāṇat” , to give, grant, present.
श्वठ् – śvaṭh cl.10.P. “śvaṭhayati” ( xxxv, 4) = 2. “śāth” q.v.
श्वठ् – śvaṭh or śvaṇṭh cl.10.P. “śvāṭhayati, śvaṇṭhayati” ( xxxii, 28) = 3. “śaṭh” q.v. [Page 1105,1]
श्वभ्र् – śvabhr (rather Nom. fr. “śvabhra” below) cl.10.P. “śvabhrayati” (only , to go, move; to live in misery; to pierce, bore.
श्वल्क् – śvalk cl.10.P. (only “śvalkayati”, to tell, narrate.
सट् – saṭ cl.1.P. “saṭati”, to be a part of : Caus. or cl.10. “sāṭayati” (see “sāṭ”).
सट्ट् – saṭṭ cl.10.P. “saṭṭayati”, to hurt ; to be strong ; to dwell ; “to take” or “to give” (“dāne” v.l. for “ādāne”).
सठ् – saṭh cl.10.P. “sāṭhayati” = “śaṭh” ()
सत्र् – satr cl.10.ā. “satrayate” and “satrāpayate”, to extend (“sambandhe, saṁtatau”
सभाज् – sabhāj cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 35; rather Nom. fr. 7. “sa” + “bhāj”) “sabhājayati” (rarely “-te”), to serve, honour, worship &c.; to praise, celebrate ; to visit, frequent ; to beautify ; to show
सम् – sam or stam cl.1.P. “samati” or “stamati”, to be disturbed (accord. to some “to be undisturbed”; cf. “śam”) ; cl.10. P. “samayati” or “stamayati”, to be agitated or disturbed
सह् – sah cl.1.ā. ( xx, 22) “sahate” (Ved. and ep. also “-ti” and exceptionally “sāhati”, once in 1. sg. “sahyāmi”; p. “sahat” “sahamāna” [q.v.]; pf. “sehe, sasāha”; Ved. also “sasāhe” and “sāsāhat; sāsahat; sāsahīṣṭāḥ”,; “sāsahyāma”,; p. “sehāna, sāsahāna, sāsahvas” and “sāhvas” [q.v.]; aor. “asākṣi, sākṣi, sākṣate” ; “sākṣīt” ; “sakṣati” ; “sakṣat, sākṣāma” ; Impv. “sakṣi, sākṣva” ; p. “sakṣat” ; “asahisṭa” ; Prec. “sahyās, sāhyāma” ; “sākṣīya”. ; “sāhiṣīmahi” ; fut. “soḍhā” &c.; “sahitā” Gr.; “sakṣyati” , “-te” ; “sākṣye” [?] ; “-sahiṣyati, -te” ; Cond. “asahisyat” ; inf “sahadhyai” ; “sāḍhyai” ; “soḍhum, sahitum” ; ind. p. “soḍhvā” ; “sādhvā, sahitvā” Gr.; “sahya” &c.; “saham” , to prevail, be victorious; to overcome, vanquish, conquer, defeat (enemies), gain, win (battles) ; to offer violence to (acc.) ; to master, suppress, restrain &c.; to be able to or capable of (inf. or loc.) ; to bear up against, resist, with. stand &c. &c.; to bear, put up with, endure, suffer, tolerate (with “na”, “to grudge”) &c.; to be lenient towards, have patience with any one (gen.) ; to spare any one ; to let pass, approve anything ; (with “kalam, kala-kṣepam” &c.) to bide or wait patiently for the right time Caus. or cl.10. “sāhayati” (aor. “asīṣahat”), to forbear Desid. of Caus. “sisāhayiṣati” Desid. “sīkṣate” (p. “sīkṣat”; accord. to “sisahiṣa”), to wish to overcome Intens. “sāsaṣyate, sāsoḍhi” (cf “sāsahi”) Gr. ([Cf. “sahas” and [characters] for [characters]; [characters]. ])
साट् – sāṭ cl.10.P. “sāṭayati”, to make visible or manifest
सान्त्व् – sāntv (also written “śāntv” q.v.) cl.10.P. ā. ( xxxii, 33; rather Nom. fr. “sāntva” below) “sāntvayati, -te” (pr. p. once in [viii, 243] “sāntvamāna” and once [vi, 4910] “sāntvayāna”; aor. “asasāntvat” Gr.; ind. p. “sāntvayitvā” ; “sāntivayya” Pass. “sāntvyate” , to console, comfort, soothe, conciliate, address kindly or gently
सामय – sāmaya (Nom. fr. “sāman” or fr. artificial “sām”; for 2. “sāmaya” see col.3) cl.10.P. “sāmayati” (aor. “asasāmat” or “asīṣamat”), to conciliate, appease, pacify. tranquillize
सुख् – sukh (prob. Nom. fr. “sukha” below) cl.10.4. P. ( xxxv, 75; xxxvi, 14) “sukhayati, sukhyati”, to make happy, please, delight, gladden, rejoice, comfort
सुट्ट् – suṭṭ cl.10.P. “suṭṭayati”, to slight, disregard, despise ; to be small or low or shallow
सुर् – sur (rather Nom. fr. “sura” below) cl.6.P. “surati”, to rule, possess supreme or superhuman power ; to shine ; cl.10. P. “surayati”, to find fault (v.l. for “svar”), xxxv, 11.
सूच् – sūc (rather Nom. fr. “sūca” and “sūci” below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 21) “sūcayati”, to point out, indicate, show, manifest, reveal, betray (in dram. = “to indicate by gesture, communicate by signs, represent”) &c.; to trace out, ascertain, espy Pass. “sūcyate” (aor. “asūci”), to be pointed out or indicated &c.: Intens. “sosūcyate” on
सूत्र् – sūtr (rather Nom. fr. “sūtra” below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 54) “sūtrayati” (accord. to Gr. also “-te” and “sūtrāpayati”), to string or put together ; to contrive, effect, produce, compose ; to put in the form of a Sūtra (see below), teach as a Sūtra or aphorism Intens. “sosūtryate” on
सूद् – sūd (prob. connected with “svad”) cl.1.ā. ( ii, 24) “sūdate” (occurring only in the reduplicated forms “suṣūdima” ; “suṣūdati” or “-dat” ; “suṣūdata” ; Gr. also fut. “sūditā, -diṣyati”), to put or keep in order, guide aright Caus. or cl.10. (cf. “sūdayati, -te” (p. “sūdayāna” ; aor. “asūṣudat, -ta”) id. ; to manage, arrange, prepare, effect, contrive ; to settle i.e. put an end to, kill, slay (also inanimate objects) &c.; to squeeze, press, destroy Desid. “susūdiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “sosūdyate, sosūtti”
सृ – sṛ (cf. “sal”) cl.1.3. P. ( xxii, 37; xxv, 17) “sarati” (ep. also “-te” and accord. to “dhāvati”), and “sisarti” (the latter base only in Veda; 3. du. “sisratuḥ”, 3. pl. “sisrate” ; p. “sisrat” [q.v.] ; pf. “sasāra, sasre” &c.; 1. du. “sasriva” ; p. “sasṛvas, sasrāṇa” and “sasṛmāṇa” ; aor. “asārṣīt” Gr.; Subj. “sarṣat” ; Prec. “sriyāt” Gr.; fut. “sartā” ; “sariṣyati” &c.; inf. “sartum” &c.; “sartave, -tavai” ; ind. p. “sṛtvā” ; “-sṛtya, -sāram” &c.), to run, flow, speed, glide, move, go (with “uccakais”, “to spring up”; with “vājam”, or “ājim”, “to run a race” i.e. “exert one’s self”) c. &c.; to blow (as wind) ; to run away, escape ; to run after, pursue (acc.) ; to go towards, betake one’s self to (acc. or “tatra” &c.) ; to go against, attack, assail ; to cross, traverse (acc.) ; (ā.) to begin to flow (said of the fluid which surrounds the fetus) Pass. “sriyate” (aor. “asāri” , to be gone &c., Gr.: Caus. “sārayati” or cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 107) to cause to run ; to set in motion, strike (a lute) ; to remove, push aside (a braid of hair) ; put in array, to arrange (with “dyūtam”, “the men on a chess-board”) ; to make visible, show, manifest ; to nourish, foster (gen.) ; ā. “sārayate” (for “sarayate” see “saraya”, p.1182, col.1), to cause one’s self to be driven, drive (in a carriage) pass. “sāryate”, to be made to flow, discharge (excrement) Desid. “sisīrṣati”, to wish to run (“vājam”, “a race”) Intens. (cf. “sarisrara”) “sarsṛte” (p. “sarsrāṇa” see “pra-sṛ”) or “sarīṣarti”, to stride backwards and forwards ; to blow violently (as the wind) ; [characters]; Lat. ‘salire’.]
स्कन्ध् – skandh (sometimes written “skand”) cl.10.P. “skandhayati”, to collect
स्तेन् – sten (prob. Nom. fr. “stena” below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 43) “stenayati”, to steal, rob ; (with “vācam”) to misuse a word, be dishonest in speech
स्तेप् – step (cf. “stip”) cl.1.ā. “stepate”, to flow ; cl.10. P. “stepayati”, to send, throw ()
स्थूल् – sthūl (rather Nom. fr. “sthūla” below) cl.10.ā. “sthūlayate” (also P. “sthūlayati” accord. to some), to become big or stout or bulky, increase, grow fat
स्निट् – sniṭ cl.10.P. “sneṭayati”, to go ; to love (cf. 1. “snih”)
स्निह् – snih cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 91) “snihyati” (m.c. also “-te”; occurring only in pres. base; Gr. also pf. “sisneha”; fut. “snehitā, snegdhā, sneḍhā; snehiṣyati, snekṣyati” &c.), to be adhesive or sticky or glutinous or viscid or moist ; to be fixed upon (loc.) ; to be attached to or fond of, feel affection for (loc. or gen.) &c.; cl.1. P. “snehati” see Caus.: Pass. “snihyate” (aor. “asnehi”) Gr.: Caus. (or cl.10. P. “snehayati” (aor. “asiṣṇihat”), to make unctuous or greasy or moist ; to render pliant or subject, subdue ; to kill, slay (v.l. “snehati”): Desid. “sisnehiṣati, sisnihiṣati, sisnikṣati” Gr.: Intens. “seṣṇihyate, seṣṇegdhi, seṣṇeḍhi”.
स्पश् – spaś (v.l. “sparś”; connected with 1. “spṛś”) cl.10.P. “spāśayati”, to take or take hold of ; to unite, join, embrace
स्पृह् – spṛh (connected with “spardh, spṛdh”) cl.10.P. ( xxxv, 19) “spṛhayati” (m.c. also “-te”; pr. p. “spṛhayat” or “spṛhayamāṇa”, once in “spṛhantī”; pf. “spṛhayām-āsa” or “-babhūva” &c.; aor. “apaspṛhat” inf. “spṛhayitum” Gr.), to be eager, desire eagerly, long for (dat. gen., or acc.) &c. &c.; to envy, be jealous of (dat. gen., or acc.) ‘springen’; Eng. ‘spring’.]
स्फट् – sphaṭ (= and v.l. for “sphuṭ”) cl.1.P. “sphaṭati”, to burst, expand &c. : Caus. or cl.10. P. to hurt, injure ‘spilda’; Germ. ‘spalten’.]
स्फण्ड् – sphaṇḍ (v.l. “sphaṇṭ”) cl.10.P. “sphaṇḍayati”, to jest or joke with, laugh at
स्फिट् – sphiṭ cl.10.P. “spheṭayati”, to hurt, injure, kill (v.l. for “sphiṭṭ”; accord. to some also, “to despise”; “to love”; “to cover”).
स्फिट्ट् – sphiṭṭ (cf. “sphiṭ, sphaṭ”) cl.10.P. “sphiṭṭayati”, to hurt, kill
स्फुट्ट् – sphuṭṭ cl.10.P. “sphuṭṭayati”, to despise, disrespect ()
स्फुण्ट् – sphuṇṭ cl.1.P. “sphuṇṭati”, to open, expand ; cl.10. P. “sphuṇṭayati”, to jest, joke, laugh (v.l. for next)
स्फुण्ड् – sphuṇḍ cl.1.ā. “sphuṇḍate”, to open, expand ; cl.10. P. “sphuṇḍayati”, to jest &c. (cf. prec.)
स्मिट् – smiṭ cl.10.P. “smeṭayati”, to despise (“to go”, śākaṭ.) ; to love, xxxii, 36 ()
स्यम् – syam cl.1.P. ( xix, 78) “syamati” (only in 3. pl. pf. “sasyamuḥ” and “syemuḥ”; Gr. also aor. “asyamīt”; fut. “syamitā, syamiṣyati”; ind. p. “syamitvā”, or “syāntvā”; accord. to also cl.10. P. “syamayati”), to sound, cry aloud, shout, cry, shriek ; (“syamati”), to go ; cf. 10. ā. “syāmayate” (“-ti”), to consider, reflect Caus. “syamayati” (aor. “asisyamat”) Gr. (cf. above ): Desid. “sisyamiṣati” Intens. “sesimyate, saṁsyanti”
स्वर् – svar (= “sur”) cl.10.P. “svarayati”, to find fault, blame, censure
हिंस् – hiṁs (orig. Desid. of “han”) cl.1.7. P. ( xxix, 19; xxxiv, 23) “hiṁsati, hinasti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “hiṁsate, hiṁste”; 2. sg. “hiṁsi” for “hinassi” ; pf. “jihiṁsa, -sima, jīhiṁsīh” ; aor. “ahiṁsīt, hiṁsīt” &c.; fut. “hiṁsita” Gr.; “hiṁsiṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “hiṁsitum” [Ved. also “hiesitoḥ”] ; ind. p. “hiṁsitvā” ; “-hiṁsya” , to injure, harm, wound, kill, destroy &c. &c.: Pass. “hiṁsyate” (aor. “ahiṁsi”), to be injured or killed (in “a-hiṁsyamāna”) &c.: Caus. or cl.10.P. ( xxxiv, 23) “hiṁsayati” (aor. “ajihiṁsat”), to injure, harm, kill, slay Desid. “jihiṁsiṣati”, to wish to injure &c. Intens, “jehiṁsyate, jehiṁsti” Gr.
ह्लप् – hlap (v.l. “hrap”) cl.10.P. “hlāpayati”, to speak ; to sound, creak
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