Some verbs of IV class conjugation

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Some verbs of IV class conjugation

Verbs

Translation

अण् – aṇ cl.1.P. “aṇati, āṇa, aṇitum”, to sound cl.4. ā. “aṇyate”, to breathe, (another form of “an” q.v.; in this sense regarded in the Dhātu-pāṭha as a distinct root)
अतिपृऋ – atipṝ “ati-pṝ” cl.4.P. “-pūryati”, to become full or overflowing
अतिप्रवा – atipravā “ati-pra-vā” cl.4.P. “-vāyati”, to blow violently
अतिवा – ativā “ati-vā” cl.2.P. “-vāti”, to blow beyond cl.4. P. “-vayati”, to blow violently; (“ati-vāyati”), pr. p. loc. ind. the wind blowing strongly
अध्यवसो – adhyavaso “adhy-ava-so” cl.4.P. “-syati”, to undertake, attempt, accomplish; to determine, consider, ascertain.
अनुच्छो – anuccho “anu-ccho” (“cho”) cl.4.P. (Imper. 2. sg. “-chya”) to cut open or cut up
अनुजन् – anujan “anu-jan” cl.4.ā. “-jāyate”, to follow in being born or produced or arising; to take after (one’s parents)
अनुरिष् – anuriṣ “anu-riṣ” cl.4.P. “-riṣyati”, to be injured after (acc.)
अनुरी – anurī “anu-rī” cl.4.ā. “-rīyate”, to flow after ; (p. “-rīyamāṇa”)
अनुरुध् – anurudh “anu-rudh” to bar (as a way) ; to surround, confine, overcome &c.; cl.4.ā. “-rudhyate” or ep. P. “-rudhyati” (2. sg. “-rudhyase” , to adhere to, be fond of, love; to coax, soothe, entreat.
अनुव्यध् – anuvyadh “anu-vyadh” cl.4.P. “-vidhyati”, to strike afterwards ; to penetrate, pierce through, wound.
अन्विष् – anviṣ “anv-iṣ” cl.1.P. “-icchati”, to desire, seek, seek after, search, aim, at &c.: cl.4. P. “-iṣyati” id. &c., Caus. “-eṣayati” id.
अभिजन् – abhijan “abhi-jan” cl.4.ā. “-jāyate” (Ved. Inf. “abhi-janitos” to be born for or to ; to claim as one’s birthright; to be born or produced; to be reproduced or born again &c.; to become: Caus. “-janayati” (with “abhi-jṇānam”) to reanimate, revivify
अस् – as cl.4.P. “asyati” (p. “asyat”; impf. “āsyat”, A.V. [cf. “parās” and “vy-as”]; fut. p. “asiṣyat”; aor. “āsthat” [; cf. “vy-as”]; perf. P. “āsa” [cf. “parās”] ā. “āse” [cf. “vy-as”]; Ved. Inf. “astave” to throw, cast, shoot at (loc. dat., or gen) &c.; to drive or frighten away ; see also 1. “asta” s.v.
अवतृऋ – avatṝ “ava-tṝ” cl.1.P. “-tarati” (perf. “-tatāra”, 3. pl. “-teruḥ”; Inf. “-taritum” [e.g. ] or “-tartum” [e.g. ; ind. p. “-tīrya”) to descend into (loc. or acc.), alight from, alight (abl.) ; to descend (as a deity) in becoming incarnate ; to betake one’s self to (acc.), arrive at ; to make one’s appearance, arrive ; to be in the right place, to fit ; to undertake: Ved. cl.6. P. (Imper. 2. sg. “-tira”; impf. -atirat, 2. sg. “-atiras”, 2. du. “-atiratam”; aor. 2. sg. “-tārīs”) to overcome, overpower Ved. cl.4. (p. fem. “-tīyatī”) to sink Caus. “-tārayati” (ind. p. “-tārya”) to make or let one descend, bring or fetch down (acc. or loc.) from (abl.) &c.; to take down, take off, remove, turn away from (abl. ; “to set a-going, render current” see “ava-tārita” below; to descend(?)
आर् – ār cl.4.P. “āryanti”, to praise (perhaps connected with “ṛ”).
इष् – iṣ cl.1.P. “eṣati” (see “anu-” 1. “iṣ” and “pari-” 1. “iṣ”) ā. “eṣate”, to seek, search cl.4. P. “iṣyati” and 9. P. ā. “iṣṇāti” (p. “iṣṇat” “iṣṇāna” ; pf. 3. pl. “īṣus” “īṣire” ; “aiṣīt”; inf. “iṣadhyai” to cause to move quickly, let fly, throw, cast, swing ; to send out or off, stream out, pour out, discharge; to deliver (a speech), announce, proclaim ; to impel, incite, animate, promote
उच् – uc cl.4.P. “ucyati” (pf. 2. sg. “uvocitha” ā. (pf. 2. sg. “ūciṣe” to take pleasure in, delight in, be fond of ; to be accustomed; to be suitable, suit, fit.
ऋण्ज् – ṛṇj cl.6.P. (p. “ṛṇjat”) ā. “riṇjate”: cl.4. P. ā. (see “abhy-ṛṇj”): cl.7. ā. (3. pl. “ṛṇjate”) to make straight or right, make proper, arrange, fit out, decorate, ornament; to make favourable, propitiate; to gain, obtain ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘rego’; Goth. ‘rak-ja’.])
काश् – kāś cl.1.ā. “kāśate” (perf. “cakāśe”, 3. pl. “-śire”), to be visible, appear &c.; to shine, be brilliant, have an agreeable appearance cl.4. “kāśyate” Intens. P. ā. “cākaśīti, cākaśyate”, to shine brightly ; to see clearly, survey 1
कुट् – kuṭ cl.6.P. “kuṭati”, to become crooked or curved, bend, curve, curl ; ? ; to be dishonest, cheat cl.4. P. “kuṭyati”, or cl.10. ā. “koṭayate”, to break into pieces, tear asunder, divide ; to speak indistinctly ; to be warm, burn (cf. “kuṭṭ” and “kuṇṭ”.)
कुत्स् – kuts (perhaps related to “kutas”) cl.10.P. “kutsayati” ([also ā. “-yate” ; rarely cl.1. P. “kutsati” ; once cl.4. P. “kutsyati” , to despise, abuse, revile, contemn ([cf. Lith. ‘kussinu’.])
कुथ् – kuth cl.4. “kuthyati”, to stink, become putrid Caus. P. “kothayati”, to cause to putrify
कुप् – kup cl.4.P. ā. “kupyati, -te” (perf. “cukopa”), to be moved or excited or agitated ; to swell, heave or boil with rage or emotion, be angry, be angry with (dat.; also gen., once [ i, 49, 7] acc.; or with “upari” and gen. e.g. “tasmai” or “tasya” or “tasyopari cukopa”, he was angry with him) &c.: Caus. P. “kopayati”, to move, shake, agitate ; P. ā. “kopayati, -te”, to cause to swell with anger, provoke, make angry ([cf. Lat. ‘cupio’; Eng. ‘hope’; Germ. ‘hoffe’.])
कुश् – kuś cl.4.P. “kuśyati”, to embrace, enfold (v.l. “kus”).
कृश् – kṛś cl.4.P. “kṛśyati” (perf. “cakarśa”; ind. p. “kṛśitvā” or “karś” , to become lean or thin, become emaciated or feeble ; to cause (the moon) to wane Caus. “karśayati”, to make thin or lean, attenuate, emaciate, keep short of food &c.; to lessen, diminish ([cf. perhaps Lat. ‘parco’, ‘parcus’.])
क्नस् – knas cl.4.P. “-syati”, to be crooked (in mind or body) ; to shine Caus. “knasayati”, to shine (cf. “knaṁs”.)
क्रम् – kram cl.1.P. ā. “krāmati” ( 7-3, 76; ep. also “kramati”), “kramate” ( 1-3, 43, ep. also “krāmate”; according to cl.4. P. “krāmyati” [“kramyati” ; aor. “akramīt” &c.; ā. “kramiṣṭa, kraṁsate” [ i, 121, 1], 3. pl. “cakramanta” [ ii, 19, 2]; perf. “cakrāma”, or “cakrame”; p. “cakramāṇa” ; fut. “kramiṣyati” or “kraṁsyate” ind. p. “krāntvā, krantvā”, or “kramitvā” , to step, walk, go, go towards, approach (with “accha, adhi” acc. or loc.) &c.; to approach in order to ask for assistance (with loc.) ; to go across, go over &c.; Ved. to climb (as on a tree’s branch) ; to cover (in copulation) ; to stretch over, project over, tower above, (ind. p. “krāntvā”) ; to take possession of ; ā. to undertake, strive after, make effort for (dat.) ; (loc.) ; ā. ( 1-. 3, 38) to proceed well, advance, make progress, gain a footing, succeed, have effect ; to be appliable or practicable ; P. to be liable to the peculiar arrangement of a Vedic text called Krama (i.e. to be doubled, as a letter or word) ; ā. to read according to the Krama arrangement of a Vedic text (“a-krānta”): Caus. P. “kramayati”, to cause to step ; xi; “kramayati” or “krām-“, to make liable to the peculiar arrangement called Krama (i.e. to double a letter or word) &c.: Intens. “caṅkramyate” ( 3-1, 23 ; p. “caṅ-kramyamāṇa” [ vii, 1, 19, 3 or “-kramam-” or “caṅkramīti” ( xiv, 137 and 141; impf. 2. pl. “caṅkramata” ; fut. p. “caṅkramiṣyat” ; ind. p. “-mitvā” ; cf. “-mita”), to step to and fro, walk or wander about.
क्रुध् – krudh cl.4.P. “krudhyati” (ep. rarely ā. “-te” ; (see also “krudhyamāna”); perf. “cukrodha” &c.; fut. 2nd “krotsyati” ; fut. 1st “kroddhā” ; aor. Subj. 2. sg. “krudhas” ; inf. “kroddhum” , to become angry, be wrathful or angry with (dat. [ 1-4, 37] or gen.), on account of (loc.): Caus. “krodhayati” (aor. “acukrudhat” ; Subj. 1. sg. “cukrudham”, 1. pl. “-dhāma”), to make angry, provoke, irritate (inf. “krodhayitum”); ([cf. Lith. ‘rus-tus’, “angry”; ‘rus-tybe’ “anger”; Gk. [greek] Germ. ‘groll’; Hib. ‘corruidhe’, “anger, wrath, motion”; ‘corruigh’, “fury, resentment.”])
क्लिद् – klid cl.4. “klidyati” (rarely ā. “-te” , to be or become wet or damp ; to rot, putrefy Caus. P. “kledayati”, to bedew, wet, moisten ; (aor. “aciklidat”) ; “to soil” see “kledita”.
क्लिश् – kliś cl.9.P. “kliśnāti” (perf. “cikleśa”; ind. p. “kliśitvā”, or “kliṣṭvā” , to torment, trouble, molest, cause pain, afflict &c.; to suffer, feel pain cl.4. P. “kliśjati”, to torment, cause pain (with acc.) ; ā. “kliśyate” (rarely P. “-ti” ; p. “kliśyamāna”), to be tormented or molested, be afflicted, feel pain &c.; (P.) to be sinful xx: Caus. P. “kleśayati” (rarely ā. ; aor. Subj. 2. sg. “cikliśas” , to torment, molest [Page 324,1]
क्षम् – kṣam cl.1.ā. “kṣamate” (ep. also P. “-ti”; Ved. cl.2. P. “kṣamiti” ; cl.4. P. “kṣāmyati” [cf. Impv. ā. 3. sg. “kṣamyatām” ; perf. “cakṣame” &c., 3. pl. “-mire” ; 1. du. “cakṣaṇvahe” & 1. pl. “-ṇmahe” ; fut. 2nd “kṣaṁsyate, -ti, kṣamiṣyati”; aor. 2. sg. “akṣaṁsthās” ; inf. “kṣantum” &c.), to be patient or composed, suppress anger, keep quiet &c.; to submit to (dat.) ; iv; to bear patiently, endure, put up with (acc.), suffer ; to pardon, forgive anything (acc.) to (gen. or dat.) &c. (e.g. “kṣamasva me tad”, forgive me that ; to allow, permit, suffer (); (with Pot.) ; to bear any one, be indulgent to (Pass.) ; to resist ; to be able to do anything (inf.) ; to seem good iv: Caus. P. ā. “kṣamayati, kṣāmayate”, to ask any one (acc.) pardon for anything (acc.) ; (perf. “kṣamayām āsa”) to suffer or bear patiently (cf. “kṣamāpaya”); ([cf. Goth. ‘hramja’ (?) Angl. Sax. ‘hremman’, “to hinder, disquiet.”])
क्षिप् – kṣip cl.6.P. “kṣipati” ā. “kṣipate” ( &c.; cl.4. P. “kṣipyati”, only ; Subj. “kṣipat”; perf. “cikṣepa” &c.; ep. also “cikṣipe”; fut. 2nd “kṣepsyati” &c.; ep. also “-te”; inf. “kṣeptum”; cf. , to throw, cast, send, despatch (Pass. pr. p. “kṣipyat”, i, 1126) &c.; to move hastily (the arms or legs) ; to throw a glance (as the eye) ; to strike or hit (with a weapon) ; to put or place anything on or in (loc.), pour on, scatter, fix or attach to (loc.) &c.; to direct (the thoughts) upon (loc.) ; to throw away, cast away, get rid of ; to lay (the blame) on (loc.) ; to utter abusive words, insult, revile, abuse &c.; “to disdain” i.e. to excel, beat, outvie ; to strike down, ruin, destroy ; (ā. “to destroy one another, go to ruin” Pot. 3. pl. “kṣiperan” ; to pass or while away (the time or night, “kālam, kṣapām”) lv, 154; xcii, 84; to lose (time, “kālam”; cf. “kālakṣepa”) ; to skip or pass over (a day, “dinam”.) ; (in math.) to add Caus. P. “kṣepayati”, to cause to cast or throw into (“antar”) ; to throw into ; to cause to descend into (loc.) lxxv, 121; to pass or while away (the night, “kṣapām”) lvi, 75; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. “cikṣipas”) to hurt, injure (cf. Subj. “kṣepayat” s.v. 2. “kṣi”); ([cf. Lat. ‘sipo’, ‘dissipo’, for ‘xipo’.])
क्षुध् – kṣudh cl.4.P. “kṣudhyati” (p. “kṣudhyat”; impf. “akṣudhyat”; aor. Subj. “kṣudhat”; fut. 1st “kṣoddhā” ; ind. p. “kṣudhitvā” , to feel hungry, be hungry
क्षुभ् – kṣubh cl.1.ā. “kṣobhate” (only once cl.4. P. ā. “kṣubhyati” ([ &c.]), “-te” ([ v, 16 &c.]), cl.5. P. (only Pot. 3. pl. “kṣubhnuyur” cl.9. P. “kṣubhnāti” (only according to ; perf. P. “cukṣobha” ; “cukṣubhe” &c.: Cond. ā. “akṣobhiṣyata” , to shake, tremble, be agitated or disturbed, be unsteady, stumble (literally and metaphorically): Caus. P. “kṣobhayati”, rarely ā. “-te”, to agitate, cause to shake, disturb, stir up, excite Desid. of Caus. see “cukṣobhayiṣu”; ([cf. Cambro-Brit. ‘hwbiau’, “to make a sudden push”; Gk. [greek] Mod. Germ. ‘schiebe’.]) [Page 331,3]
क्ष्विड् – kṣviḍ (or 2. “kṣvid” = “svid”) cl.1.ā. “kṣveḍate, kṣvedate”, to be wet or unctuous, exude, emit sap cl.4. P. “kṣvidyati” id.
खिद् – khid cl.6. “khindati” ( 7-1, 59; Ved. “khidati” ; perf. “cikheda”, or Ved. “cakhāda” ; fut. “khetsyati” , to strike, press, press down ; to be depressed or wearied cl.7.ā. “khintte”, to be pressed down, suffer pain cl.4. ā. “khidyate” (rarely P. , to be pressed down or depressed, be distressed or wearied, feel tired or exhausted &c.: Caus. P. “khedayati” (rarely ā. , to press down, molest, disturb, make tired or exhausted 85 (v.l.) ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] ?])
गध् – gadh cl.4. “gadhyati”, to be mixed
गुध् – gudh cl.4.P. “-dhyati” (ind. p. “gudhitvā” ; see “upa-gudha”), to wrap up, envelop, cover, clothe (cf. “guṇṭh”) cl.9. P. “-dhnāti”, to be angry, xxxi, 45: cl.1. ā. “godhate”, to play, sport (cf. “gūrd, gud”), ii, 23; ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Old Germ. ‘hut’; Germ. ‘haut’; Angl. Sax. ‘hyde’, ‘hyd’; Lat. ‘cutis’ ?])
गुप् – gup cl.4.P. “-pyati” (p. ā. “gupyamāna”, in Prākṛit ‘guppam-‘ , to become perplexed or confused
गुर् – gur (cf. 1. “gṝ”) cl.6. “gurate”, to raise, lift up (or “to make effort”) ; (cf. “ati-, apa-, abhi-, ava-, ā-, ud-, pra-“): “gur”, or “gūr” cl.4. “gūryate”, to hurt, xxvi, 45; to go Caus. “gorayate” or “gūray-“, to raise, lift up (or “to make effort”), xxxiii, 21; to eat (cf. “gūr”.)
गृध् – gṛdh cl.4.P. “gṛdhyati” (perf. 3. pl. “jagṛdhur” ; “jāgṛdhur” ; aor. “agṛdhat” ; fut. “gardhiṣyati” ; pr. p. “gṛdhyat” ; ind. p. “gṛddhvā” , to endeavour to gain ; to covet, desire, strive after greedily, be desirous of or eager for (loc. [ &c.] or acc. Caus. P. “gardhayati”, to be greedy ; to make desirous or greedy ; ā. “-yate”, to deceive, cheat Intens. 2. sg. impf. “ajarghāḥ” ; ([cf. “anu-, prati-; abhi-ghṛdhna, pra-gardhin”; cf. also Old Germ. ‘gir’: Mod. Germ. ‘gier’: Engl. ‘greedy'(?): Goth. ‘gredags’, ‘gaurs’: Hib. ‘greadaim’, “I burn”; ‘greadhnach’, “joyful, glad”; ‘gradh’, “love, charity; dear”; ‘graidhneog’, “a beloved female”, &c.: Lith. ‘godus’, ‘gedu’: Slav. ‘glad’, “unger.”])
घूर् – ghūr cl.4.ā. “-ryate”, to hurt, injure, kill ; to become old, decay
डिप् – ḍip “ḍimp, ḍimbh” cl.10.ā. “ḍepayate, ḍimp-, ḍimbh-“, to heap together cl.4.6.10. P. “ḍipyati, ḍipati, depayati” (v.l. “ṭep-” ā. “ḍimbayate”, to throw
जन् – jan cl.1. ([ and 10. “janati, -te” (Subj. “janat” ; “-nāt” ā. “-nata” impf. “ajanat” ; p. “janat”), “janayati, -te” (in later language only P. Subj. “-nayat”; impf. “ajanayat”; aor. “ajījanat”; p. “janayat”; inf. “janayitavai” xiv), twice cl.3. (Subj. “jajanat” [ ix, 8]; cf. ; pr. “jajanti” aor. ā. “janiṣṭa”; ā. “ajani” “jajāna”; 3. pl. “jajṇur” &c.; once “jajanur”, viii, 97, 10 p. “-jṇivas”; Ved. inf. “janitos”, iv, 6, 7 iii; [ 3-4, 6]; Ved. ind. p. “-nitvī” to generate, beget, produce, create, cause &c.; to produce (a song of praise, &c.) ; (cl. 10 or Caus.) to cause to be born ,; to assign, procure cl.4. “jāyate” (ep. also “-ti”; impf. “ajāyata”; pr. p. “jayamāna”; fut. “janiṣyate”; aor. “aaniṣṭa”; 1. [ viii, 6, 10] and 3. sg. “ajani”; 3 “sani” “jani”, i, 141, 1; “jāni”, 7, 36; perf. “jajṇe”, 2. sg. “-jṇiṣe” 3. pl. “-jṇire”, p. “-jṇāna”) and ([]) cl, 2. (?) ā. (2. sg. “jaṇiṣe”, 2. pl. “-jiṇre, -niṣvā” [vi, 15, 18], “-nidhvam” cf. ; impf. 3. p. “ajṇata” [aor. cl.1.ā. (impf. 3. pl. “ajanatā” ; p. “janamāna”, viii, 99, 3) to be born or produced, come into existence &c.; to grow (as plants, teeth) iv f. ; to be born as, be by birth or nature (with double nom.) ; to be born or destined for (acc.) (v.l. “jayate” for “jāy-“); to be born again Introd. 14; to become, be &c.; to be changed into (dat.) ; to take place, happen ; to be possible or applicable or suitable ; to generate, produce Pass. “janyate”, to be born or produced Desid. “jijaniṣati”, 42 Intens. “jaṇjanyate” and “jājāy-“, 43 (cf. ; ([cf. [characters] Lat. ‘gigno’, ‘(g) nascor’; Hib. ‘genim’, “I beget, generate.”])
जस् – jas cl.1.ā. (p. “jasamāna”) to be exhausted or starved P. “jasati”, to go cl.4. P. to liberate Caus. “jāsayati” (aor. “ajījasata”, 2. du. “jajastam”) to exhaust, weaken, cause to expire ; to hurt (cf. ; to strike, xxxiii; to contemn ; cf. “uj-, ni-; projjāsana”.
जुर् – jur (“jṝ”) cl.4.6. P. “jūryati” ( “jūr” ā. “-te” “jūryat” and “jurat”; pf. p. “jujurvas”) to become old or decrepit, decay, perish ; to cause to grow old or perish, i, 182, 3; cf. “a-jurya”.
जूर् – jūr cl.4.ā. see 1. “jur”.
जूर् – jūr (cf. “jvar”) cl.4.ā. “-ryate”, to hurt ; to be angry with (dat.)
जृऋ – jṝ (cf. “jur”) cl.1.P. (3. pl. “jaranti”; Impv. 2. du. “jaratam”; p. “jarat” see s.v.) to make old or decrepit ; to cause to grow old, vii, 67, 10; (1. “jṛ”) to humiliate cl.4.P. “jīryati” ( &c.; also ā. “-te”; p. “jīryat”, rarely “-yamāṇa”; once cl.1. ā. Subj. 3. pl. “jaranta” ; cl.9. “jṛṇāti” ; cl.10. “jārayati”, xxxiv, 9; pf. “jajāra”, AX, x, 8, 26 &c.; once “jāgāra”, v, 19, 10; 3. pl. “jajarur” and “jerur” ; aor. “ajarat” and “ajārīt”, iii, 1, 38; Subj. 3. pl. “jāriṣur” ; fut. 1st “jaritā” and “-rītā” ; ind. p. “-ritvā” and “-rītvā” to grow old, become decrepit, decay, wear out, wither, be consumed, break up, perish &c.; to be dissolved or digested ; Bhaṭt.: Caus. “jarayati” (ep. also ā. “-te”; p. “-rayat” [once, “jar-“, i, 124, 10] &c.) to make old, wear out, consume &c.; to digest ; to cause to be digested
ज्या – jyā (cf. “ji”) cl.9.P. “jināti” (Pot. “-nīyāt”; p. “-nat”; pf. “jijyau”; fut. “jyāsyati” ; ind p. “-jyāya”, 42) Ved. to overpower, oppress, deprive any one (acc.) of property (acc.) &c.; (derived fr. “jyāyas”, “senior”) to become old cl.4. ā. “jīyate” or Pass. “-yate”, Ved. to be oppressed or treated badly, be deprived of property (or everything, “sarva-jyānim” vii) &c.: Caus. “jyāpayati”, to call any one old 46: Desid. (p. “jijyāsat”) to wish to overpower Intens. “jejīyate” ; cf. “pari-“; [characters].
झृऋ – jhṝ (= “jṝ”) cl.4.9. “jhiryati, jhriṇāti”, to become old ; cf. “jharjharita”.
चूर् – cūr cl.4. “-ryate”, to burn ; for cl.10. “-rayati” see “cur”.
छो – cho cl.4. “chyati” (vii, 3, 71; perf. 3. pl. “cacchur” cf. 4, 83 2 ; aor. “acchāt” and “acchāsīt”, ii, 4, 78) to cut off, cut xiv f.: Caus. “chāyayati” ; cf. “anu-, ava-, ā-“.
तन् – tan (= “stan”) cl.4. “-nyati” (aor. 2. sg. “tatanas”) to resound, roar ; ([cf. [characters] &c.])
तप् – tap (cf. 1. “pat”) cl.4.ā. “-pyate”, to rule
तप् – tap cl.1. “tapati” (rarely ā.; Subj. “-pāti” ; p. “tapat” &c.; cl.4. p. “tapyat” ; pf. 1. sg. “tatapa” ; 3. sg. “-tāpa”, x, 34, 11 ; p. “tepāna” ; fut. “tapsyati” &c.: “-te” & “tapiṣyati” to give out heat, be hot, shine (as the sun) &c.; to make hot or warm, heat, shine upon ; to consume or destroy by heat ; to suffer pain ; (with “paścāt”) to repent of ; to torment one’s self, undergo self-mortification, practise austerity (“tapas”) i f. &c.; to cause pain to, injure, damage, spoil xiv &c.: Pass. or cl.4.ā. “tapyate” (xiv; or “tapy-” ; p. “-pyamāna” ; “tapy-“, xix, 56, 5; cf. “a-“; aor. “atāpi” ; “atapta” ; pf. “tepe” &c.; p. “-pāna” ; also P. “tapyati, -pyet, atapyat”, &c. to be heated or burnt, become hot &c.; to be purified by austerities (as the soul) ; to suffer or feel pain &c.; to suffer pain voluntarily, undergo austerity (“tapas”) &c.: Caus. “tāpayati, -te” (p. “-payat” ; Pass. “-pyate” &c.; aor. “atītape” & [Subj.] “tatapate” to make warm or hot, iv, 2, 6; viii, 72, 4 &c.; to consume by heat &c.; to cause pain, trouble, distress &c.; to torment one’s self, undergo penance, iii, 8199: Intens. (p. “tātapyamāna”) to feel violent pain, be in great anxiety ([cf. Lat. ‘tepeo’ &c.])
तम् – tam cl.4. “tāmyati” ( 7-3, 74; rarely ā. ; pf. “tatāma” ; aor. Pass. “atami” ; Ved. inf. “tamitos”, with “ā” preceding, “till exhaustion” ; pf. Pass. p. “-tānta” q.v.) to gasp for breath (as one suffocating), choke, be suffocated, faint away, be exhausted, perish, be distressed or disturbed or perplexed (“na mā tamat” [aor. subj.] “may I not be exhausted”) &c.; to stop (as breath), become immovable or stiff ; to desire (cf. 2. “-ma, -mata”) Caus. “tamayati” (aor. Pass. “atāmi” to suffocate, deprive of breath ; cf. “a-tameru”.
तस् – tas cl.4. “-syati”, to fade away, perish ; (cf. “taṁs”) to cast upwards (or “to throw down”) (); to throw
तिम् – tim (= “stim”) cl.4.P. “-myati”, to become quiet ; to become wet (also “tīmy-” fr. “tīm”) Intens. “tetimyate”
तीम् – tīm cl.4. “-myati” see “tim”: Caus. “tīmayati”, to wet
तुर् – tur (cf. “tṝ, tvar”) cl.6. to hurry, press forwards, vi, 18, 4 (p. “-rat”) (ā. “-rate”): cl.4. (Imper. “tūrya”) to overpower ; ā. to run ; to hurt cl.3. “tutorti”, to run Caus. “turayate” (p. “-rayat”) to run, press forwards Desid. “tūtūrṣati”, to strive to press forwards ; Intens. p. “tarturāṇa”, rushing, pressing each other (waves), ix, 95, 3.
तुष् – tuṣ cl.4. “-ṣyati” (metrically also “-te”; fut. “tokṣyati, toṣṭā”, and inf. “toṣṭum” [ iv, 1562] []; aor. “atuṣat” ; pf. “tutoṣa”) to become calm, be satisfied or pleased with any one (gen. dat. instr. loc., or acc. with “prati”) or anything (instr.) &c.; to satisfy, please, appease, gratify, i, 4198: Caus. “toṣayati” (or metrically “-te”) id. f. “tuṣayantī”) &c.; Desid. “tutukṣati” Intens. “totuṣyate, totoṣṭi” ; cf. “tūṣṇīm”.
तृप् – tṛp cl.4. “tṛpyati” ([ &c.; metrically also “-te”]) cl.5. [Subj. 2. sg. “tṛpṇavas” Impv. “-ṇuhi, -ṇutam” (see also “a-tṛpṇuvat”); “-noti” and g. “kṣubhnādi”] cl.6. [2. sg. “tṛmpasi” Impv. “-pa, -patu”, &c. ; cf. 1 ; “tṛpati” ; pf. p. ā. “tātṛpāṇa” ; P. “tatarpa”; 3. pl. “tātṛpur” ; aor. “atṛpat” (iii, 13, 6) or “atrāpsīt” ; “atarpīt, atārpsīt” ; fut. 1st “tarpiṣyati” (but cf. , “tarpsy-, trapsy-“; Cond. “atrapsyat” ; fut. 2nd “tarpitā, -ptā, traptā” on to satisfy one’s self, become satiated or satisfied, be pleased with (gen. instr., or rarely loc. e.g. “nāgnis tṛpyati kāṣṭhānām”, “fire is not satisfied with wood” ; “atṛpyan brāhmaṇā dhanaiḥ”, “the Brahmans were pleased with wealth” xiii) &c.; to enjoy (with abl.) ; to satisfy, please i f.: cl.1. “tarpati”, to kindle Caus. “tarpayati”, rarely “-te” (impf. “atarpayat” &c.; p. “tarpayat” ; aor. “atītṛpat” ; “atītṛpāma” ; inf. “tarpayitavai” to satiate, satisfy, refresh, gladden &c.; ā. to become satiated or satisfied ; to kindle Desid. (Subj. “titṛpsāt”) to wish to enjoy Caus. Desid. (Pot. “titarpayiṣet”) to wish to satiate or refresh or satisfy Intens. “tarītṛpyate, tarītarpti, -trapti” ; ([cf. “tṛph”; [characters]. ])
तृष् – tṛṣ cl.4. “-ṣyati” (p. “tṛṣyat” ā. “-ṣāṇa” pf. “tātṛṣāṇa” [“tat-“, vi, 15, 5]; 3. pl. “tātṛṣur”, x, 15, 9; aor. Subj. “tṛṣat” ; ind. p. “-ṣṭvā”, xix, 34, 6; “-ṣitvā” and “tarṣitvā” to be thirsty, thirst, thirst for Caus. (aor. 1. pl. “atītṛṣāma”) to cause to thirst, iv, 34, 11; ([cf. Goth. ‘thars’, ‘thaursus’; [characters] ]) 2.
दा – dā cl.4.P. “dyati” (cf. “ā-” 4. “dā”), to bind, only in “dīṣva” ([cf. [characters] ]).
दघ् – dagh cl.5. (Pot. “-ghnuyāt”; Prec. 3. sg. “-ghyās”; aor. Subj, 1 pl. “-ghma”) with “paścā”, or “-cāt”, to fall short of (cf. “a-pascā-daghvan”) ; with “adhas”, to reach below the regular height ; to strike ; to protect (cf. “daṅgh”) cl.4. “daghyati”, to go ; to flow ; cf. “ati-, ā-; pradaghas”; [characters].
दम् – dam cl.4. “dāmyati” ( 7-3, 74; ind. p. “dāntvā” and “damitvā”, 2, 56; aor. Pass. “adami”, 3, 34 ; P. “-mit” to be tamed or tranquillised (Impv. “dāmyata”); to tame, subdue, conquer (ind. p. “damitvā”) cl.9.irreg. (? Subj. 2. sg. “danas”) id. Caus. “damayati” (p. “-mayat”; ā. to subdue, overpower ; Desid. see “dān”; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘domare’ &c.])
दिव् – div cl.4. “dīvyati, -te” &c. (perf. “dideva” ; fut. “deviṣyati”; cond, “adeviṣyat” ; aor. “adevīt” ; &c.; infin. “devitum” &c.; ind. p. “devitvā” ; “-dīvya” to cast, throw, esp. dice i.e. play, gamble (“akṣais” ; “akṣān” , with (instr. , for (instr., ii, 2061 &c.; acc. ; dat. ; gen. [“śatasya”] ; to lay a wager, bet with (“sārdham”), upon (dat.) ; to play, sport, joke, trifle with (acc. ; to have free scope, spread, increase ( ii, 193 B. “vardhati”); to shine, be bright [Zd. ‘div’; (?) Lit. “dyvas”] ; to praise, rejoice, be drunk or mad; to sleep; to wish for; to go Caus. “devayati”, to cause to play () or to sport Desid. “dideviṣati” and “dudyūṣati” Caus. of Desid. “dudyūṣayati”, to incite to play Intens. “dedivīti, dedyeti, dedeti” &c.
दी – dī (cf. “ḍi”) cl.4.P. ā. “dīyati, -te”, to soar, fly Intens. inf. “dedīyitavai”, to fly away “ḍī”; Gk. [greek]. ]
दी – dī cl.4.ā. “dīyate”, to decay, perish ( xxvi, 25; “didīye; dāsyate, dātā; adāsta” Caus. “dāpayati” Desid. “didiṣate”and”didāsate”
दीप् – dīp cl.4.ā. “dīpyate” (“dīpyate” , “dipyati” pf. “didīpe” ; fut. “dīpiṣyate, dīpitā”; aor. “adīpi, adipiṣṭa” inf. “dipitum” ; iii, 1, 61) to blaze, flare, shine, be luminous or illustrious &c.; glow, burn (also with anger Caus. “dipayati, -te” aor. “adīdipat” or “adidipat” ( 7-4, 3) to kindle, set on fire, inflame 60 &c.; illuminate, make illustrious &c.; excite, rouse Desid. “didīpiṣate”: Intens. “dedīpyate”, to blaze fiercely, shine intensely, be very bright ; p. “dedīpyantī”
दुष् – duṣ cl.4.P. “duṣyati” (“-te” ; pf. “dudoṣa”; fut. “dokṣyati, doṣṭā” aor. “aduṣat” ; “adukṣat” to become bad or corrupted, to be defiled or impure, to be ruined, perish; to sin, commit a fault, be wrong &c.: Caus. “dūṣayati” (ep. also “-te”) see under “dūṣa; doṣayati” ( 6-4, 91), to spoil or corrupt (the mind).
दुह् – duh (orig. “dugh” cf. “dughāna, dugha” &c., and the initial “dh” of some forms) cl.2.P.ā. “dogdhi; dugdhe” or “duhe” &c. (pl. ā. “duhate”, ix, 19, 5 &c.; “duhrate”, i, 134, 6 &c.; “duhre”, vii, 101, 1 &c.; impf. P. “adhok”, iii, 19, 7; “duhur” ii, 34, 10 &c.; ā. “adugdha” [according to aor.] pl. “aduhra”, i sg. “aduha” pl. “-hra” [cf. ; Impv. “dhukṣva” ; 3 sg. “duhām” ; pl. “duhrām, -ratām” ; “dhuṅgdhvam” ; Subj. “dohat” [3 pl. “-hān” , “-hate” ; Pot. “duhīyat” ; “-yan”, i, 120, 9; ā. “-hīta”, ii, 18, 8; p. P. “duhat” ā. “duhāna, duhāna”, and “dugh-” ; cl.6.P. ā. “duhati, -te” &c.; cl.4. “duhyati, -te” ; pf. “dudoha” [“-hitha” , “duduhe”, 3 pl. “duduhur” [“dudūhur” &c.; ā. “duduhre” “-hrire”]; fut. “dhokṣyati, -te” ; aor. “adhukṣat, -ṣata” [3 sg. ix, 2, 3 pl. 110, 8], “adukṣat”, i, 33, 10; “dukṣata”, 3 sg. i, 160, 3; Impv. “dhukṣasva” ; Pot. “dhukṣīmahi” ; inf. “dogdhum” &c.; “dogdhos” ; “duhadhyai” and “dohase” ; ind. p. “dugdhvā” to milk (a cow or an udder) fig. take advantage of (cf. [characters] ), enjoy; to milk or squeeze out, extract (milk, Soma e.g. any good thing); draw anything out of another thing (with 2 acc.) &c. &c.; (mostly ā.) to give milk, yield any desired object (acc., rarely gen.) &c. &c.: Pass. “duhyate” aor. “adohi” ( 3-1, 63 to be milked, to be drawn or extracted from &c.: Caus. “dohayati, -te” aor. “adūduhat” Pass. “dohyate”, to cause to milk or be milked; to milk, milk out, extract Desid. “dudukṣati” (), “dudhukṣati” ( ii, 38 cf. “dudhukṣu”), to wish to milk. [Page 489,2]
दृंह् – dṛṁh or dṛh cl.1.P. “dṛṁhati”, to make firm, fix, strengthen &c. (p. “dṛṁhantam” ; ā. “-te”, to be firm or strong &c. (trans. = P. only in “dṛṁhethe” “dṛṁhāmahai” ; cl.4. P. ā. only Impf. “dṛhya” and “-hyasva”, be strong ; cl.1. “darhati”, to grow ; pf. “dadarha” or “dadṛṁha”; p. ā. “dādṛhāṇa”, fixing, holding ; fixed, firm, i, 85, 10; aor. “adadṛhanta”, they were fixed or firm, x, 82, 1: Caus. P. ā. “dṛṁhayati, -te”, to make firm, fix, establish
दृप् – dṛp cl.4.P. “dṛpyati” (“darpati” only āpDh. i, 13, 4; fut. “drapsyati” or “darpiṣyati” ; “darpitā, -ptā”, and”draptā” ; pf. “dadarpa”; aor. “adṛpat” ; “adrāpsīt” 7; “adarpīt” and “adārp sīt” to be mad or foolish, to rave ; to be extravagant or wild, to be arrogant or proud, to be wildly delighted. &c.; to light, kindle, inflame (“darpati” or “darpayati” v.l. for “chṛd”): Caus. “darpayati”, to make mad or proud or arrogant
द्रुह् – druh cl.4.P. “druhyati” (ep. and metr. also ā. “-te”) &c. (pf. “dudrbha” , “-hitha” ; aor. “adruhat”, Gr., Subj. 2 sg. “druhas” pl. “druhan” [with “mā”] ; 2 sg. adrukshas ; fut. “dhrokṣyati” , “drohiṣyati” ; “drogdhā, droḍhā” or “drohitā” Gr.; inf. “drogdhavai” ; ind. p. “drugdhvā, drochitvā, druhitvā” Gr.; “-druhya” to hurt, seek to harm, be hostile to (dat.; rarely gen. [ ii, 99, 23 loc. [ iv, 2, 21] or acc. [ ii, 144]); absol. to bear malice or hatred ; to be a foe or rival Caus. “drohayati”: Desid. “dudrohiṣati, dudruh-” Gr.; “dudrukṣat” (cf. “abhi-“and”dudhrukṣu”). ([Orig. “dhrugh”; cf. Zd. ‘druj’; Germ. ‘triogan’, ‘trugen’.])
धा – dhā cl.3.P. ā. “dadhāti, dhatte” &c. &c. (P. du. “dadhvas, dhatthas, dhattas” [ 8-2, 38]; pl. “dadhmasi” or “-mas, dhattha, dādhati”; impf. “adadhāt” pl. “-dhur”, 2. pl. “adhatta” or “adadhāta” ; Subj. “dadhat” or “-dhāt” [ 7-3, 70 , “-dhas, -dhatas, -dhan”; Pot. “dadhyāt”; Impv. “dādhātu” pl. “-dhatu”; 2. sg. “dhehi” [fr. “dhaddhi”; cf. “dhattāt” ; 2. pl. “dhatta”, i, 64, 15, “dhattana”, i, 20, 7, “dadhāta”, vii, 32, 13, or “-tana”, x, 36, 13 [cf. ; p. “dadhat, -ti” m. pl. “-tas”; ā. 1. sg. “dadhe” [at once 3. sg. = “dhatte” and = pf. ā.], 2. sg. “dhatse”, viii, 85, 5 or “dhatse” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”; 2. pl. “-dhidhve” [cf. pf.]; 3. pl. “dadhate” ; impf. “adhatta, -tthās”; Subj. “dadhase”, viii, 32, 6 [ 3-4, 96 ; Pot. “dadhīta” “dadhīta”, v, 66, 1; Impv. 2. sg. “dhatsva”, x, 87, 2 or “dadhiṣva”, iii, 40, 5 &c.; 2. pl. “dhaddhvam” [ 8-2, 38 or “dadhidhvam” “dadhatām” ; p. “dadhāna”); rarely cl.1. P. ā. “dadhati, -te” ; only thrice cl.2. P. “dhāti” ; and once cl.4. ā. Pot. “dhāyeta” (pf.P. “dadhau, -dhātha, -dhatur, -dhimā, -dhur” &c.; ā. “dadhe” [cf. pr.], “dadhiṣe” or “dhiṣe” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”, 2. pl. “dadhidhve” [cf. pr.]; 3. pl. “dadhire, dadhre”, x, 82, 5; 6, or “dhire”, i, 166, 10 &c.; p. “dadhāna” [cf. pr.]; aor. P. “adhāt, dhāt, dhās; adhur, dhur” &c.; Pot. “dheyām, -yur; dhetana” ; 2. sg. “dhāyīs” ; Impv. “dhātu” [cf. 6-i, 8 3 ; 2. pl. “dhāta” or “-tana”, 3. pl. “dhāntu” ; ā. “adhita, -thās, adhītām, adhīmahi, dhīmahi, dhimahe, dhāmahe” ; 3. sg. “ahita, hita” ; Subj. “dhethe” , “dhaithe”, vi, 67, 7; Impv. “dhiṣvā”, ii, 11, 18, &c.; P. “adhat” ; “dhat” ; P. “dhāsur” Subj. “-sathas” and “-satha” ; ā. “adhiṣi, -ṣata” ; Pot. “dhiṣīya” [P. vii, 4, 45]; “dheṣīya” ; fut. “dhāsyati, -te” or “dhātā” &c.; inf. “dhātum” &c.; Ved. also “-tave, -tavai, -tos; dhiyadhyai” ; Class. also “-dhitum”; ind. P. “dhitvā” ; “hitvā” [ 7-4, 42], “-dhāya”and”-dhām” Pass. “dhīyate” &c. [ 6-4, 66], p. “dhīyamāna” ; aor. “adhāyi, dhāyi” [ 7-3, 33 ; Prec. “dhāsīṣṭa” or “dhāyiṣīṣṭa” [vi, 4, 62]) to put, place, set, lay in or on (loc.) &c. &c. (with “daṇḍam”, to inflict punishment on [with loc. gen. ; with “tat-padavyām padam”, to put one’s foot in another’s footstep i.e. imitate, equal ii. 64); to take or bring or help to (loc. or dat.; with “āre”, to remove) ; (ā.) to direct or fix the mind or attention (“cintām, manas, matim, samādhim” &c.) upon, think of (loc. or dat.), fix or resolve upon (loc. dat. acc. with “prati” or a sentence closed with “iti”) ; to destine for, bestow on, present or impart to (loc. dat. or gen.) &c. (Pass. to be given or granted, fall to one’s [dat.] lot or share ; to appoint, establish, constitute ; to render (with double acc.) iii. 82; to make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect, perform, execute &c. (aor. with “pūrayām, mantrayām, varayām” &c. = “pūrayām” &c. “cakāra”); to seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support, wear, put on (clothes) &c.; (ā.) to accept, obtain, conceive (esp. in the womb), get, take (with “okas” or “canas”, to take pleasure or delight in [loc. or dat.]) ; to assume, have, possess, show, exhibit, incur, undergo Caus. “-dhāpayati” (see “antar-dhā, śrad-dhā” &c.): Desid. “dhitsati, -te” ( 7-4, 54), to wish to put in or lay on (loc.) (Class. Pass. “dhitsyate; dhitsya” see s.v.); “didhiṣati, -te”, to wish to give or present ; (ā.) to wish to gain, strive after (p. “didhiṣāṇa”, x, 114, 1) with “avadyam”, to bid defiance (cf. “didhiṣāyya, didhiṣu”): Intens. “dedhīyate” ‘da’, ‘dadaiti’; Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘dedu’, ‘deti’; Slav. ‘dedja’, ‘diti’; Old Sax. ‘duan’, ‘don’, Angl. Sax. ‘don’, Engl. ‘do’; Germ. ‘tuan’; ‘tuon’, ‘thun’.]
धी – dhī cl.4.ā. “dhīyate”, to contain, bold (Pass. of 1. “dhā”?); to slight, disregard; to propitiate (?)
धूर् – dhūr cl.4.ā. “dhūryate”, to hurt or kill (cf. “dhūrv”); to move or approach
नख् – nakh or naṅkh cl.4.1. P. “nakhyati, nakhati” and “naṅkhati”, to go, move
नभ् – nabh cl.1.ā. “nabhate”, to burst be torn or rent asunder ; impf. P. “nabhas”, to break or destroy (?), i, 174, 8 (cf. ; cl.4.9. P. “nabhyati, nabhnāti” ( xxvi, 130, xxxi, 48), to hurt, injure (pf. ā. “nebhe” Caus. “nabhayati”, to cause to burst, tear open
नश् – naś cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 85) “naśyati” (rarely “-te” and 1. P. “naśati, -te”; pf. “nanāśa”, 3. pl. “neśur”; aor. “anaśat” &c.; “aneśat, neśat” [cf. on ; fut. “naśiṣyati” ; “naṅkṣyati, -te” [cond. “anaṅkṣyata”] ; “naśitā” ; “naṁṣṭā” ; “naṅgdhā” ; inf. “naśitum, naṁṣum” Gr.; ind. p. “naśitvā, naṣṭva, naṁṣṭvā” to be lost, perish, disappear, be gone, run away &c. &c.; to come to nothing, be frustrated or unsuccessful &c.: Caus. “nāśayati”, ep. also “-te” (aor. “-anīnaśat”; dat. inf. “-nāśayadhyai” to cause to be lost or disappear, drive away, expel, remove, destroy, efface &c. &c.; to lose (also from memory), give up ; to violate, deflower (a girl) ; to extinguish (a fire) ; to disappear (in “mā” “nīnaśah” and “-naśuḥ”) Desid. “ninaśiṣati” or “ninaṅkṣati” (cf. “ninaṅkṣu”); Desid. of Caus. “nināśayiṣati”, to wish to destroy Intens. “nānaśyate” or “nānaṁṣṭi” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nex’, ‘nocere’]).
नह् – nah cl.4.P. ā. ( xxvi, 57) “nahyati, -te” (Pot. “-nahet” ; “nahyur” ; p. ā. “nahyamāna” [also with pass. meaning] &c.; pf. “nanāha, nehe”; fut. “natsyati, naddhā” [cf. ; aor, “anātsīt”, Bhsṭṭ.; “anaddha” ; ind. p. “naddhvā” Gr.; “-nahya” &c.; inf. “-naddhum” to bind, tie, fasten, bind on or round or together; (ā.) to put on (as armour &c.), arm one’s self. &c. &c.: Pass. “nahyate”, p. “-hyamāna” (see above ): Caus. “nāhayati” (aor. “anīnahat” Gr.) to cause to bind together Desid. “ninatsati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “nānahyate, nānaddhi”. “nagh”; cf. Lat. ‘nectere’, Germ. ‘Nestel’ (?).]
नृत् – nṛt cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 9) “nṛtyati” (ep. also “-te”; pf. “nanarta, nanṛtur” ; aor. “anartiṣur” ; “-nṛtur” [cf. “ā-nṛt”]; p. “nṛtamāna” [?] ; fut. “nartiṣyati” &c.; “nartsyati” and “nartitā” Gr.; inf. “nartitum” and “narttum” &c.; ind. p. “nartitvā” , “-nartam” , to dance &c.&c.; to act on the stage, represent (acc.) &c.; to dance about (acc.) Caus. “nartayati, -te”, to cause to dance &c. &c.: Desid. “ninṛtsati” and “ninartiṣati” Intens. “narīnartti” ; “narīnṛtyate, -ti” ; “narnartti, narnṛtīti, narīnṛtīti” Gr., to dance about or cause to dance about (cf. “naṭ”).
पत् – pat cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 50) “patyate”, to be master, reign, rule, govern, control, own, possess, dispose of (acc. or instr.) ; to partake of, share in (loc.) ; to be fit or serve for (dat.) Nom. of “pati”; cf. Lat. ‘potiri’.]
पद् – pad cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 60) “padyate” (“-ti” ; Pot. “padyām” ; Impv. “patsva” ; pf. “papāda” ; “pede” ; aor. “apadmahi, -dran” [Subj. “padāti” ; “apatsi, patthās” ; Prec. “padīṣṭa” ; fut. “patsyati” ; “-te” ; “pattā” Gr.; inf. “pattave” ; “-tos, -tum” ; “-padas” ; ind. p. “-padya” ; “-pādam” , to fall, fall down or out, perish ; to go, resort or apply to, participate in (acc.), keep, observe Caus. “pādayati, -te”, to cause to fall (Pass. “pādyate” ; Desid. “pipādayiṣati” &c.); “padayate”, to go Desid. “pitsate” Intens. “panīpadyate” ; “panīpadīti”
पिस् – pis cl.4.P. ( ii, 14) “pisyati” (pf. 3. pl. “pipisuḥ”), to stretch, expand ; cl.1. “pesati”, to go, move ; cl.10. “pesayati” id.; to hurt; to be strong; to give or to take; to dwell, xxxii, 32 (cf. “piṣ”, Caus.)
पी – pī (connected with 1 “pā” to which belong pass. “pīyate”, pp. “pīta, pītvā” &c.) cl.4.ā. “pīyate”, to drink
पुथ् – puth cl.4.P. “puthyati”, to hurt xxxvi. 12: Caus. “pothayati” (ā. P. “pothayāna” fut., “pothayiṣye”), to crush, kill, destroy ; to overpower or drown (one sound by another) ; to speak or to shine (“bhāṣārthe”, or “bhāsārthe”)
पुष् – puṣ cl.4.P. “puṣyati”, to divide, distribute (v.l. for “vyuṣ” q.v.)
पुष् – puṣ cl.1.P. (Dhātup. xvii, 50) “poṣati” (trans.), only cl.4. P. ( xxvi, 73) “puṣyati” (trans. and intrans.; m.c. also “-te”) &c. &c.; cl.9. P. ( xxxi, 57) “puṣṇāti” (trans.) &c. (pf. “pupoṣa, pupuṣyās” ; aor. “apuṣat” or “apoṣīt” Gr.; Pot. “puṣeyam”, RY.; Prec. “puṣyāsam, -sma” ; fut. “poṣiṣyati, pokṣyati; poṣitā, poṣṭā” Gr.; Pass. “puṣyate” ; sor. “apoṣi” Gr.; inf. “puṣyase” , to be nourished (with instr. e.g. “bhāryayā” , to thrive, flourish, prosper (also with “poṣam, puṣṭim” or “vṛddhim”) (rarely in later language e.g. [see above], and sometimes in Bhiṭṭ., where also 3 sg. “puṣyati-tarām”); to cause to thrive or prosper, nourish, foster, augment, increase, further, promote, fulfil (e.g. a wish), develop, unfold, display, gain, obtain, enjoy, possess &c. &c.: Caus. “poskayati” (aor. “apūpuṣat” Gr.), to rear, nourish, feed, cause to thrive or prosper &c. &c.; to cause to be reared or fed by (instr.) Desid. “pupoṣiṣati, pupuṣithati, pupukṣati” Gr.: Intens. “popuṣyate, popoṣṭi”
प्युष् – pyuṣ cl.4.10. P. “pyuṣyati, pyoṣayati” v.l. for “vyuṣ”
प्युस् – pyus cl.4.P. “pyusyati” v.l. for “vyuṣ”
प्री – prī cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 2) “prīṇāti, prīṇīte”; cl.4. ā. (xxvi, 35) “prīyate” (rather Pass.; ep. and m.c. also “-ti” and “priyate, -ti”; pf. “pipriye”, p. “-yāṇa” Subj. “piprayat”; Impv. “piprayasva” or “-prīhi” ; aor. “apraiṣīt” Subj. “preṣat” ; “apreṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “preṣyati, -te, pretā” P. to please, gladden, delight gratify, cheer, comfort, soothe, propitiate &c. &c.; (mostly ā. “prīyate”) to be pleased or satisfied with, delight in, enjoy (gen. instr. loc. or abl.) ; (ā.; ep. and m.c. also P. and “pri-“) to like, love, be kind to (acc.) Caus. “prīṇayati” (“prāpayati” , “prāyayati” , to please, delight gratify, propitiate &c.; to refresh, comfort Desid. “piprīṣati”, to wish to please or propitiate Intens. “peprīyate, peprayīti, pepreti” Gr. ([Cf. Goth. ‘frijon’, ‘frijonds’; Germ. ‘friunt’, ‘freund’; Angl. Sax. ‘freond’; Eng. friend; Slav. ‘prijati’; Lith. ‘pretelius’ &c.])
प्रुष् – pruṣ cl.5.P. ā. “pruṣṇoti, -ṇute” (fut. “proṣiṣyate” ; pf. “puproṣa” aor. “aproṣīt”, Gṛ.), to sprinkle, shower, wet, moisten ; cl.10. P. ā. (or Nom.) “pruṣāyati, -te” id. ; cl.9. P. ( xxxi, 55) “pruṣṇāti” (p. “pruṣṇat” , id.; to become wet, fill ; cl.4. P. “pruṣyati” see “vi-pruṣ”. ([Cf. Lat. ‘pruina’ for ‘prusvina’; Goth. ‘frius’; Germ. ‘friosan’, ‘frieren’; Eng. ‘freeze’.])
प्लुस् – plus cl.4.P. “plusyati”, to burn (v.l. for “pluṣ”); to share
बन्ध् – bandh cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 37) “badhnāti” (rarely ā. “badhnīte”; cl.1. P. ā. “bandhati, -te” ; cl.4. P. “badhyati” ; Impv. “badhāna” , “bandhāna” , “-badhnīhi” , “bandha” ; pf. P. “babandha”, 3. pl. “bedhus” , “babandhus” ; ā. “bedhe, -dhire” , “babandhe” Gr.; fut. “bhantsyati” &c., “bandhiṣyati, -te” ; “banddhā” Gr.; aor. “abhāntsīt” Gr.; Prec. “badhyāt” ; inf. “banddhum”, or “bandhitum” , “badhe” ind. p. “baddhvā” , “-dhvāya” , “-badhya” ; “-bandham” , to bind, tie, fix, fasten, chain, fetter &c. &c.; to bind round, put on (ā; later also P. “on one’s self”) &c.; to catch, take or hold captive, met. = to attach to world or to sin ; to fix, direct, fasten, rivet (eyes, ears or mind) on (loc. or inf.) ; to arrest, hold back, restrain, suppress, stop, shut, close ; to bind a sacrificial victim, offer, sacrifice (with dat. of the deity to whom it is presented) ; to punish, chastise ; to join, unite, put together or produce anything in this way, e.g. fold (the hands), clench (the fist), knit or bend (the eyebrows), arrange, assume (a posture), set up (a limit), construct (a dam or a bridge), span, bridge over (a river), conceive or contract (friendship or enmity), compose, construct (a poem or verse) &c.; to form or produce in any way, cause, effect, do, make, bear (fruit), strike (roots), take up (one’s abode) ; to entertain, cherish, show, exhibit, betray (joy, resolution &c.) Pass. “badhyate” (“-ti” , to be bound &c. &c.; (esp.) to be bound by the fetters of existence or evil, sin again ; to be affected by i.e. experience, suffer (instr.) Caus. “bandhayati” (aor. “ababandhat”), to cause to bind or catch or capture, imprison &c. &c.; to cause to be built or constructed ; to cause to be embanked or dammed up ; to bind together (also “bādhayati”) Desid. “bibhantsati” Gr.: Intens. “bābanddhi, bābadhyate” ‘band’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘foedus’, ‘fides’; Lit. ‘bendras’; Goth. Angl. Sax. ‘bindan’; Germ. ‘binden’; Eng. ‘bind’.]
बिस् – bis (or “vis”) cl.4. “bisyati”, to go, move ; to split or grow ; to urge on, incite ; to cast, throw
बुध् – budh cl.: P. ā. () “bodhati, -te”; cl.4.ā. (xxvi, 63) “budhyate” (ep. also P. “-ti”; pf. P. “bubodha” ; Subj. id “bubodhati” ; ā. “bubudhe”, p. “bubudhāna” ; aor. P. Subj. “bodhiṣat” ; Impv. “bodhi” ; ā. 3 pl. “abudhram, -ran”; p. “budhāna” Subj. “budhanta” ; “-abhutsi” ; Prec. ā. “bhutsīṣṭa” ; fut. “bhotsyati, -te” &c.; “boddhā” Gr.; ind. p. “buddhvā” ; “-budhya” &c.; inf. “budhe” ; “budhi” ; “boddhum” &c.), to wake, wake up, be awake &c. &c.; to recover consciousness (after a swoon) (aor. Pass. “abodhi”); to observe, heed, attend to (with acc. or gen.) ; to perceive, notice, learn, understand, become or be aware of or acquainted with &c. &c.; to think of i.e. present a person (“with” instr.) ; to know to be, recognize as (with two acc.) &c.; to deem, consider or regard as (with two acc.) Pass. “budhyate” (aor. “abodhi”), to be awakened or restored to consciousness; see above: Caus. “bodhayati, -te” (aor. “abūbudhat”; Pass. “bodhyate”), to wake up, arouse, restore to life or consciousness &c. &c.; to revive the scent (of a perfume) ; to cause (a flower) to expand ; to cause to observe or attend, admonish, advise &c. &c.; to make a person acquainted with, remind or inform of. impart or communicate anything to (with two acc.) &c.: Desid. “bubhutsati, -te” (Gr. also “bubodhiṣati, -te”, and “bubudhiṣati, -te”), to wish to observe, desire to become acquainted with Desid. of Caus. see “bibodhayiṣu” and “bubodhayiṣu”: Intens. “bobudhīti” (Gr. also “bobudhyate, boboddhi”), to have an insight into, understand thoroughly (with acc.) ‘bud’; Gk. [greek] for ([characters] ) in [characters] Slav. ‘budeti’, ‘budru’; Lith. ‘budeti’, ‘budrus’; Goth. ‘biudan’; Germ. ‘biotan’, ‘bieten’; Angl. Sax ‘beodan’; Eng. ‘bid’.]
बुस् – bus cl.4.P. “busyati”, to discharge, pour forth, emit ; to divide, distribute (v.l. for “vyuṣ”).
भृश् – bhṛś cl.4.P. “bhṛśyati”, to fall, fall down (cf. “bhraṁś, bhraś”, of which “bhṛś” is only the weak form); cl.6. P. “bhṛśati”, to be strong or vehement, VoP. (rather Nom. fr. next).
भ्रंश् – bhraṁś or bhraś (sometimes written / “bhraṁs”; cf. “bhṛś”) cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 17) “bhraṁśate” (once in P. “-ti”) cl.4. P. (xxvi, 116; cf. “bhṛś”) “bhraśyati” (ep. also ā. “-te” pf. “babhraṁśa” “-śe” Gr.; aor. Subj. “bhraśat” ; “abhraṁśiṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “bhraṁśiṣyati, -te; bhraṁśitā” ; ind. p. “bhraṁśitvā” and “bhraṣṭvā” , to fall, drop, fall down or out or in pieces &c. &c.; to strike against (loc.) ; to rebound from (abl.) ; to fall (fig.), decline, decay, fail, disappear, vanish, be ruined or lost &c.; to be separated from or deprived of, lose (abl.) &c.; to slip or escape from (gen.) ; to swerve or deviate from, abandon (abl.) Caus. “bhraṁśayati” (or “bhrāśayati”; cf. “bhrāśya” and “ni-bhraṁś”; aor. “ababhraṁśat”; Pass. “bhraṁśyate”), to cause to fall (lit. and fig.), throw down, overthrow &c.; to cause to disappear or be lost destroy ; to cause to escape from (abl.) ; to cause to deviate from (abl.) ; to deprive any one (acc.) of (abl.; e.g. “upavāsāt” or “vratāt”, “of the reward for fasting or performing any observance”) &c.: Desid. “bibhraṁśiṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “bābhraśyate, -bhraṣṭi; banībhraśyate” or “-bhraṁśyate”
भ्रम् – bhram cl.1.P. ( xx, 20) “bhramati” (ep. also “-te”) and cl.4. P. (xxvi, 96), “bhrāmyati” (Pot. “bhramyāt” ; pf. “babhrāma”, 3. pl. “babhramuḥ” or “bhremuḥ” &c.; fut. “bhramitā” Gr.; “bhramiṣyati” ; aor. “abhramīt” ; inf. “bhramitum” or “bhrāntum” &c.; ind. p. “bhramitvā, bhrāntvā, -bhrāmya” , to wander or roam about, rove, ramble (with “deśam”, to wander through or over a country; with “bhikṣām”, go about begging) &c.; to fly about (as bees) ; to roll about (as the eyes) ; to wag (as the tongue) ; to quiver (as the fetus in the womb) ; to move to and fro or unsteadily, flicker, flutter, reel, totter ; to move round, circulate, revolve (as stars) ; to spread, be current (as news) ; to waver, be perplexed, doubt, err Pass. aor. “abhrāmi” (impers., with “te”, “you have wandered or roamed about”) Caus. “bhrāmayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor. “abibhramat”: Pass. “bhrāmyate”), to cause to wander or roam, drive or move about, agitate &c.; (with “paṭaham” or “-ha-ghoṣaṇām”), to move a drum about, proclaim by beat of drum ; to cause to move or turn round or revolve, swing, brandish &c.; to drive through (acc.) in a chariot ; to disarrange ; to cause to err, confuse ; to move or roam about (aor. “abibhramat”; B. “ababhramat”) Desid. “bibhramiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “bambhramīti, bambhramyate” (also with pass. meaning) and “bambhrānti” (only Gr.), to roam about repeatedly or frequently, wander through, circumambulate ‘fremere’; Germ. ‘bremen’, ‘brimmen’, ‘brummen’; Eng. ‘brim’, ‘brim-stone’.]
मद् – mad (cf. “mand”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 99) “mādyati” (ep. also “-te”; Ved. also I. P. ā. “mādyati” “-te”; 3. P. “mamatti, -ttu, mamadat, amamaduḥ”; Ved. Impv. “matsi, -sva”; pf. “mamāda”; aor. “amādiṣuḥ, amatsuḥ, amatta”; Subj. “matsati, -sat”; fut. “maditā, madiṣyati” Gr.; Ved. inf. “maditos”), to rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in (instr. gen. loc., rarely acc.), be drunk (also fig.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to enjoy heavenly bliss (said of gods and deceased ancestors) ; to boil bubble (as water) ; to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate, animate, inspire Caus. “mādayati, -te” ( xxxiii, 31, xix, 54; aor. “amīmadat” or “amamadat”; Ved. inf. “madayadhyai”), to gladden, delight, satisfy, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspire &c. &c.; (ā.) to be glad, rejoice, be pleased or happy or at ease ; (ā.) to enjoy heavenly bliss Desid. “mimadiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “māmadyate, māmatti” ([Perhaps orig. “to be moist”; cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘madere’.])
मस् – mas (prob. an artificial root) cl.4.P. “masyati”, to measure, mete (“parimāṇe” v.l. “pariṇāme”)
मा – mā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 54) “māti”; cl.3. ā. (xxv, 6) “mimīte”; cl.4. (xxvi, 33) “māyate” (Ved. and ep. also “mimāti” Pot. “mimīyāt” Impv., “mimīhi”; Pot. “mimet” ; pf. “mamau, mame, mamire” ; aor. “aināsi” Subj. “masātai” ; “amāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “māsīṣṭa, meyāt” ; fut. “mātā; māsyati, māsyate” ; inf. “me” “-mai” ; “mātum” ; ind. p. “mitvā, -māya” &c. &c.), to measure, mete out, mark off &c. &c.; to measure across = traverse ; to measure (by any standard), compare with (instr.) ; (“māti”) to correspond in measure (either with gen., “to be large or long enough for” ; or with loc., “to find room or be contained in” ; or with “na” and instr., “to be beside one’s self with ; to measure out, apportion, grant ; to help any one (acc.) to anything (dat.) ; to prepare, arrange, fashion, form, build, make ; to show, display, exhibit (“amimīta”, “e displayed or developed himself”, iii, 29, 11) ; (in phil.) to infer, conclude; to pray (“yācṇā-karmaṇi”) Pass. “mīyate” (aor. “amāyi”); to be measured &c. &c. &c.: Caus, “māpayati, -te” (aor. “amīmapat” 2 , to cause to be measured or built, measure, build, erect &c.: Desid. “mitsati, -te” (cf. “nir-mā”): Intens. “memīyate” ‘ma’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘metior’, ‘mensus’, ‘mensura’; Slav. ‘mera’; Lith. ‘mera’.]
मिस् – mis cl.4.P. “misyati” to go
मुह् – muh cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 89) “muhyati” (rarely ā. “-te”; pf. “mumoha” &c.; “mumuhe” ; aor. “amuhat” ; fut. “mohitā, mogdhā, moḍhā” Gr.; “mohiṣyati” ; “mokṣyati” Gr.; inf. “muhe” ; ind. p. “mohitvā, muhiśvā; mugdhvā, mūḍhvā” Gr.; “-moham” Gr.), to become stupefied or unconscious, be bewildered or perplexed, err, be mistaken, go astray &c, &c.; to become confused, fail, miscarry (opp. to “kḷp”) &c. &c.: Caus. “mohayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor, “amūmuhat”; Pass, “mohyate”), to stupefy, bewilder, confound, perplex, cause to err or fail &c. &c.; (ā., with “adhvānam”) to cause to go the wrong way Desid. “mumohiṣati, mumuhiṣati, mumukṣati” Gr.: Intens. “momuhyate” (), “momogdhi” and “momoḍhi” (Gr.), to be greatly bewildered or perplexed.
मृग् – mṛg (rather Nom. fr. “mṛga”; cf. “mārg, mṛj”) cl.4.P., 10 ā. ( xxvi, 137; xxxv, 46) “mṛgyati, mṛgayate” (m.c. also P. “-ti”; pr. p. “mṛgayāṇa” , to chase, hunt, pursue &c. &c.; to seek, search for or through, investigate, examine &c.; to visit, frequent ; to seek or strive after, aim at, endeavour to obtain (acc.) &c.; to desire or request or ask anything (acc.) from (abl., “-tas”, gen. with or without “sakāśāt”)
मृष् – mṛṣ (often confounded with 1. “mṛś”) cl.4.P. ā. ( xxvi, 55) “mṛṣyati, -te” (in only ; accord. to cl.1.P. ā. “marṣati, -te” cf. 3. “mṛṣ”; pr.p. “mṛṣat” ; pf. “mamarṣa” , “mamṛṣe” &c.; aor., “mṛṣṭhās, mṛṣantta” ; “marṣiṣṭhās” ; “arnriṣat” ; “amarṣrīt” Gr.; fut., “marṣitā; marṣiṣyati, -te” ; inf. “-mṛṣe” ; ind. p., “marṣitvā, mriṣitvā” or “mṛṣṭvā” Gr.; “-mṛṣya” , to forget, neglect ; to disregard, not heed or mind, mind, bear patiently, put up with (acc.) &c. &c.; to pardon, forgive, excuse, bear with (gen.) ; to suffer, permit to (inf.) ; to like (with, “as”, dislike) Caus. (or cl.10. ) “marṣayati, -te” (aor. “amīmṛṣat” or “amamarṣat”), to cause to forget ; to bear, suffer, overlook, pardon, excuse &c. &c. (mostly with acc.; sometimes with Pot. or fut. or with Pot. after “yad, yac ca-yadi, yadā, jātu” e.g. “na marṣayāmi yat-“, I cannot ; to put up with anything from (gen.) ; (with “na”), not to let alone, molest Intens. “māmriṣat”, to bear, suffer
म्रित् – mrit cl.4.P. “mrityati”, to decay, be dissolved
यस् – yas cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 101) “yāsyati” (rarely “yasati” cf. ; Impv. “-yayastu” ; Gr. also pf. “yayāsa”; aor. “ayasat”; fut. “yasitā, yasiṣyati”; inf. “yasitum”; ind. p. “yasitvā”, or “yastvā”), to froth up, foam (cf. “yeṣ”); to heat or exert one’s self ; to strive after (dat.) (v.l.): Caus. “yāsayati” (aor. “ayīyasat”) Gr.: Desid. “yiyasiṣati” Intens. “yāyasyate, yāyasti”
युध् – yudh cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 64) “yudhyate” (rarely P. “-ti”; cl.1. P. “yodhati” ; Impv. “yotsi” ; pf. “yuyodha, yuyudhe” &c. &c.; aor. Ved. “yodhi, yodhat, yodhāna; ayodhīt, yodhiṣat; yutsmahi”; ep. “yotsīs”; Class. “ayuddha”; fut. “yoddhā” ; “yotsyati, -te” &c.; inf. “yudhe” or “yudhaye” ; “yudham” ; “yoddhum” ; ind. p. “-yuddhvī” ; “-yudhya” , to fight, wage war, oppose or (rarely) overcome in battle; to fight with (instr., also with “saha, samam”) or for (loc.) or against (acc.) &c. &c.; (“yudhyati”), to go ; to move, fluctuate (as waves) (cf. on Pass. “yudhyate”, to be fought (also impers.) (v.l.): Caus. “yodhayati” ( 1-3, 86; m.c. also “-te”; aor. “ayūyudhat” ; Pass. “yodhyate” , to cause to fight, lead to war, engage in battle &c. &c.; to oppose or overcome in war, be a match for (acc.) &c.; to defend Desid. “yuyutsati, -te” (P. in Class. only m.c.), to be desirous or anxious to fight, wish to fight with (instr.) &c. &c.: Caus. of Desid. “yuyutsayati”, to make desirous of fighting Intens. “yoyudhyate, yoyoddhi” (cf. “yavīyudh”) Gr. ([Cf. Zd. ‘yud’; Gk. [greek]. ])
युप् – yup cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 124; cf. “yūpa”) “yupyati” (only in pf. “yuyopa”; Gr. also aor. “ayupat”; fut. “yopitā, yopiṣyati”), to debar, obstruct, disturb, trouble, confuse, efface, remove, destroy ; to be effaced or concealed Caus. “yopayati” (aor. “ayūyupat”), to efface, obliterate, conceal, remove, destroy Intens. “yoyupyate”, to make level, smooth
री – rī or ri (cf. “li”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 30) “riṇāti” cl.4. P. ( xxvi, 29) “rīyate” (“riṇīte” ; “riyati” ; impf. “ariṇvan” ; Gr.pf. “rirāya, rirye”; aor. “araiṣīt, areṣṭa”; fut. “retā; reṣyati, -te”; inf. “retum”), to release, set free, let go ; to sever, detach from (abl.) ; to yield, bestow ; (ā.) to be shattered or dissolved, melt, become fluid, drop, flow Caus. “repayati” (aor. “arīripat”) Gr.: Desid. “rirīṣati, -te” Intens, “rerīyate, rerayīti”
रध् – radh or randh cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 84) “radhyati” (pf. “rarandha”, 1. pl. “rarandhima” or “redhma” Gr.; 3. pl. “rāradhuḥ” ; aor. “aradhat” ; Subj. “randhīs” Impv. “randhi” for “randdhi” ; fut. “radhitā, raddhā” Gr.; “radhiṣyati, ratsyati” ; inf. “radhitum” , to become subject to (dat.), be subdued or overthrown, succumb ; to be completed or matured (cf. “rādh”); to bring into subjection, subdue ; to deliver into the hand of (dat.) ; to hurt, torment Caus. “randhayati” (Ved. also “-te”; aor. “rīradhat” ; “ararandhat” Gr.), to make subject, deliver over to (dat.) ; to torment, afflict ; to destroy, annihilate ; to cook, prepare (food) Desid. “riradhiṣati, riratsati” Gr.: Intens. “rāradhyate, rāraddhi” Gr. (in “rārandhi” for “rāranddhi”, and v, 54, 13 “rāranta” for “rārantta”) to hand over to, deliver.
रिच् – ric cl.7.P. ā. ( xxix, 4) “riṇakti, riṅkte” cl.1. P. ( xxxiv, 10) “recati”; cl.4. ā. (cf. Pass.) “ricyate” (ep. also “-ti”; pf. “rireca, ririce” &c. &c.: “riricyām, arirecīt” ; p. “ririkvas, riricāna” ; aor. “āraik” ; “arikṣi” ; “aricat” ; fut. “rektā” Gr., “rekṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “rektum” Gr.), to empty, evacuate, leave, give up, resign ; to release, set free ; to part with i.e. sell (“for” instr.) ; to leave behind, take the place of (acc.), supplant ; to separate or remove from (abl.) Pass. “ricyate” (aor. “areci”), to be emptied &c. &c.; to be deprived of or freed from (abl.) ; to be destroyed, perish Caus. (or cl.10. ; aor. “arīricat”), to make empty ; to discharge, emit (as breath, with or scil. “mārutam”), AmṛitUp. ; to abandon, give up Desid. “ririkṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “rericyate, rerekti” ‘ric’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘linquo’, ‘licet’; Lith. ‘likti’; Goth. ‘leihwan’; Angl. Sax. ‘leon’; Eng. ‘loan’, ‘lend’; Germ. ‘lihan’, ‘leihen’.]
रुप् – rup (cf. “lup”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 125) “rupyati” (pf. “ruropa” aor. “arupat” &c. Gr.), to suffer violent or racking pain (in the abdomen) ; to violate, confound, disturb Caus. “ropayati” (aor. “arūrupat”), to cause acute or violent pain ; to break off ‘rumpere’; Angl. Sax. ‘reofan’; Germ. ‘roubon’, ‘rauben’; Eng. ‘reave’.]
लिश् – liś (later form of “ris”, in “ā-” “liś, vi-liś”); cl.4.ā. “liśate” (pf. “liliśe” &c.), to be or become small, lessen ; cl.6. P. “liśati” (pf. “lileśa” &c.). to go, move Caus. “leśayati” (aor. “alīliśat”) Gr.: Desid. “lilikshate” Intens., “leliśyate, leleṣṭi”.
ली – lī (cf. “rī”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 31) “lināti”, to adhere, obtain (not usually found); cl.1. P. “layati” (xxxiv, 6), to melt, liquefy, dissolve (not usually found); cl.4. ā. (xxvi, 30) “līyate” (Ved. also “lāyate”; pf. “lilye, lilyuḥ” &c.; “lilāya, lalau” Gr.; aor. “aleṣṭa” ; “alaiṣīt, alāsīt, alāsta” Gr.; fut. “letā, lātā; leṣyati” or “lāsyati, -te” ; inf. ‘letum’ or ‘latum’ ; ind. p. “-lāyam” ; “līya” Rc.), to cling or press closely, stick or adhere to (loc.) &c.; to remain sticking ; to lie, recline, alight or settle on, hide or cower down in (loc.), disappear, vanish &c.: Caus. P. “lāpayati” or “lāyayati”, to cause to cling &c. &c.; ā. “lāpayate”, to deceive; to obtain honour; to humble Desid. “lilīṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “lelīyate, lelayīti, leleti” (cf. “lelāya”).
लुप् – lup (cf. “rup”), cl.6. P. ā. ( xxviii, 137) “lumpati, -te” (pf. “lulopa, lulupe” &c.; aor. “alupat, alupta” Gr.; Prec., “lopsiya” ; “loptā, lopsyati, -te” Gr.; inf. “loptum” ; ind. p. “luptvā” &c.; “-lupya” ; “-lumpam” ; “lopaṁ” , to break, violate, hurt, injure, spoil ; to seize, fall or pounce upon (acc.) ; to rob, plunder, steal ; to cheat (said of a merchant) ; to take away, suppress, waste, cause to disappear ; to elide, erase, omit (a letter, word &c.) ; cl.4.P. “lupyati” (pf. “lulopa”; fut. “lopitā, lopiṣyati”, &c.), to disturb, bewilder, perplex, confound Pass. “lupyate” ( “lupyate”; aor. “alopi”), to be broken &c. &c. &c.; to be wasted or destroyed ; (in gram.) to be suppressed or lost or elided, disappear; to be confounded or bewildered Caus. “lopayati, -te” (aor. “alūlupat” ; “alulopat” Gr.; Pass. “lopyate”), to cause to break or violate, cause to swerve from (abl.) ; to break, violate, infringe, neglect &c.; (ā.) to cause to disappear, efface Desid. “lulupsati” or “lulopiṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “lolopti” (p. “lolupat”), to confound, bewilder, perplex ; “lolupyate” = “garirhitaṁ” “lumpati” ; to be greedy, in “a-lolupyamāna” q.v. ([For cognate words see under “rup”.])
लुभ् – lubh cl.6.P. “lubhati” (only or cl.4.P. (xxvi, 124) “lubhyati” (pf. “lulubhe” ; aor. “alubhat”, or “alobhīt” Gr.; fut. “lobdhā”, or “lobhitā, lobhiṣyati” ; inf. “lobdhum” ; ind. p. “lobhitvā” “lubhitvā, lubdhvā” Gr.), to be perplexed or disturbed, become disordered, go astray ; to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in (dat. or loc.) &c.; to entice, allure Caus. “lobhayati, -te” (aor. “alūlubhat” ; Pass. “lobhyate” , to confound, bewilder, perplex, derange ; to cause to desire or long for, excite lust, allure, entice, attract &c.; to efface (cf. Caus. of “lup”): Desid. of Caus. “lulobhayiṣati”, see, “ā -lubh”: Desid. “lulubhiṣati” or “lulobhiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “lolubhyate” (Gr. also “lolobdhi”), to have a vehement desire for (loc.) ‘lubet’, ‘libet’, ‘libido’; Goth. ‘liufs’; Germ. ‘liob’, ‘lieb’, ‘lieben’; Angl. Sax. ‘leof’; Eng. ‘lief’, ‘love’.]
वस् – vas (also written “bas”) cl.4.P. “vasyati”, to be or make firm
वावृत् – vāvṛt cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 51, rather Intens. fr. a lost 3. “vṛt”) “vāvṛtyate” (only pr. p. “vāvṛtyamāna”), to choose, select
वाश् – vāś cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 54) “vāśyate” (ep. also “vāśyati”, Ved. and ep. also “vāśati, -te”; pf. “vavāśe, -śire”; in also “vāvaśre” and p. “vāvaśāna”; aor. “avāśiṣṭa” ; fut. “vāśitā, vāśiṣyate” Gr.; ind. “vāśitum” ; ind. p. “vāśitvā, -vāśya” , to roar, howl, bellow, bleat, low (as a cow), cry, shriek, sing (like a bird), sound, resound &c. &c.: Caus. “vāśayati” (aor. “avavāśat”, in also “avīvaśat, avīvaśanta”), to cause to roar or low or resound or thunder ; (ā.) to roar or sound aloud Desid. “vivāśiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “vāvāśyate” (v.l. “rārāśyate” , “vāvaṣṭi” (impf. aor. “avāvaśanta, vāvaśanta, avāvaśītām”; p. “vāvaśat”), to roar or scream or sound aloud ([“vāś” is sometimes wrongly written “vās”.])
विशुष् – viśuṣ “vi-śuṣ” cl.4.P. ā. “-śuṣyati, -te”, to become very dry, dry up, wither away &c.: Caus. “-śoṣayati”, to make dry, dry up, desiccate
वृश् – vṛś cl.4.P. “vṛśati”, to choose, select
व्यध् – vyadh cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 72) “vidhyati” (ep. also “-te”; pf. p. “vivyādha” &c.; 3. pl. “vivyadhuḥ” , “vividhuḥ” ; ā. “vivyadhe” ; p. “vividhvas” ; aor. “vyātsīḥ” ; Prec. “vidhyāt” Gr.; fut. “veddhā, vetsyati, -te” ; “vyaddhā, vyatsyati” Gr.; inf. “veddhum” ; “-vidhe” ; ind. p. “viḍḍhvā, -vidhya” , to pierce, transfix, hit, strike, wound &c. &c.; (with “sirām”) to open a vein, bleed ; to pelt with (instr.) ; to inflict, attach to, affect with (acc. of pers. and instr. of thing) ; to shake, wave ; (in astron.) to fix the position of a heavenly body ; to cling to (acc.) Caus. “vyādhayati”, (ep. also “vedhayati”; aor. “avīvidhat” or “avivyadhat”), to pierce, open (a vein) ; to cause to pierce or perforate Desid. “vivyatsati”, to wish to affect or taint with (instr.) Intens. “vevidhyate” or “vāvyaddhi” (?) Gr.
व्युष् – vyuṣ (also read “pyuṣ”) cl.4.P. “vyuṣati”, to burn (in this sense perhaps = “vy-uṣ”) ; to divide, distribute (in this sense also written “pyus, puṣ, byus, bus”) 108; cl.10. P. “vyoṣayati”, to reject, discharge, emit (in this sense also written “pus”)
शम् – śam cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 92), “śāmyati” (rarely “-te”, and ep. also “śanati, -te”; Ved. “śamyati, śimyati”, and cl.9. “śamnāti” [ ii, 9], “śamnīṣe, śamnīthās” Impv. “śamnīṣva, śamīṣva, śamiṣva, śamīdhvam”; pf. “śaśāma, śemuḥ” &c.; “śaśame” Subj. “śaśamate” ; p. “śaśamāna” [q.v.]; aor. “aśamiṣṭhās” ; “aśamat” [cf. pres.]; Prec. “śamyāt” Gr.; fut. “śamiśā, śamiṣyati” ; ind. p. “śamitvā, śāntvā, śāmam” , to toil at, fatigue or exert one’s self (esp. in performing ritual acts) ; to prepare, arrange ; to become tired, finish, stop, come to an end, rest, be quiet or calm or satisfied or contented &c.; to cease, be allayed or extinguished &c.; cl.9. (cf. above ) to put an end to, hurt, injure, destroy Pass. “śamyate” (aor. “aśami”) Caus. “śamayati” (m.c. also “śāmayati”; aor. “aśīśamat”; Pass. “śāmyate”), to appease, allay, alleviate, pacify, calm, soothe, settle &c. &c.; to put to an end or to death, kill, slay, destroy, remove, extinguish. sup. press &c. &c.; to leave off, desist ; to conquer, subdue Desid. “śiśamiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śaṁśamīti” (), “śaṁśamyate, śaṁśanti” (Gr.), to be entirely appeased or extinguished (pf. “śaṁśamāṁ cakruḥ” ([Cf. Gk. [greek] ]),
शिम् – śim (= 1. “śam”) cl.4.P. “śimyati”, to cut up, prepare (a sacrificial victim)
शी – śī (connected with 2. “śad”; cf. cl.4.ā. “śīyate”, to fall out or away, disappear, vanish
शुच् – śuc cl.4.P. ā. ( xxvi, 56) see under 1. “śuc”.
शुध् – śudh or śundh cl.1.P. ā. ( iii, 37) “śundhati, -te” (Impv. “śunddhi” ; pf. “śuśundha” aor. “aśundhīt” fut. “śundhitā, śundhiṣyati” Gr.), to purify (ā. “one’s self”, become or be pure) ; cl.4. P. ā. ( xxvi, 82) “śudhyati” (m.c. also “-te”; pf. “śuśodha” aor. “aśudhat” fut. “śoddhā, śotsyati”, inf. “śoddhum” Gr.), to be cleared or cleansed or purified, become pure (esp. in a ceremonial sense) &c.; to become clear or free from doubts ; to be cleared or excused from blame, to be excusable Pass. “śudhyate” (aor. “aśodhi”) Gr.: Caus. “śundhayati”, to clear, purify ; “śodhayati” (aor. “aśūśudhat”), to purify (esp. in a ceremonial sense) &c. &c.; to correct, improve ; to remove (impurity or anything noxious) &c.; to clear off, pay (debts) ; to acquit, exculpate, justify ; to put to test ; to try, examine ; to make clear, explain ; to subtract Desid. “śuśutsati” Intens. “śośudhyate, śośoddhi” Gr.
शुष् – śuṣ (prob. for orig. “suṣ, sus”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 74) “śuṣyati” (m.c. also “-te”; pf. “śuśoṣa”; aor. “aśuṣat”; fut. “śoṣṭā, śokṣyati”; inf. “śoṣṭum”; ind. p. “-śuṣya” , to dry, become dry or withered, fade, languish, decay &c. &c.: Caus. “śoṣayati” (aor. “aśūśuṣat”), to make dry, dry up, wither, parch &c. &c.; to afflict, injure, hurt, extinguish, destroy Desid. “śuśukṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śośuṣyate, śośoṣṭi” Lat. ‘siccus’; Slav. ‘suchati’; Lith. ‘susu’, ‘sausiu’, ‘sausas’ &c.]
शूर् – śūr (also written “sūr”) cl.4.ā. “śūryate”, to hurt, injure, kill (only in pf. “śuśūre”, “e cut off [the head]” ; to be or make firm ; cl.10. ā. to be powerful or valiant (in this sense rather Nom. fr. next)
शूल् – śūl (rather Nom. fr. next) cl.1.P. “śūlati”, to hurt, cause pain ( xv, 19), (only occurring in ā. “śūlate” and cl.4. P. ā. “śūlyati, -te” ; accord. to also “saṁghoṣe”, or “saṁghāte”, “to sound” or “to collect”).
शो – śo (cf. 1. “śi”) cl.3.P. ā. “śiśāti, śiśīte” (accord to cl.4. P. “śyati” cf. “ni-śo”; pf. “śaśau” Gr.; p. “śaśāna” ; aor. “aśīta” cf. “saṁ-śo; aśāt” or “aśāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “śāyāt” ; fut. “śātā, śāśyati” ; ind. “śāya” , to whet, sharpen (ā. “one’s own” weapons or horns) Pass. “śāyate” Gr.: Caus. “śāyayati” ; Desid. “śiśāsati” Intens. “śāśāyate, śaśeti, śāśāti”
श्रम् – śram cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 95) “śrāmyati” (in later language also “śramati, te”; pf. “śaśrama”, 3. pl. “śaśramuḥ” or [] “śremuḥ”, p. “śaśramāṇa” ; aor. “āśramat” “śramat” ; “śramiṣma” ; fut. “śramitā” ; “śramiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “śramitum” ; ind. p. “-śramya”. , to be or become weary or tired, be tired of doing anything (with inf.; also impers. “na mā śramat”, “may I not become weary!”) &c. &c.; to make effort, exert one’s self (esp. in performing acts of austerity), labour in vain Pass. “śramyate” (aor. “aśrāmi”, Gr.) &c. (cf. “vi-śraṁ”): Caus. “srāmayati” (aor. “aśiśramat”), to make weary, fatigue, tire ; to overcome, conquer, subdue ; (“śrāmayati”), to speak to, address, invite (“āmantraṇe”) (v.l. for “grām-” cf. “grāmaya”): Desid. see “vi-śiśramiṣu”.
श्लिष् – śliṣ (cf. 2. “śriṣ”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 77) “śliṣyati” (rarely “-te”; pf. “śiśleṣa” &c.; aor. “aśliṣat” &c.; “aślikṣat” [only in the sense of “to embrace” “aślaikṣīt” [?] Gr.; fut. “śleṣṭā, ślekṣyati” ; inf. “śleṣṭum” ; ind. p. “śliṣṭvā” ; “-śliṣya” &c.), to adhere, attach, cling to (loc., rarely acc.), Suśr ; to clasp, embrace ; to unite, join (trans. or intrans.) ; (ā.) to result, be the consequence of anything Pass. “śliṣyate” (aor. “aśleṣi”), to be joined or connected &c.; to be implied or intimated Caus. ( xxxii, 38) “śleṣayati, -te” (aor. “aśiśliṣat”), to (cause to) connect or embrace (cf. “śleṣita”) Desid. “śiślikṣate” (Gr. also “-ti”), to wish to clasp, cling to (not in Intens. “śeśliṣyate, śeśleṣṭi” Gr.
संयस् – saṁyas “saṁ-yas” cl.4.1. P. “-yasyati, -yasati”, to make effort &c.
सह् – sah cl.4.P. “sahyati”, to satisfy, delight ; to be pleased ; to bear, endure (cf. 1. “sah”)
सिध् – sidh (weak form of “sādh”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 83) “sidhyati” (ep. and m.c. also “-te”; pf: “siṣedha” ; aor. “asidhat” Gr.; “saitsīt” ; Prec. “sidhyāsam” Gr.; fut. “seddhā” ; “setsyati, -te” &c.; inf. “seddhum” Gr.; ind. p. “sedhitvā, sidhitvā”, or “siddhvā” , to be accomplished or fulfilled or effected or settled, be successful, succeed &c. &c.; to hit a mark (loc.) ; to attain one’s aim or object, have success &c.; to attain the highest object, become perfect, attain beatitude ; to be valid or admissible, hold good ; to be proved or demonstrated or established, result from ; to be set right, (esp.) be healed or cured ; to be well cooked ; to conform to a person’s will, yield to (gen.) ; to fall to a person’s (gen.) lot or share ; to come into existence, originate, arise Caus. “sedhayati” (aor. “asīṣidhat”) or “sādhayati”, to show the knowledge or skill (of any one, the former, “with reference to sacred things”, the latter, “to secular things”) on (“sadh-“), to accomplish, effect Desid. “siṣitsati” Gr.: Int. “seṣidhyate, seṣeddhi”
सिव् – siv cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 2) “sīvyati” (Ved. also “-te”; pf. “siṣeva” Gr.; aor. “asevīt” ; fut. “sevitā, seviṣyati” ; ind. p. “syūtva” or “sevitvā” ; “-sīvya” , to sew, sew on, darn, stitch, stitch together, (fig.) join, unite &c. &c.: Caus. “sīvayati” () or “sevayati” (aor. “asīṣivat” Gr.), to sew, stitch: Desid. “siseviṣati” or “susyūṣati” Gr.: Intens. “seṣīvyate” ([Cf. Gk. [greek] = [characters]; Lat. ‘suere’ ‘sutor’; Slav. ‘siti’; Goth. ‘siujan’; Angl. Sax. ‘seowian’; Eng. ‘sew’.])
सुह् – suh (cf. “sah”) cl.4.P. “suhyati”, to satisfy, gladden ; to be glad, rejoice ; to bear, endure, support
सो – so (usually with prepositions; see “ava-, vy-ava-, adhy-ava-so” &c.) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 38) “syati” (pf. “sasau” aor. “asāt” or “asāsīt” &c.), to destroy, kill, finish Pass. “sīyate” (aor. “asāyi”), Gr.: Caus. “sāyayati” or “sāpayati” Desid. “siṣāsati” Intens. “seṣīyate, sāsāti, sāseti”
स्तिम् – stim or stīm (cf. “tim”) cl.4.P. “stimyati” or “stīmyati”, to be or become wet or moist ; to become fixed or immovable (see next).
स्तूप् – stūp (prob. invented as a root for “stūpa” below) cl.4.10. P. “stūpyati”, or “stūpayati”, to heap up, pile, erect ; xxxii, 133. [Cf. Gk. [greek] ]
स्ना – snā (cf. “snu”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 44) “snāti” cl.4. P. ( vii, 12) “snāyati” (ep. also ā. “snāyate” Pot. “snāyāt”; ep. also “snāyīta”; pf. “sasnau”, 3. pl. “sasnuḥ” ; fut. “snātā” Gr.; “snāsyati, -te” &c.; aor. “asnāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “snāyāt” [cf. above] or “sneyāt” ; inf. “snātum” &c.; ind. p. “snātvā, -snāya” &c.; Ved. also “snātvī” , to bathe, perform the ceremony of bathing or certain prescribed oblations (esp. on returning home from the house of a religious preceptor, or on concluding certain vows &c., also with “avabhṛtham”) &c. &c.; to smear one’s self with (instr.) Pass. “snāyate” (aor. “asnāyi” impers.) Caus. “snāpayati” or “snapayati”, (with prep. only “snāp-“), to cause to bathe, wash, cleanse &c. &c.; to wash away ; to steep or soak in (loc.) ; to bathe with tears, weep for(?) Desid. “sisnāsati” cf. “siṣṇāsu”): Intens. “sāsnāyate, sāsnāti, sāsneti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nare’.])
स्निह् – snih cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 91) “snihyati” (m.c. also “-te”; occurring only in pres. base; Gr. also pf. “sisneha”; fut. “snehitā, snegdhā, sneḍhā; snehiṣyati, snekṣyati” &c.), to be adhesive or sticky or glutinous or viscid or moist ; to be fixed upon (loc.) ; to be attached to or fond of, feel affection for (loc. or gen.) &c.; cl.1. P. “snehati” see Caus.: Pass. “snihyate” (aor. “asnehi”) Gr.: Caus. (or cl.10. P. “snehayati” (aor. “asiṣṇihat”), to make unctuous or greasy or moist ; to render pliant or subject, subdue ; to kill, slay (v.l. “snehati”): Desid. “sisnehiṣati, sisnihiṣati, sisnikṣati” Gr.: Intens. “seṣṇihyate, seṣṇegdhi, seṣṇeḍhi”.
स्नुस् – snus (v.l. “snas”) cl.4.P. “snusyati”, to eat ; to disappear ; to take
स्नुह् – snuh cl.4.P. “snuhyati”, to vomit ; to be moist (= “snih” see “snūhan”).
स्रिव् – sriv or srīv cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 3) “srīvyati” (Gr. also pf. “siśreva”; aor. “asrevīt”; fut. “srevitā”; ind. p. “srevitvā” or “srūtvā”), to fail, turn out badly ; (with “garbham”) to miscarry ; “to go” or “to become dry” Caus. “srevayati”, to cause to fail, lead astray ; “srīvayati”, to frustrate, thwart Desid. “sisreviṣati, susrūṣati” Gr.: Intens. “sesrīvyate”
हृष् – hṛṣ cl.1.P. ā. “harṣati, -te” (fr. P. only p. “harṣat”), to be excited or impatient, rejoice in the prospect of, be anxious or impatient for (dat.) ; to speak or affirm falsely, lie cl.4. P. ( xxvi, 119) “hṛṣyati” (ep. and m.c. also “-te”; pf. “jaharṣa, jahṛṣuḥ; jahṛṣe, -ṣire” &c.; aor. “ahṛṣat” ; fut. “harṣitā, harṣiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “harṣitum” ; ind. p. “-hṛṣya” &c.), to thrill with rapture, rejoice, exult, be glad or pleased &c.; to become sexually excited ; to become erect or stiff or rigid, bristle (said of the hairs of the body &c.), become on edge (like the teeth) Pass. “hṛṣyate” (aor. “aharṣi”) Gr.: Caus. “harṣayati, -te” (aor. “ajīhṛṣat”, or “ajaharṣat”), to excite, make impatient or eager for (victory &c.) &c. &c.; to rejoice, be glad ; to cause to bristle Desid. “jiharṣiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “jarīhṛṣyate, jarharṣṭi” &c. (Ved. forms “jarhṛṣanta, jarhṛṣāṇa” and “jāhṛṣāṇa”), to be impatient or excited ; to excite violently ‘horreo’ for ‘horseo’.]

 

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