240 Vedic verbs

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अक्ष् अड् अत् अथ अद् अद्धा अधि अनुविद् अन्तिक अम् अयास् अरि अर्च् अर्द् अर्ह् अलम् अव् अवतॄ अष्टन् अशम् अस् अह् अह  आकीम् आक्षि  इद् इल् इष् ईड् ईम् ईर् ईश्  उक्ष् उत्तर उपरि  ऊह्  ऋच् ऋज् ऋध् ऋष् एन कद् कन् कम् कस् कि कित् कू कृ कृत् कृष् क्रन्द् क्रम् क्षद् क्षप् क्षम् क्षर् क्षिप् खिद् खुद् ख्या गम् गा गु गुफ् गुर् गुह् गूर्ध् गॄ ग्रस् ग्रह् ग्रामणी   चक्ष् चत् चन्द् चम् चर् चि चुद् छिद् जन् जागृ जि जीव् जुर् जुष् जू जूर्व् जॄ ज्या तंस् तक् तक्ष् तन् तम् तिज् तु तुज् तुन्द् तुर्व् तुश् तॄ त्यज् त्रप् त्रि त्व त्वर् दक्ष् दघ् दद् दभ् दम् दह् दा दिव् दिश् दी दुध् दुह् दृंह् द्यु द्युत् द्रु द्विष् धन् धा धि धू ध्रज्  नभ् नम् नमस् नश् नस् निक्ष् निज् नी नु नुद् पच् पत् पद् पर पर्ष् पशु पा पिश् पी पू पृण् प्रति प्रथ् प्री बन्ध् बुध् बृह् ब्रू भज् भी भुज् भू भृ भ्राज् मंह् मज्ज् मथ् मद् मन् मर्च् मर्ज् मा मातर् मी मुच् मुद् मुष् मृध् म्रुच् म्लेछ् यज् यत् यम् या यु युज् युध् येष् रण् रद् रध् रप् रभ् रस् रा राज् राध् रिभ् रिष् रिश् रिह् रु रुच् रुज् रुद् रुध् रुप् रुष् रुह् रूक्ष् रेज् लिख् लिह् वच् वन् वम् वषट् वस् वह् वाश् विद् विश् वृज् वृध् वृष् वेवी व्यथ् शक् शम् शस् शी शुभ् शृध् शो श्रद्धा श्रा श्रि श्रु श्वि श्वित्  सच् सद् सम् सर्व सह् सह साध् सु सू सृ स्तन् स्तम्भ् स्तु स्तुभ् स्था स्ना स्फुर् स्म स्मि स्यन्द् स्रंस् स्वद् स्वप् स्वर् स्वृ  हन् हर्य् हा हिरुक् हु ह्वे

अक्ष् — akṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899akṣ (perhaps a kind of old Desid. of 1. «aś») cl.1.5. «akṣati, akṣṇoti» ( 3-

1, 75; fut. «akṣiṣyati» or «akṣyati» ; aor. «ākṣīt», 3. du. «ākṣiṣṭām» or

«āṣṭām» ; perf. «ānakṣa» [ 7-4, 60 ā. p. [with the Vedic weak stem «ākṣ»

cf. perf. «āś-uḥ» 3. pl. &c. fr. 1. «aś»] «ākṣāṇa»),; to reach ; to pass

through, penetrate, pervade, embrace ; to accumulate (to form the

cube?) Caus. «akṣayati, ācikṣat», to cause to pervade Desid. «acikṣi,

ṣati» or «acikṣati»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

akṣ 1. 5. P. [akṣati, akṣṇoti, ānakṣa, ākṣiṣyati-akṣyati, ākṣīt, akṣituṁ-

aṣṭuṁ akṣitvā-aṣṭravā, aṣṭa]

(1) To reach.

(2) To pass through, pervade, penetrate (mostly Ved. in these

senses).

(3) To accumulate, increase. —Caus. To cause to pervade.

अड् — aḍ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aḍ cl.1.P. «aḍati», to endeavour

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

aḍ 1 P. To try, exert, attempt.

(5) P. To pervade, attain (Ved.).

अत् — at Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899at ind. a prefix said to imply «surprise», probably a contraction of «ati»,

meaning «extraordinary», (g. «ūry-ādi», q.v.)

at cl.1.P. ā. «atati» (; p. «atat» or «atamāna»), to go constantly, walk, run

; to obtain

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

at 1 P. (aṁti), atati, atituṁ, atta-atita

(1) To go, walk; wander, to go constantly.

(2) To obtain (mostly Ved.)

(3) To bind.

(4) (aṁtati) To bind.

अथ — atha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899atha (or Ved. «athā») ind. (probably fr. pronom. base «a»), an auspicious

and inceptive particle (not easily expressed in English), now; then;

moreover; rather; certainly; but; else; what? how else? &c.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

atha (Ved. athā) ind. [arth-ḍa, pṛṣoda- ralopaḥ Tv.] A particle used at the

beginning (of works) mostly as a sign of auspiciousness, and translated

by ‘here,’ ‘now’ (begins) (maṁgala, āraṁbha, adhikāra). (Properly

speaking ‘auspiciousness’ or maṁgala is not the sense of atha, but the

very utterance or hearing of the word is considered to be indicative of

auspiciousness, as the word is suppossed to have emanated from the

throat of Brahmā: oṁkāraścātha śabdaśca dvāvetau brahmaṇaḥ purā .

kaṁṭhaṁ bhittvā viniryātau tena māṁgalikāvubhau .. and therefore we

find in Śaṅkara Bhāṣya arthāṁtaraprayuktaḥ athaśabdaḥ śrutyā

maṁgalamāracayati); atha nirvacanaṁ; atha yogānuśāsanaṁ;

athedaṁprārabhyate dvitīyaṁ taṁtraṁ Pt. 2. (usually followed by iti at

the end, iti prathamoṁkaḥ here ends &c.).

(2) Then, afterwards (ānaṁtarya) atha prajānāmadhipaḥ prabhāte

vanāya dhenuṁ mumoca R. 2. 1; often as a correlative of yadi or cet; na

cenmunikumāroyaṁ atha kosya vyapadeśaḥ S. 7; muhūrtādupari

upādhyāyaścedāgacchet atha tvaṁ chaṁdo ‘dhīṣva P. III. 3. 9. Sk.

(3) If, supposing, now if, in case, but if (pakṣāṁtara); atha

kautukamāvedayāmi K. 144, S. 5. 27; atha maraṇamavaśyameva jaṁtoḥ

kimiti mudhā malinaṁ yaśaḥ kurudhve Ve. 3. 4; atha gṛhṇāti S. 7; Ku. 5.

45; Mu. 3. 25; Ki. 1. 44; atha cāstamitā tvamātmanā R. 8. 51 while, but,

on the other hand; oft. followed by tataḥ or tathāpi, Bg. 12. 9, 11; 2. 26;

atha cet but if Bg. 2. 33; 18. 58.

(4) And, so also, as also, likewise (samuccaya); gaṇitamatha kalāṁ

vaiśikīṁ Mk. 1. 3; Ms. 2. 1. 31; bhīmo’ thārjunaḥ G. M.

(5) Used in asking or introducing questions (praśna), oft. with the

interrogative word itself; atha sā tatrabhavatī kimākhyasya rājarṣeḥ patnī

S. 7; arthavān khalu me rājaśabdaḥ . atha bhagavāṁllokānugrahāya

kuśalī kāśyapaḥ S. 5; atha śaknoṣi bhoktuṁ G. M.; athātrabhavatī

kathamitthaṁbhūtā M. 5; Bg. 3. 36; atha bhavaṁtamaṁtareṇa kīdṛśo

‘syā dṛṣṭirāgaḥ S. 2; atha māṭhavyaṁ prati kimevaṁ prayuktaṁ S. 6 (atha

may in these two sentences mean ‘but’).

(6) Totality, entirety (kārtsnya); atha dharmaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ G. M.

we shall explain the whole dharma (dharma in all its details.).

(7) Doubt, uncertainty (saṁśaya, vikalpa); śabdonityo ‘thānityaḥ G.

M. The senses of atha usually given by lexicographers are: —athotha

syātāṁ samuccaye . maṁgale saṁśayāraṁbhādhikārānaṁtareṣu ca .

anvādeśe pratijñāyāṁ praśnasākalyayorapi .. Some of these senses are

indentical with those in

(1), while some are not in general use.

— Comp.

—api moreover, and again &c. (= atha in most cases); -ca

likewise, also.

—kiṁ what else, yes, exactly so, quite so, certainly; sarvathā

apsaraḥsaṁbhavaiṣā . atha kiṁ S. 1; api vṛṣalamanuraktāḥ prakṛtayaḥ

atha kiṁ Mu. 1.

—vā 1. or (used like the English disjunctive conjunction ‘or’ and

occupying the same place); vyavahāraṁ parijñāya vadhyaḥ pūjyo’thavā

bhavet H. 1. 58; samastairathavā pṛthak Ms. 7. 198; athavā-athavā

either-or; vātha is often used in the same sense with vā; kārtike vātha

caitre vā Pt. 3. 38; Ms. 7. 182; athāpi vā also used in the same sense;

etadeva vrataṁ kuryuścāṁdrāyaṇamathāpi vā 11. 118; 8. 287. 2. or

rather, or why, or perhaps, is it not so (correcting or modifying a previous

statement); why should there be any thought or hesitation about it, or it

is no wonder; api nāma kulapateriyamasavarṇakṣetrasaṁbhavā syāt .

athavā kṛtaṁ saṁdehena S. 1., 1. 16; gamiṣyāmyupahāsyatāṁ … athavā

kṛtavāgdvāre vaṁśe ‘smin R. 1. 3-4; athavā mṛduvastu hiṁsituṁ 8. 45;

dīrye kiṁ na sahasradhāhamathavā rāmeṇa kiṁ duṣkaraṁ U. 6. 40;

adhodho gaṁgeyaṁ padamupagatā stokamathavā . vivekabhraṣṭānāṁ

bhavati vinipātaḥ śatamukhaḥ Bh. 2. 10.

अद् — ad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ad cl.2.P. «atts, āda, atsyati, attum», to eat, consume, devour, Ved. Inf.

«attave» Caus. «ādayati» and «-te» (once «adayate» [) to feed ([cf. Lith.

‘edmi’; Slav. ‘jamj’ for ‘jadmj’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘edo’; Goth. root ‘AT’

pres. ‘ita’; Germ. ‘essen’; Eng. ‘to’ ‘eat’, Arm. ‘utem’]).

ad mfn. ifc. «eating», as «matsyād», eating fish.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ad 2 P. [atti, āda, —jaghāsa, aghasat, atsyati, attuṁ, anna, -jagdha,

jagdhvā]

(1) To eat, devour.

(2) To destroy.

(3) = aṁd, q. v. —Caus. To feed with, cause to eat; ādayatyannaṁ

baṭunā Sk. —Desid. jighatsati To wish to eat. [cf. L. edo, Gr. edo, Germ.

essen, Eng. eat; Lith. edmi, Sans. admi, Goth. at, Zend ad]. With ava to

satisfy by food, get rid of with feeding; (fig.) stop the mouth of. —ā to eat

&c. —pra —saṁ to use up, consume, devour; samadaṁtyāmiṣaṁ khagāḥ

Bk. 18. 12. —vi to gnaw.

ad —da a. (at the end of comp.) Eating, devouring; māṁsāda carnivorous,

feeding on flesh; so matsya-.

अद्धा — addhā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899addhā «ad-dhā» ind. (fr. «ad», or «a», this), Ved. in this way; manifestly;

certainly, truly.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

addhā ind. [atyate at taṁ saṁtataṁ gamanaṁ jñānaṁ vā dadhāti kvip

Tv.]

(1) Truly, clearly, surely, undoubtedly, in truth, really, certainly,

indeed; addhā śriyaṁ pālitasaṁgarāya pratyarpayiṣyati R. 13. 65.

(2) Manifestly, clearly; vyālādhipaṁ ca yatate parirabdhumaddhā Bv.

1. 95.

(3) In this way, thus; -kṛ = sākṣātkṛ.

— Comp.

—puruṣaḥ A right or true man.

—bodheyāḥ (pl.) N. of a school of the Śukla Yajurveda.

—lohakarṇa a. having ears clearly or quite red.

अधि — adhi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899adhi m. (better «ādhi» q.v.), anxiety, («is») f. a woman in her courses (=

«avi» q.v.)

adhi ind., as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses above, over and

above, besides. As a separable adverb or preposition; (with abl.) Ved.

over; from above, from; from the presence of; after ; for; instead of ,

(with loc.) Ved. over; on; at; in comparison with; (with acc.) over, upon,

concerning.

अनुविद् — anuvid Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899anuvid «anu-vid» cl.2.P., Ved. «-vetti», to know thoroughly

anuvid «anu-vid» cl.6.P. ā. «-vindati, -te», to find, obtain, discover &c.; to

marry ; to deem

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

anuvid 6 U.

(1) To find, discover, see, obtain.

(2) To deem, consider.

(3) To marry.

अन्तिक — antika Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899antika &c. see «antika», p.45.

antika mfn. (with gen. or abl.) near, proximate (compar. «nedīyas»,

superl. «nediṣṭha»)

antika n. vicinity, proximity, near e.g. «antikastha», remaining near

antika mfn. («āt») ind. from the proximity

antika n. near, close by

antika n. within the presence of

antika mfn. («e») ind. (with gen. or ifc.) near, close by, in the proximity

or presence of

antika mfn. («ena») ind. (with gen.) near.

antika mfn. (fr. «anta»), only ifc. reaching to the end of, reaching to (e.g.

«nāsāntika», reaching to the nose), lasting till, until.

अम् — am Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899am ind. quickly, a little, (g. «cādi» q.v.)

am the termination «am» in the comparative and other forms used as

ind. e.g. «prataram», &c., (g. «svar-ādi» q.v.)

am «amati», to go ; to go to or towards ; to serve or honour ; to sound ;

(Imper. ā. 2. sg. «amīṣva»; aor. «āmīt»; cf. «abhy-am») to fix, render firm ;

(perf. p. acc. sg. «emuṣam» for «emivāṁsam») to be pernicious or

dangerous Caus. «āmayati» (impf. «āmayat»; aor. Subj. «āmamat») to be

afflicted or sick (cf. «an-āmayat»).

am n. the root of a fragrant grass (used for tatties or screens, &c.,

commonly called Kaskas, Andropogon Muricatus).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

am ind.

(1) Quickly.

(2) A little.

am 1 P. [amati amituṁ, amita; Ved. pres. amiti; amīti]

(1) To go; to go to or towards.

(2) To serve, honour.

(3) To sound.

(4) To eat. (10) P. or Caus. (āmayati)

(1) To come upon, attack, afflict with sickness or pain from disease.

(2) To be ill or be afflicted or diseased. —With saṁ Ved. 1 A. 1. to

convince oneself of, ascertain. —2. to ally or connect oneself with.

(3) To fix or settle oneself.

अयास् — ayās Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

ayās a. [fr. i ‘to go’ Nir.] Ved. Agile, nimble. —yāḥ ind. [i-āsiḥ Uṇ. 4. 221]

Fire.

अरि — ari Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ari m. v.l. for «arin» below.

ari mfn. ( «ṛ»), attached to faithful

ari m. a faithful or devoted or pious man

ari «a-ri» mfn. ( «rā»; = «ari»1, assiduous, &c., Gnm.), not liberal,

envious, hostile («is») m. an enemy &c.

ari «a-ri» mfn. («aris») m. id. , (in astron.) a hostile planet

mfn. N. of the sixth astrological mansion (in arithm.) the number six

(cf. «arāti»)

mfn. a species of Khadira or Mimosa

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ari a. [ṛ-in] Moving, going, reaching; obtaining, aspiring, devoted to,

zealous (Ved.). —riḥ

(1) An enemy, foe (cf. Uṇ. 4. 138); (used in the Veda like an adjective

in the sense of ‘ungenerous’, ‘malicious’, ‘not worshipping or devoted,’

‘hostile’); vijitāripuraḥsaraḥ R. 1. 59, 61; 4. 4.

(2) An enemy of mankind (said of the six feelings which disturb man’s

mind); kāmaḥ krodhastathā lobho madamohau ca matsaraḥ;

kṛtāriṣaḍvargajayena Ki. 1. 9.

(3) A species of khadira or Mimosa (viṭkhadira).

(4) N. of the number six (from the six enemies).

(5) N. of a condition in astronomy.

(6) Any part of a carriage.

(7) A wheel.

(8) A lord, master.

(9) The wind. (10) A pious or religious man.

— Comp.

—karṣaṇa a. tamer or subduer of enemies.

—kulaṁ 1. a host of enemies. —2. an enemy.

—gūrta a. Ved. ready for the destruction of enemies; praised by

devoted men or worshippers.

—ghnaḥ destroyer of enemies.

—ciṁtanaṁ, —ciṁtā schemes directed against enemies;

administration of foreign affairs.

—tra a. protecting from enemies.

—dhāyas a. possessed by lords only (i. e. very precious).

—naṁdana a. ‘an enemy’s joy’, affording triumph to an enemy.

—nipātaḥ invasion made by enemies.

—bhadraḥ the foremost or most powerful enemy; R. 14. 31.

—mardaḥ ‘crushing enemies’ N. of a plant (kāmamarda). —

mardana a. crushing or trampling foes, destroying enemies.

—medaḥ N. of a tree (viṭkhadira); N. of a country; Bṛ. S. 14. 2.

—medakaḥ N. of an insect bred in excrement.

—sthānakaṁ consternation, defeat.

—sūdanaḥ, —han, —hiṁsakaḥ destroyer of enemies; R. 9. 18.

अर्च् — arc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899arc 2cl. 1. P. «arcats» (Subj. «arcāt» impf. «ārcat»; aor. «ārcīt» «ānarca»

3. pl. «ānarcuḥ» [ iii, 988, &c.], but Ved. «ānṛcuḥ» []; perf. ā. (Pass.)

«ānarce» [], but Ved. «sam ānṛce» [ i, 160, 4]; fut. p. «arciṣyat» [ iv, 251].

ind. p., «arcya» [ &c.; cf. or «arcitvā» [ iii, 77, 15], Ved. Inf. «ṛcase» [ vi,

39, 5 and vii, 61, 6]) to shine, brilliant ; to praise, sing (also used of the

roaring of the Maruts, and of a bull [ iv, 16, 3]) , to praise anything to

another (dat.), recommend ; to honour or treat with respect &c.; to

adorn exceptionally ā. (i. pl. «arcāmahe») to honour : Caus. (2. sg.

«arcayas») to cause to shine P. ā. to honour or treat with respect &c.:

Desid. «arciciṣati», to wish to honour Ved. Pass. «ṛcyate» (p. «ṛcyamāna»)

to be praised

arc m. (instr. «arcā») fn. shining, brilliant ([])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

arc 1 U. (arcati-te, ānarca, ārcīt, arcituṁ, arcita)

(1)

(a) To adore worship, salute, welcome with respect; R. 2. 21, 1. 6,

90; 4. 84, 12. 89; Ms. 3. 93; ārcīd dvijātīn paramārthaviṁdān Bk. 1. 15,

14. 63; 17. 5; yasyārcatyasau śāsanaṁ Mv. 1. 29 honours, respectfully

obeys.

(b) To honour, i. e. decorate, adorn; U. 2. 9.

(2) To praise (Ved.).

(3) To shine. (10) P. or Caus.

(1) To honour, adore, worship; svargaukasāmarcitamarcayitvā Ku. 1.

59.

(2) To praise.

(3) To cause to shine. —Desid. [arciciṣati] To wish to worship —WITH

anu to congratulate, hail with joy. —pra 1. to praise, sing praises of. —2.

to honour, worship; prānarcurarcyā jagadarcanīyaṁ Bk. 2. 20; (—caus.)

to honour. —saṁ 1. to worship, adore. —2. to fix, settle, establish.

अर्द् — ard Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ard Ved. cl.6.P. (Imper. 3. pl. «ṛdantu»; impf. 3. pl. «ārdan») to move, be

moved, be scattered (as dust), R iv, 17, 2 and vii, 104, 24. cl.1. P.

«ardati» («ardati», «to go, move» to dissolve , (aor. «ārdīt» «anarda» to

torment, hurt, kill ; to ask, beg for (acc.) cl.7. «ṛṇatti», to kill Caus.

«ardayati» (Subj. «ardayāsi», Imper. 2. sg. ardaya, impf. «ādayat», 2. sg.

«ardayas»; aor. «ārdidat», or [after «ma»] ardayit to make agitated, stir

up, shake vehemently , to do harm, torment, distress &c. (generally used

in perf. Pass. p. «ardita» q.v.), to strike, hurt, kill, destroy Desid.

«ardidiṣati»; [Lat. ‘ardeo’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ard 1 P. [ardati, ānarda, ārdīt, ardituṁ, ardita or arṇa]

(1) To afflict, torment; strike, hurt, kill; rakṣaḥsahasrāṇi caturdaśārdīt

Bk. 12. 56, see caus. below.

(2) To beg, request, ask; nirgalitāṁbugarbhaṁ śaradghanaṁ nārdati

cātakopi R. 5. 17.

(3) To go.

(4) To move, be agitated or moved; be scattered (as dust); fly in

pieces, dissolve (Ved.). (The past participle is usually ardita, but arṇa

when the root is preceded by abhi, ni, vi, saṁ; cf. P. VII. 2. 24-5). —Caus.

(or 10 P.)

(1)

(a) To afflict, torment, distress; tata enaṁ mahāvegairardayāmāsa

tomaraiḥ Mb.; kāmārdita, kopa-, bhaya- &c.

(b) To strike, hurt, injure, kill; yenārdidat daityapuraṁ pinākī Bk. 2.

46; 9. 19; 15. 90.

(2) To stir up, rouse, agitate, shake vehemently, make agitated or

restless.

(3) To distort; ardayitvānilo vaktramarditaṁ janayatyataḥ Suśruta.

—WITH ati to torment excessively, fall upon or attack; atyārdīt vālinaḥ

putraṁ Bk. 15. 115. —abhi to distress, afflict, pain, oppress; abhyardito

vṛṣalaḥ (śītena pīḍitaḥ) P. VII. 2. 25 Sk. —ni Ved. to stream forth, flow

out. —pra to overwork, to work or exert oneself beyond measure; to

cause to flow away. —prati to oppress or press hard in return, assail in

return, return an attack. —vi Ved. to go or move away; to oppress,

harass, pain. (—caus.) to cause to be scattered or disolved, destroy,

annihilate. —saṁ caus. to pain greatly, wound, distress.

अर्ह् — arh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899arh cl.1.P. «arhati», rarely ā. «arhate» ([ iii, 1580 «arkat» [see be low];

Ved. Inf. «arhase» [ x 77, 1]; perf. 3. pl. «ānarhuḥ» «ānṛhuḥ» [cf. «ānṛcuḥ,

arc»] to deserve, merit, be worthy of, to have a claim to, be entitled to

(acc.), to be allowed to do anything (Inf.); to be obliged or required to do

anything (acc.); to be worth, counterbalance, to be able; («arhase», 2.

sg. with an Inf. is often used as a softened form of Imper.; e.g. «dātum

arhasi», «be pleased to give»; «śrotum arhasi», «deign to listen», for

śṛiṇu): Caus. (Opt. «arhayet» ; aor, «ārjihat» to honour. Desid. «arjihiṣati»

([cf. Gk. [greek] ]).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

arh 1 P. [arhati, arhituṁ, ānarha, arhita] (epic A. as rāvaṇo nārhate

pūjāṁ Ram.)

(1) To deserve, merit, be worthy of (with acc. or inf.); kimiva

nāyuṣmānamareśvarānnārhati S. 7; so daṁḍaṁ, prāyaścittaṁ, vadhaṁ

&c.

(2) To have a right to, be entitled to, be allowed to do any thing (with

acc.); nanu garbhaḥ pitryaṁ rikthamarhati S. 6; na strī

svātaṁtryamarhati Ms. 9. 3; also with inf.; na sa tallabdhumarhati Ms. 8.

147; 11. 7, 18.

(3) To be obliged or required to do a thing, oft. implying duty or

obligation; nānyatstrī dātumarhati Y. 2. 49; imāṁ prasādayitumarhasi R.

1. 88.

(4) To be fit or deserve to be done; arthanā mayi bhavadbhiḥ

kartumarhati N. 5. 112; Dk. 137.

(5) To be equal to; be worth, na te gātrāṇyupacāramarhaṁti S. 3. 18

are not equal to; sarve te japayajñasya kalāṁ nārhaṁti ṣoḍaśīṁ Ms. 2.

86; 3. 131.

(6) To be able, translateable by ‘can’; na me vacanamanyathā

bhavitumarhati S. 4; vināśamavyayasyāsya na kaścitkartumarhati Bg. 2.

17; anudyogena tailāni tilebhyo nāptumarhati H. Pr. 30 cannot get.

(7) To worship, honour; see caus. below.

(8) (Used with inf. in the second pers. and sometimes in the third) arh

represents a mild form of command, advice or courteous request, and

may be translated by ‘pray’, ‘deign’, ‘be pleased to’, ‘will be pleased to’;

dvitrāṇyahānyarhasi soḍhumarhan R. 5. 25 pray wait &c; nārhasi me

praṇayaṁ vihaṁtuṁ 2. 58; taṁ saṁtaḥ śrotumarhaṁti 1. 10 will be

pleased or be good enough to listen to it; Ku. 6. 32; Ms. 1. 2; Bg. 10. 16,

2. 17; R. 1. 72; 1. 88; 3. 46. —Caus. or 10 P. To honour, worship;

rājārjihattaṁ madhuparkapāṇiḥ Bk. 1. 17; Ms. 3. 3, 119.

अलम् — alam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899alam ind. (later form of «aram» q.v.), enough, sufficient, adequate, equal

to, competent, able. («alam» may govern a dat. [«jīvitavai» (Ved. Inf.

dat.) «alam» «alaṁ jīvanāya» , sufficient for living] or Inf. [ 2-4, 66; «alaṁ

vijṇātum» «able to conceive» instr. [ 2-3, 27 ; «alaṁ śaṅkayā», enough

i.e. away with fear!] or gen. [«alaṁ prajāyāḥ», capable of obtaining

progeny or may be used with the fut. [«alaṁ haniṣyati», he will be able

to kill or with an ind. [ 3-4, 18; «alaṁ bhuktvā», enough of eating i.e. do

not eat more, «alaṁ vlcārya», enough of consideration].)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

alam [al-ac]

(1) The sting in the tail of a scorpion.

(2) Yellow orpiment; cf. āla.

alam ind. [al-bāhu- am]

(1)

(a) Enough, sufficient for, adequate to (with dative or inf.);

tasyālameṣā kṣudhitasya tṛptyai R. 2. 39; Ku. 6. 82; anyathā prātarāśāya

kuryāma tvāmalaṁ vayam Bk. 8. 98; Śi. 2. 40, 106, 110; K. 133; Bh. 3.

22; Ms. 11. 77; R. 2. 39, 9. 32; 15. 64; Me. 64, 88.

(b) A match for, equal to (with dat.); daityebhyo hariralaṁ Sk.;

alaṁ mallo mallāya Mbh.

(2) Able, competent (with inf.); alaṁ bhoktuṁ Sk.; vareṇa śamitaṁ

lokānalaṁ dagdhuṁ hi tattapaḥ Ku. 2. 56; V. 3. 10; with loc. also;

trayāṇāmapi lokānāmalamasmi nivāraṇe Ram.

(3) Away with, enough of, no need of, no use of (having a prohibitive

force), with instr. or gerund; alamanyathā gṛhītvā M. 1. 20; alamalaṁ

bahu vikatthya M. 1; ālapyālamidaṁ babhroryatsa dārānapāharat Śi. 2.

40; alaṁ mahīpāla tava śrameṇa R. 2. 34; Ku. 5. 82; alamiyadbhiḥ

kusumaiḥ S. 4 so many flowers will do; Śi. 10. 75; sometimes used,

though less correctly, with the inf. in the same sense; alamātmānaṁ

khedayituṁ Ve. 2, 3; alaṁ suptajanaṁ prabodhayituṁ Mk. 3.

(4)

(a) Completely, thoroughly; arhasyenaṁ śamayitumalaṁ

vāridhārāsahasraiḥ Me. 53; tvamapi vitatayajñaḥ svargiṇaḥ prīṇayālam S.

7. 34; R. 10. 80; K. 169; Śi. 3. 58; 4. 39.

(b) Greatly, excessively, to a high degree; tudaṁti alam K. 2; yo

gacchatyalaṁ vidviṣataḥ prati Ak.; Mv. 6. 40; ityalamanvaśān munirmāṁ

Ki. 13. 13 again and again, pressingly.

(5) In vain.

(6) Surely, verily.

(7) In the sense of asti and bhūṣaṇa also.

— Comp.

—karmīṇa a. [alaṁ samarthaḥ karmaṇe kha] competent to do any

act; skilful, clever.

—kumāri a. [alaṁ kumāryai] sufficient to support a maiden

(dhanaṁ); P. I. 2. 44.

—kṛ, -kāra &c. see separately below.

—gāmin a. [alaṁ paryāptaṁ gacchati, ṇini] going after, following in

due or proper manner; P. V. 2. 15.

—jīvika a. [alaṁ jīvikāyai cata.] sufficient for livelihood.

—juṣa a. [alaṁjuṣyate karmaṇi bāhu- ka] sufficient, adequate to

eating.

—tama a. able, sufficient, having power.

—dhana a. [alaṁ prabhūtaṁ dhanamastyasya ac] possessing

sufficient wealth, rich; nirādiṣṭadhanaścettu pratibhūḥ syādalaṁdhanaḥ

Ms. 8. 162.

—dhūma a. [alamatyartho dhūmaḥ] thick smoke, volume of smoke.

—paśuḥ [alaṁ yajñe nirarthaḥ paśuḥ] a bad or useless animal (for

sacrifice). (—a.) able to keep cattle.

—puruṣīṇa a. [alaṁ samarthaṁ puruṣāya; svārthekha] 1. fit for a

man, becoming a man. 2. sufficient for a man. (

—ṇaḥ) a man who is chief of the opposite warriors in a battle.

—bala a. 1. strong enough, having sufficient power. —2. an epithet

of Śiva.

—buddhiḥ 1. sufficient sense. —2. false notion (mithyābuddhi). —

bhūṣṇu a. [alaṁ sāmarthye bhū-gsnu] able, competent;

vināpyasmadalaṁbhūṣṇurijyāyai tapasaḥ sutaḥ Śi. 2. 9.

अव् — av Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899av cl.1.P. «avati» (Imper. 2. sg. «ava» sg. «tāt» «avat» impf. avat, 2. sg.

1. «āvaḥ» [for 2. «āvaḥ» see «vṛ»]; perf. 3. sg. «āva», 2. pl. «āva» «āvitha»;

aor. «avit», 2. sg. «āvīs, avīs» and «aviṣas», Imper. «aviṣṭu», 2. sg.

«aviḍḍhi» [once «aviḍḍh» [six times in du. «aviṣṭam», 3. du., 2. pl.

«aviṣṭanā» Prec. 3. sg. «avyās», Inf. «avitave» ; Ved. ind. p. «āvyā» to

drive, impel, animate (as a car or horse) ; Ved.to promote, favour,

(chiefly Ved.) to satisfy, refresh; to offer (as a hymn to the gods) ; to

lead or bring to (dat.: «ūtaye, vāja-sātaye, kṣatrāya, svastaye») ; (said of

the gods) to be pleased with, like, accept favourably (as sacrifices,

prayers or hymns) , (chiefly said of kings or princes) to guard, defend,

protect, govern &c.: Caus. (only impf. «avayat», 2. sg. «āvayas») to

consume, devour ([cf. Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘aveo’?]).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

av 1 P. [avati, āva, āvīt, aviṣyati, avituṁ, avita or ūta]

(1) To protect, defend; yamavatāmavatāṁ ca dhuri sthitaḥ R. 9. 1;

pratyakṣābhiḥ prapannastanubhiravatu vastābhiraṣṭābhirīśaḥ S. 1. 1.

(2) To please, satisfy, give pleasure to; do good to; vikramastena

māmavati nājite tvayi R. 11. 75; na māmavati sadvīpā ratnasūrapi medinī.

1. 65.

(3) To like, wish, desire, love.

(4) To favour, promote, animate. (In the Dhātupāṭha several other

meanings are assigned to this root, but they are very rarely used in

classical literature; e. g. gati, kāṁti, avagama, praveśa, śravaṇa,

svāmyartha or sāmarthya, yācana, kriyā, dīpti, avāpti, grahaṇa, vyāpti,

āliṁgana, hiṁsā, ādāna, dahana, bhāva, bhāga and vṛddhi). —Caus. To

consume, devour. —WITH anu to encourage, inspire. —ud 1. to regard,

attend to. —2. to wait for. —3. to promote, impel. —upa 1. to cherish,

behave friendly towards. —2. to encourage. —saṁ 1. to satisfy, satiate.

—2. to protect, maintain. [cf. L. aveo].

अवतॄ — avatṝ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899avatṝ «ava-tṝ» cl.1.P. «-tarati» (perf. «-tatāra», 3. pl. «-teruḥ»; Inf. «-

taritum» [e.g. ] or «-tartum» [e.g. ; ind. p. «-tīrya») to descend into (loc.

or acc.), alight from, alight (abl.) ; to descend (as a deity) in becoming

incarnate ; to betake one’s self to (acc.), arrive at ; to make one’s

appearance, arrive ; to be in the right place, to fit ; to undertake: Ved.

cl.6. P. (Imper. 2. sg. «-tira»; impf. -atirat, 2. sg. «-atiras», 2. du. «-

atiratam»; aor. 2. sg. «-tārīs») to overcome, overpower Ved. cl.4. (p.

fem. «-tīyatī») to sink Caus. «-tārayati» (ind. p. «-tārya») to make or let

one descend, bring or fetch down (acc. or loc.) from (abl.) &c.; to take

down, take off, remove, turn away from (abl. ; «to set a-going, render

current» see «ava-tārita» below; to descend(?)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

avatṝ 1 P.

(1) To descend, alight, come down; rathādavatatāra ca R. 1. 54, 13.

68; vasan dadarśāvataraṁtamaṁbarāt Śi. 1. 1; yamunātaṭamavatīrṇaḥ

Pt. 1; meghapadavīmavatīrṇau svaḥ S. 7; kadaitadaṁvatariṣyati

cakraṁmastakāt Pt. 5; (fig. also); iti matireva na

boṁdhapadavīmavatarati K. 289 fails to see; vāgeva me

nābhidheyaviṣayamavatarati trapayā 151 I cannot speak for very shame

(2) To flow or run into, discharge contents, join (as a river); sāgaraṁ

varjayitvā kutra vā mahānadyavatarati S. 3; see avatīrṇa also.

(3) To enter, to enter into, to come to; M. 1. 22; Śi. 9. 32; tvadīyaṁ

deśamavatīrya M. 5.

(4) To begin, commence; avataratu bhavān Dk. 152;

tatpreyasīmāhūya saṁgītakamavatarāmi Dhūrt. 1.

(5) To present oneself, appear forth, come; prasabhamavatatāra

cittajanmā Ki. 10. 17.

(6) To descend (as a deity) into the world in the form of a mortal;

śāpāvatīrṇa Ks. 2. 21; munikanyā ca sā śāpāttasyāṁ jātāvavātarat 2. 31.

Rāj. T. 1. 130; 5. 66; viṣṇurevāvatīrṇosau Mārk. P.

(7) To get over, subdue, conquer; avatīrṇosmi yadrogamatidustaraṁ

Ks. 21. 194; ava tasya balaṁ tira Rv. 10. 133. 5. —Caus.

(1) To cause to descend, bring or fetch down; mārge

kathaṁcidavatārya Mu. 3. 9; rathāt, vṛkṣāt, śūlāgrāt &c.

(2) To take down, put or set down; avatāraya salilasamīpaṁ K. 38;

mātrāṁ kakṣāṁtarādavatārya Pt. 1; svabhujādavatāritā R. 1. 34;

avatāryatāṁ rathaḥ V. 1.

(3) To take off, remove, withdraw, put aside; svagātrādavatārya

bhūṣaṇāni Mu. 2, 5; athāṁgarājādavatārya cakṣuḥ R. 6. 30,

athorudeśādavatārya pādaṁ Ku. 3. 11, Śi. 9. 36.

(4) To bring downwards.

(5) To bend down.

(6) To introduce, set a-going, make current, begin; tena vidyāvatāritā

Raj. T. 4. 485; tatra tayā satre’vatārite 2. 58.

अष्टन् — aṣṭan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aṣṭan «aṣṭau» ([ &c.]) or «aṣṭā» ([ viii, 2, 41]) or «aṣṭa» ([ x, 27, 15

&c.]) pl. eight (other forms are: gen. «aṣṭānām» &c.; instr. «aṣṭabhis»

&c.; loc. «aṣṭāsu» ‘octo’; Gk. [greek]. Goth. ‘ahtau’; Mod. Germ. ‘acht’;

Eng. ‘eight’; Lith. ‘asztuni’; Slav. ‘osmj’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

aṣṭan num. a. [aś-vyāptau kanin tuṭ ca Uṇ. 1. 154.] (nom. acc. aṣṭa-ṣṭau)

Eight. It often occurs in comp. as aṣṭā with numerals and some other

nouns; as aṣṭādaśan, aṣṭāviṁśatiḥ, aṣṭāpada &c. [cf. L. octo; Gr. okto;

Zend. astan; Pers. hasht.].

— Comp.

—akṣara a. consisting of eight letters or parts. (

—raḥ) N. of a metre.

—aṁga a. consisting of eight parts or members. (

—gaṁ) 1. the eight parts of the body with which a very low

obeisance is performed; -pātaḥ, —praṇāmaḥ, sāṣṭāṁganamaskāraḥ a

respectful obeisance made by the prostration of the eight limbs of the

body; sāṣṭāṁgapātaṁ praṇanāma fell prostrate on the ground in

reverence; (jānubhyāṁ ca tathā padbhyāṁ pāṇibhyāmurasā dhiyā . śirasā

vacasā dṛṣṭyā praṇāmo’ṣṭāṁga īritaḥ). —2. the 8 parts of yoga or

concentration; yamo niyamaścāsanaṁ ca prāṇāyāmastataḥ paraṁ .

pratyāhāro dhāraṇā ca dhyānaṁ sārdhaṁ samādhinā .

aṣṭāṁgānyāhuretāni yogināṁ yogasiddhaye … —3. materials of worship

taken collectively. —4. the eight parts of every medical science; (they are:

—śalyaṁ, śālākyaṁ, kāyacikitsā, bhūtavidyā, kaumārabhṛtyaṁ,

agadataṁtraṁ, rasāyanataṁtraṁ, and vājīkaraṇataṁtraṁ). —5. the eight

parts of a court; 1 the law, 2 the judge, 3 assessors, 4 scribe, 5

astrologer, 6 gold, 7 fire, and 8 water. —6. any whole consisting of eight

parts. —7. a die, dice. -arghyaṁ an offering of eight articles. -dhūpaḥ a

sort of medical incense removing fever. -maithunaṁ ‘sexual enjoyment of

8 kinds’; the eight stages in the progress of a love-suit; smaraṇaṁ

kīrtanaṁ keliḥ prekṣaṇaṁ guhyabhāṣaṇaṁ . saṁkalpo’dhyavasāyaśca

kriyāniṣpattireva ca … -hṛdayaṁ N. of a medical work.

—adhyāyī N. of Paṇinī’s grammatical work consisting of 8 Adhyayas

or chapters.

—ara a. having a wheel with 8 spokes.

—asraṁ an octagon.

—asriya a. octangular.

—aha(n) a. lasting for 8 days.

—ādiśābdikāḥ the first eight expounders of the science of words

(grammar); iṁdraścaṁdraḥ kāśakṛtsnāpiśalī śākaṭāyanaḥ .

pāṇinyamarajaineṁdrā jayaṁtyaṣṭādiśābdikāḥ … —kapāla a. (-ṣṭā-)

prepared or offered in ‘eight’ pans. (

—laḥ) a sacrifice in which ghee is offered in eight pans.

—karṇa a. one who has the number eight as a mark burnt in his

ears (P. VI. 3. 115). (

—rṇaḥ) eight-eared, an epithet of Brahmā.

—karman m.),

—gatikaḥ a king who has 8 duties to perform; (they are:

—ādāne ca visarge ca tathā praiṣaniṣedhayoḥ . paṁcame

cārthavacane vyavahārasya cekṣaṇe .. daṁḍaśuddhyoḥ sadā

raktastenāṣṭagatiko nṛpaḥ .. —kṛtvas ind. eight times.

—koṇaḥ 1. an octagon. —2. a kind of machine.

—khaṁḍaḥ a title of a collection of several sections of the Ṛgveda.

—gavaṁ [aṣṭānāṁ gavāṁ samāhāraḥ] a flock of 8 cows.

—gāḍh m. 1. a fabulous animal supposed to have eight legs. —2. a

spider.

—guṇa a. eightfold; annādaṣṭaguṇaṁ cūrṇaṁ;

dāpyoṣṭaguṇamatyayaṁ Ms. 8. 400. (

—ṇaṁ) the eight qualities which a Brāhmaṇa should possess; dayā

sarvabhūteṣu, kṣāṁtiḥ, anasūyā, śaucaṁ, anāyāsaḥ, maṁgalaṁ,

akārpaṇyaṁ, aspṛhā ceti .. Gautama. -āśraya a. endowed with these

eight qualities.

—ṣṭa (ṣṭā) catvāriṁśat a. forty-eight.

—taya a. eight-fold.

—tāriṇī the eight forms of the goddess tāriṇī; tārā cogrā mahogrā

ca vajrā kālī sarasvatī . kāmeśvarī ca cāmuṁḍā ityaṣṭau tāriṇyo matāḥ …

—triṁśat (—ṣṭā) a. thirty-eight.

—trikaṁ [aṣṭāvṛttaṁ trikaṁ] the number 24.

—dalaṁ 1. a lotus having eight petals. —2. an octagon.

—daśan (-ṣṭā-) see below after aṣṭātaya. —diś f. [karma-

saṁjñātvānna dviguḥ] the eight cardinal points; pūrvāgneyī dakṣiṇā ca

nairṛtī paścimā tathā . vāyavī cottaraiśānī diśā aṣṭāvimāḥ smṛtāḥ … —

kariṇyaḥ the eight female elephants living in the eight points;

kariṇyo’bhramukapilāpiṁgalānupamāḥ kramāt . tāmrakarṇī śubhradaṁtī

cāṁganā cāṁjanāvatī .. Ak. -pālāḥ the eight regents of the cardinal

points; iṁdro vahriḥ pitṛpatiḥ (yamaḥ) nairṛto varuṇo marut (vāyuḥ) .

kubera īśaḥ patayaḥ pūrvādīnāṁ diśāṁ kramāt .. Ak. -gajāḥ the eight

elephants guarding the 8 quarters; airāvataḥ puṁḍarīko vāmanaḥ

kumudoṁ’janaḥ . puṣpadaṁtaḥ sārvabhaumaḥ supratīkaśca diggajāḥ ..

Ak.

—dravyaṁ the eight materials of a sacrifice;

aśvatthoḍuṁbaraplakṣanyagrodhasamidhastilāḥ . siddhārthapāyasājyāni

dravyāṇyaṣṭau viṭurbudhāḥ … —dhātuḥ the eight metals taken

collectively; svarṇaṁ rūpyaṁ ca tāmraṁ ca raṁgaṁ yaśadameva ca .

śīsaṁ lauhaṁ rasaśceti dhātavo’ṣṭau prakīrtitāḥ … —pada —d (-ṣṭa or

ṣṭā-) a. 1. eight-footed. —2. a term for a pregnant animal.

—padaḥ (-ṣṭā-) 1. a spider. —2. a fabulous animal called Śarabha.

—3. a worm. —4. a wild sort of jasmin. —5. a pin or bolt. —6. the mountain

Kailasa (the abode of Kubera). (

—daḥ, —daṁ) [aṣṭasu dhātuṣu padaṁ pratiṣṭhā yasya Malli.] 1.

gold; āvarjitāṣṭāpadakuṁbhatoyaiḥ Ku. 7. 10; Śi. 3. 28. —2. a kind of

chequered cloth or a board for drafts, dice-board (Mar. paṭa); —

paricayacaturābhiḥ K. 196. -patraṁ a sheet of gold.

—pa (pā) dikā N. of a plant.

—padī (-ṣṭa-ṣṭā-) 1. wild sort of jasmin. —2. a variety of metre,

often used in Jayadeva’s Gītagovinda.

—palaṁ a kind of medicinal preparation of ghee.

—pādya a. (-ṣṭā-) eight-fold.

—maṁgalaḥ a horse with a white face, tail, mane, breast and

hoofs. (—laṁ) [aṣṭaguṇitaṁ maṁgalaṁ śā- ta-] a collection of eight lucky

things; according to some they are: mṛgarājo vṛṣo nāgaḥ kalaśo

vyaṁjanaṁ tathā . vaijayaṁtī tathā bherī dīpa ityaṣṭamaṁgalam ..;

according to others loke’sminmaṁgalānyaṣṭau brāhmaṇo gaurhutāśanaḥ .

hiraṇyaṁ sarpirāditya āpo rājā tathāṣṭamaḥ … —mānaṁ one kuḍava.

—māsika a. occurring once in 8 months.

—muṣṭiḥ a measure called kuṁci; aṣṭamuṣṭirbhavet kuṁciḥ, —

mūrtiḥ the ‘eight-formed’, an epithet of Śiva; the 8 forms being the 5

elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), the sun and moon, and the

sacrificing priest; cf S. 1. 1—yā sṛṣṭiḥ sraṣṭurādyā vahati vidhihutaṁ yā

haviryā ca hotrī . yedve kālaṁvidhattaḥ śrutiviṣayaguṇā yā sthitā vyāpya

viśvaṁ . yāmāhuḥ sarvabhūtaprakṛtiriti yayā prāṇinaḥ prāṇavaṁtaḥ .

pratyakṣābhiḥ prapannastanubhiravatu vastābhiraṣṭābhirīśaḥ ..; or, briefly

expressed, the names in Sanskrit (in the above order) are: jalaṁ

vahnistathā yaṣṭā sūryācaṁdramasau tathā . ākāśaṁ vāyuravanī

mūrtayo’ṣṭau pinākinaḥ … -dharaḥ ‘having 8 forms’, Śiva.

—ratnaṁ the eight jewels taken collectively; the title of a collection

of 8 Ślokas on morality.

—rasāḥ the 8 sentiments in dramas &c.;

śṛṁgārahāsyakaruṇaraudravīrabhayānakāḥ . bībhatsādbhutasaṁjñau

cetyaṣṭau nāṭye rasāḥ smṛtāḥ .. K. P. 4 (to which is sometimes added a

9th Rasa called śāṁta; nirvedasthāyibhāvosti śāṁtopi navamo rasaḥ

ibid); -āśraya a. embodying or representing the eight sentiments; V. 2.

18.

—lohakaṁ a class of 8 metals; suvarṇaṁ rajataṁ tāmraṁ sīsakaṁ

kāṁtikaṁ tathā . vaṁgaṁ lauhaṁ tīkṣṇalauhaṁ lauhānyaṣṭāvimāni tu …

—vargaḥ 1. a sort of diagram (cakra) showing the good or bad stars of a

person. —2. the 8 classes of letters; (avarga, ka-, ca-, ṭa-, ta-, pa-, ya-,

śa-,). —3. a class of three principal medicaments.

—vakraḥ (ṣṭā) see below.

—vidha a. [aṣṭa vidhāḥ prakārāḥ asya] eight-fold, of eight kinds.

—viṁśatiḥ f. (-ṣṭā-) [aṣṭādhikā viṁśātiḥ śā. ta.] the number

twenty-eight.

—śataṁ eight hundred.

—śravaṇaḥ, —śravasa N. of Brahma (having 8 ears or four heads).

अशम् — aśam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aśam «a-śam» ind. «non-welfare», harm

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

aśam ind. Ved. Non-welfare, harm, mischief.

अस् — as Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899as m. N. of a Tirtha

as cl.2.P. «asti» (2. sg. «asi», 1. sg. «asmi»; pl. «smasi» or «smas, stha,

santi»; (rarely ā. e.g. 1.pl. «smahe» ; Subj. «asat»; Imper. «astu», 2. sg.

«edhi» (fr. «as-dhi» cf. ; Pot. «syāt»; impf. «āsīt», rarely «ās» [only in ; cf. ;

perf. 1. and 3.sg, «āsa», 2. sg. «āsitha», 3. pl. «āsuḥ»; p. m. «sat» f. «satī»)

to be, live, exist, be present; to take place, happen; to abide, dwell, stay;

to belong to (gen. or dat.); to fall to the share of. happen to any one

(gen.); to be equal to (dat.) ; to turn out, tend towards any result, prove

(with dat.); to become &c., (cf. ; to be (i.e. used as copula, but not only

with adj., but also with adv. [e.g. «tūṣṇīm āsīt» , and often with part.,

[e.g. perf. Pass. p. «prasthitāḥ sma» ; fut. p.p. «hantavyo ‘smi» ; fut. p.

especially with Pot., and only in «yadi dāsyan-t-syāt», «if he should intend

to give»]; the pf. «āsa» helps to form the periphrastic perf., and «asmi»

&c. the fut.); ([cf. Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘es-t’; Goth. ‘is-t’; Lith. ‘es-ti’.])

as cl.4.P. «asyati» (p. «asyat»; impf. «āsyat», A.V. [cf. «parās» and «vy-

as»]; fut. p. «asiṣyat»; aor. «āsthat» [; cf. «vy-as»]; perf. P. «āsa» [cf.

«parās»] ā. «āse» [cf. «vy-as»]; Ved. Inf. «astave» to throw, cast, shoot at

(loc. dat., or gen) &c.; to drive or frighten away ; see also 1. «asta» s.v.

as «asati, -te» = «aṣ» q.v.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

as I. 2 P. [asti, āsīt, astu, syāt; defective in non-conjugational tenses, its

forms being made up from the root bhū].

(1) To be, live, exist (showing mere existence); nāsadāsīnno sadāsīt

Rv. 10. 129. 1; śrutidvaidhaṁ tu yatra syāt Ms. 2. 14; śapathe nāsti

pātakaṁ 8. 112; na tvevāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ Bg. 2. 12; āsīdrājā nalo nāma

Nala. 1. 1; Ms. 5. 79; na as not to be, to be lost, disappear, perish,

nāyamastīti duḥkhārtā Nala. 7. 16; asti bhoktuṁ Sk. it has to be eaten;

(for other uses of asti see asti s. v.).

(2) To be (used as a copula or verb of incomplete predication, being

followed by a noun or adjective or adverb, or some other equivalent);

bhaktosi me sakhā ca Bg. 4. 3; dhārmike sati rājani Ms. 11. 11; ācārye

saṁsthite sati 5. 80; so evameva syāt, tūṣṇīmāsīt &c.

(3) To belong to, be in the possession of (expres. sed in English by

have), with gen. of possessor; yanmamāsti harasva tat Pt. 4. 76; yasya

nāsti svayaṁ prajñā 5. 70; na hi tasyāsti kiṁcitsvaṁ Ms. 8. 417; nāsti

buddhirayuktasya Bg. 2. 66.

(4) To fall to the share of, to happen to or befall any one (with gen.);

yadicchāmi te tadastu S. 4; tasya pretya phalaṁ nāsti Ms. 3. 139 he

cannot enjoy or get.

(5) To arise, spring out, occur; āsīcca mama manasi K. 142 (this)

occurred to my mind.

(6) To become; tāṁ dṛṣṭvā daśavistārāmāsaṁ viṁśatiyojanaḥ Ram.;

also śuklīsyāt, rājasāt syāt &c. Sk.

(7) To lead or tend to, turn out or prove to be (with dat.); sa sthāṇuḥ

sthirabhaktiyogasulabho niḥśreyasāyāstu vaḥ V. 1. 1; saṁgataṁ

śrīsarasvatyorbhūtayestu sadā satāṁ 5. 24; oft. with dat. alone without

as; yatastau svalpaduḥkhāya Pt. 1.

(8) To suffice (with dat.); sā teṣāṁ pāvanāya syāt Ms. 11. 86;

anyairnṛpālaiḥ paridīyamānaṁ śākāya vā syāllavaṇāya vā syāt

Jagannātha.

(9) To stay, reside, dwell, live; hā pitaḥ kvāsi he subhru Bk. 6. 11.

(10) To take place, happen.

(11) To be in a particular relation, to be affected (with loc.); kiṁnu

khalu yathā vayamasyāmevamiyamapyasmāt prati syāt S. 1. astu well, let

it be; evamastu, tathāstu so be it, amen. The form āsa joined to roots in

forming their periphrastic perfect is sometimes separated from the root

and used by itself; taṁ pātayāṁ prathamamāsa papāta paścāt R. 9. 61,

16. 86. [Cf. L. est and Gr. esti with asti; esse; Zend. āsti; Pers. hast,

ast]. —WITH ati to be over, excel, surpass. —anu to be at hand, reach. —

api (with loc. or an adv. of place) 1. to be in anything. —2. to belong to,

be closely connected with. —abhi 1. to belong to, to fall to one’s share;

yanmamābhiṣyāt Sk. —2. to be over. —3. to excel, surpass. —4. to

domineer or to tyrannize over, rule over. —āvis to arise, spring up, be

visible; ācāryakaṁ vijayi mānmathamāvirāsīt Mal. 1. 26. —upa to be near

to or in. —pari 1. to be in the way. —2. to surpass. —3. to pass or spend

(time). —4. to pervade. —pra 1. to be in front of. —2. to be in an

extraordinary degree, to preponderate, excel, surpass. —prati 1. to be

equal to, be a match for. —2. to rival, emulate, vie with. —3. to be a

representative of, stand in place of. —prādus to appear, spring up;

prādurāsīttamonudaḥ Ms. 1. 6; R. 11. 15. —vyati (Atm. vyatihe, vyatise;

vyatiste) to excel, surpass, be above or superior to, out-weigh; anyo

vyatiste tu mamāpi dharmaḥ Bk. 2. 35. —II 4 P. (asyati, āsa, āsthat,

asituṁ, asta)

(1) To throw, cast, hurl, discharge, shoot (with loc. of the mark);

tasminnāsthadiṣīkāstraṁ R. 12. 23; Bk. 15. 91, 14. 77; sometimes with

dat. or gen.; dasyave hetimasya Rv. 1. 103. 3.

(2) To drive away, remove.

(3) To frighten or scare away.

(4) To throw or take away, let go, leave, give up; as in astamāna,

astaśoka, astakopa; see asta. —WITH ati to shoot beyond or at,

overpower (with arrows); atyasta having shot beyond, having surpassed

or excelled; joined in acc. Tat. comp.; P. II. 1. 24. —abhipra to throw over

or upon, hurl at. —parini to stretch. —III. 1 U. (asati-te, asita).

(1) To go.

(2) To take or receive, seize.

(3) To shine (The examples usually cited to illustrate this sense are

niṣprabhaśca prabhurāsa bhūbhṛtāṁ R. 11. 81; tenāsa lokaḥ pitṛmān

vinetrā 14. 23; lāvaṇya utpādya ivāsa yatnaḥ Ku. 1. 35. But the sense of

didīpe or ‘shone’ is far-fetched, though Vamana is disposed to take it. It

seems preferable to regard āsa in these instances as equivalent to

babhūva, either taking it, as Śakaṭāyana does, as an indeclinable

tiṅaṁtapratirūpakamavyayaṁ, or considering it, as Vallabha does, as an

ungrammatical form used against the rules of grammar, prāmādikaḥ

prayogaḥ; see Malli. on Ku. 1. 35).

अह् — ah Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ah (defect. verb, only perf. 3. sg. «āha» and 3. pl. «āhuh» &c., 2. sg.

«āttha» () 3. du. «āhatuḥ» to say, speak &c.; (with lexicographers) to

express, signify; to call (by name, «nāmnā») ; to call, hold, consider,

regard as (with two acc., for one of which may be substituted a phrase

with «iti») &c.; to state or declare with reference to (acc.) ; to

acknowledge, accept, state ; to adjudge anything (acc.) to any one

(gen.), ‘ag-all’, «speech»; ‘eigh-im’, «I call»; Goth. ‘af-aika’, «I deny»; Lat.

‘nego’ for ‘n’-ego’, «to say no»; ‘ad-ag-ium’, ‘ajo’, &c.]

ah cl.5.P. «ahnoti», to pervade or occupy

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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ah I. 1 A. or 10 U.

(1) = aṁh q. v. —II. 1 P. To sing together, compose, celebrate,

prepare. —III. 5 P. (ahnoti, āhīt, āha) To pervade. —IV. (a defective verb

preserved only in five forms ātya, āhathuḥ, āha, āhatuḥ, āhuḥ)

(1) To say, speak, mention.

(2) To acknowledge, accept, state.

(3) To declare, express, signify.

(4) To hold, consider, regard.

(5) To call.

अह — aha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aha ind. (as a particle implying ascertainment, affirmation, certainty,

&c.) surely, certainly ; (as explaining, defining) namely ; (as admitting,

limiting, &c.) it is true, I grant, granted, indeed, at least ([For the rules

of accentuation necessitated in a phrase by the particle «aha» cf.

aha n. (only Ved.; nom. pl. «ahā» ; gen. pl. «ahānām» = «aḥar» q.v., a

day

n. often ifc. «aha» m. (e.g. «dvādaśāha, try-aha, ṣaḍ-aha», &c.) or n.

(e.g. «puṇyāha, bhadrāha», and «sudināha»)

aha n. see also «ahna» s.v.

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aha ind. A particle implying

(a) praise (pūjā);

(b) separation;

(c) resolution, ascertainment, certainty; and translated by ‘surely,’

‘certainly,’ ‘yes,’ ‘well’;

(d) rejecting;

(e) sending;

(f) deviation from custom, impropriety; tvamaha grāmaṁ gaccha,

tvamaha rathetāraṇyaṁ gaccha Sk.; svayamaha rathena yāti 3

upādhyāyaṁ padātiṁ gamayati Sk.

आ — ā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ā the second vowel of the alphabet corresponding to the «a» in far.

ā ind. a particle of reminiscence ; also of compassion or pain [more

correctly written 1. «ās» q.v.], and of assent ([This particle remains

unaltered in orthography even before vowels (which causes it to be

sometimes confounded with 1. «ās»)

ā m. N. of śiva

m. grandfather

ā f. N. of Lakṣmī

ā (as a prefix to verbs, especially of motion, and their derivatives) near,

near to, towards (see «ā-kram» &c.; in the Veda, of course, the prefix is

separable from the verb; in a few cases , a verb in the imperative is to be

supplied; with roots like «gam, yā», and «i», «to go», and 1. «dā», «to

give», it reverses the action; e.g. «ā-gacchati», «e comes»; «ā-datte», «e

takes»). (As a prep. with a preceding acc.) near to, towards, to ; (with a

preceding noun in the acc., as «joṣam» or «varam») for ; (with a following

acc.) up to.. exclusively ; (with a preceding abl.) from ; out of, from

among (e.g. «bahubhya ā», «from among many») ; towards (only in

«asmad ā», «towards us») ; (with a following abl. cf. up to, to, as far as

&c.; from ; (with a preceding loc.) in, at, on (As an adv. after words

expressing a number or degree) fully, really, indeed (e.g. «trir ā divas»,

«quite or fully three times a day»; «mahimā vām indrāgnī paniṣṭha, ā»,

«your greatness, O Indra and Agni, is most praiseworthy indeed», &c.) ;

(after a subst. or adj.) «as, like», (or it simply strengthens the sense of

the preceding word) , (after a verb) ; (as a conjunctive particle)

moreover, further, and (it is placed either between the two words

connected [rarely after the second , or after both or, if there are more,

after the last [ iv, 57, 1 and x, 75, 5]; see also «ātaś ca» s.v.) In classical

Sanskṛit it may denote the limit «to», «until», «as far as», «from», either

not including the object named or including it (sometimes with acc. or

abl. or forming an adv.) e.g. «ā-maraṇam» or «ā-maranāt», «till death»

(cf. «ā-maraṇānta» &c.); «ā-gopālā dvijātayaḥ», «the twice-born including

the cowherds» ; «ā-samudram» or «ā-samudrāt», «as far as the ocean» or

«from the ocean» (but not including it); «ā-kumāram», «from a child» or

«from childhood» or «to a child» (cf. Lat. ‘a puero’) ; «ā-kumāram yaśaḥ

pāṇineḥ», «the fame of Pāṇini extends even to children»; «ājānu-bāhu»

mfn. «one whose arms reach down to the knees» ; (see also «ākarṇa-»

and «ājanma-«); (cf. «ā-jarasam, ā-vyuṣam, ā-saptama, otsūyam».)

Prefixed to adj. ([rarely to subst.; cf. «ā-kopa»]) it implies diminution «a

little» e.g. «ā-piṇjara» mfn. a little red, reddish ; (see also «ā-pakva,

oṣṇa», &c.) Some commentaries (e.g. on occasionally give to «ā» in this

application the meaning «samantāt», «all through, completely», as «ā-

nīla», «blue all round.»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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ā The second letter of the Alphabet.

ā

(1) Used as a particle or interjection showing

(a) assent; ‘yes’, ‘verily’.

(b) Compassion (anukaṁpā) ‘Ah’.

(c) Pain or regret (usually written ās or āḥ q. v.), ‘alas’.

(a) Recollection (smaraṇa) ‘Ah’, ‘Oh’; ā evaṁ kilāsīt U. 6.

(e) But (used as a disjunctive conjunction). f) And (used as a

cumulative conjunction).

(g) Sometimes used as an expletive; ā evaṁ manyase. In all these

senses ā is treated as a Pragṛhya vowel (does not form any Sandhi with a

following vowel) P. I. 1. 14.

(2) (As a prefix to verbs and nouns)

(a) it expresses the senses of near, near to, towards, from all

sides, all around (see the several verbs).

(b) With verbs of motion, taking, carrying &c. it shows the reverse

of the action; as gam to go, āgam to come; dā to give, ādā to take; nī to

carry, ānī to bring.

(3) (As a separable preposition with abl.) it shows either

(a) the limit inceptive (abhividhi), from, ever since, away from, out

of, off, from among; āmūlāt śrotumicchāmi S. 1; bahubhya ā from out of

many; ā janmanaḥ S. 5. 25 ever since (her) birth; ā manoḥ U. 6. 18.

(b) Or, it expresses the limit exclusive or conclusive (maryādā),

till, until, upto, as far as, unto; āṅ maryādābhividhyoḥ P. II. 1. 13; see

abhividhi; ā paritoṣādviduṣāṁ S. 1. 2 till the learned are satisfied; ā

kailāsāt Me. 11 upto or as far as Kailasa; odakāṁtāt S. 4; U. 1. 37; V. 2.

2. In this sense ā sometimes governs the acc.; śatamā jātīḥ upto a

hundred births.

(c) In both these senses ā frequently enters into compound,

forming either Avyayībhava comp. or compound adjectives; ābālaṁ (or ā

bālebhyaḥ) haribhaktiḥ commencing with or including children; āmukti (or

āmukteḥ) saṁsāraḥ Sk. till final emancipation; āmekhalaṁ Ku. 1. 5 as far

as.; āmaraṇaṁ Pt. 1 till death; āgopālaṁ nanṛtuḥ K. 70 down to the

cowherd; āgopālā dvijātayaḥ including the cowherds. Sometimes the

compound so formed stands as the first member of other compounds,

so’hamājanmaśuddhānāmāphalodayakarmaṇāṁ .

āsamudrakṣitīśānāmānākarathavartmanāṁ R. 1. 5; āgaṁḍavilaṁbi S. 6.

17; ākarṇalaṁbi M. 5. 10.

(d) Used with loc. it has the sense of ‘in’, ‘at’ (mostly Ved.); gāvo

na yavaseṣvā Rv. 1. 91. 13.

(4) With adjectives (or sometimes with nouns) ā has a diminutive

force; āpāṁḍura a little white, whitish; ālakṣya S. 7. 17 slightly visible;

ākaṁpaḥ gentle shaking; so ānīla, ārakta.

(5) (As a separable adverb) ā chiefly occurs in the Vedas and means

near, near to, or towards, there to, further; and also, even; in many

cases it emphasizes the word which precedes it, and when placed after

prepositions it strengthens their sense.

आकीम् — ākīm Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ākīm «ā-kīm» ind. from (with abl.)

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1890

ākīm ind. Ved. From(with abl.); leaving, excluding.

आक्षि — ākṣi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ākṣi «ā-kṣi» cl.2. «-kṣeti» (3. pl. «-kṣiyanti» and impf. «ākṣiyan»; Pot. 1. pl.

«-kṣiyema») to abide, dwell in (acc.), inhabit ; «-kṣeti», to possess, take

possession of (acc.) cl.6. «-kṣiyati», to exist

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ākṣi 2. 6. P. Ved.

(1) To abide, dwell in, stay (with).

(2) To be or exist.

(3) To possess.

इ — i Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899i the third vowel of the alphabet, corresponding to «i» short, and

pronounced as that letter in «kill» &c.

i ind. an interjection of anger, calling, sorrow, distress, compassion, &c.,

(g. «cādi»

i base of Nom. and Acc. sing. du. and pl. of the demonstrative pronoun

«idam», «this» or «that»; ([cf. «itara, itas, iti» «id, idā, iyat, iva, iha»: cf.

also Lat. ‘id’; Goth. ‘ita’; Eng. ‘it’; Old Germ. ‘iz’; Mod. Germ. ‘es’.])

i m. N. of Kāmadeva

i cl.2.P. «eti» (Impv. 2. sg. «ihi») and 1. P. ā. «ayati, ayate» ([cf. «ay»]),

(pf. «iyāya» [2. sg. «iyatha» «iyetha» fut. «eṣyati»; aor. «aiṣīt»; inf. «etum,

etave» and , «etavai» «etos» «ityai» to go, walk; to flow; to blow; to

advance, spread, get about; to go to or towards (with acc.), come &c.;

to go away, escape, pass, retire ; to arise from, come from ; to return (in

this sense only fut.) ; (with «punar») to come back again, return &c.; to

succeed ; to arrive at, reach, obtain &c.; to fall into, come to; to

approach with prayers, gain by asking (cf. «ita»); to undertake anything

(with acc.); to be employed in, go on with, continue in any condition or

relation (with a part. or instr. e.g. «asura-rakṣasāni mṛdyamānāni yanti»,

«the Asuras and Rakshases are being continually crushed» ;

«gavāmayaneneyuḥ», «they, were engaged in the [festival called]

Gavāmayana» ; to appear, be Intens. ā. «īyate» ( i, 30, 18; p. «iyāna» ;

inf. «iyadhyai» to go quickly or repeatedly; to come, wander, run, spread,

get about ; to appear, make one’s appearance ; to approach any one with

requests (with two acc.), ask, request Pass. «īyate», to be asked or

requested Caus. «āyayati», to cause to go or escape ; ([cf. Gk. [greek];

Lat. ‘e-o’, ‘i-mus’, ‘i-ter’, &c.; Lith. ‘ei-mi’, «I go»; Slav. ‘i-du’, «I go», ‘i-ti’,

«to go»; Goth. ‘i-ddja’, «I went.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

i The third letter of the Devanāgarī alphabet.

i I. 2 P. (In Dhātup. written as iṇ) (eti, iyāya, agāt, etuṁ, ita)

(1) To go, go to or towards, come to or near; śaśinaṁ punareti

śarvarī R. 8. 56; īyurbharadvājamunerniketaṁ Bk. 3. 40.

(2) To arrive at, reach, obtain, attain to, go to or be reduced to a

particular state, fall into; nirbuddhiḥ kṣayameti Mk. 1. 14 goes to (ruin, is

ruined; so vaśaṁ, śatrutvaṁ, śūdratāṁ &c.

(3) To return.

(4) To go away, retire; elapse, pass.

(5) To spring from, come or arise from.

(6) To undertake anything (with acc.); satramāyan Vaj.

(7) To ask, beg.

(8) To be; to appear.

(9) To be employed in, go on with, be in a particular condition or

relation, with a part. or instr.; kṛṣaṁto ha sma vaivapaṁto yaṁti Śat. Br.;

gavāmayaneneyuḥ Katy. (10) To thrive, prosper. —II. 1 U. = ay q. v. —III.

4 A.

(1) To come, appear.

(2) To run, wander.

(3) To go quickly or repeatedly.

(4) To ask, request. —Caus. To cause to go or come. [cf. L. eo; Gr.

eimi with emi].

इद् — id Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899id ind. Ved. (probably the neut. form of the pronom. base «i» see 3. «i»; a

particle of affirmation) even, just, only; indeed, assuredly (especially, in

strengthening an antithesis, e.g. «yathā vaśanti devās tahed asat», as the

gods wish it, thus indeed it will be ; «dipsanta id ripavo nāha debhuḥ», the

enemies wishing indeed to hurt were in nowise able to hurt «id» is often

added to words expressing excess or exclusion (e.g. «viśva it», every one

indeed; «śaśvad it», constantly indeed; «eka it», one only). At the

beginning of sentences it often adds emphasis to pronouns, prepositions,

particles (e.g. «tvam it», thou indeed; «yadi it», if indeed, &c.) «id» occurs

often in the ṛig-veda and Atharva-veda, seldom in the Brāhmaṇas, and its

place is taken in classical Sanskṛit by «eva» and other particles.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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id ind.

(1) A particle of affirmation, even, just, only; especially in

strengthening a statement; arthajña itsakalaṁ bhadramaśnute Nir.

(2) It is often added to words expressing excess or exclusion; viśva it,

eka it &c.

(3) At the beginning of sentences it often adds emphasis to pronouns,

prepositions &c. (Its place is taken by eva in classical Sanskrit).

इल् — il Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899il cl.6.P. «ilati» («iyela, eliṣyati, ailīt, elitum» to come ; to send, cast ; to

sleep cl.10. P. «ilayati» (Impv. 2. pl. «ilayatā» or «elayati» ( 3-1, 51) aor.

«aililat» or «ailayīt», to keep still, not to move; to become quiet ; ([a

various reading has the form «iL»: cf. Old Germ. ‘illu’, ‘Illo’, for ‘Ilju’; Mod.

Germ. ‘Eile’; Cambro-Brit. ‘il’, «progress, motion»; Gk. [greek] ])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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il 6 P. (ilati, iyela, ailīt, elituṁ, ilita) or 10 U. (ilayati or elayati, ailayīt or

aililat).

(1) To go, to move.

(2) To sleep.

(3) To throw, send, cast.

(4) To keep still, not to move.

(5) To become quiet. [cf. Germ. Eile, Gr. elao].

इष् — iṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899iṣ cl.1.P. «eṣati» (see «anu-» 1. «iṣ» and «pari-» 1. «iṣ») ā. «eṣate», to

seek, search cl.4. P. «iṣyati» and 9. P. ā. «iṣṇāti» (p. «iṣṇat» «iṣṇāna» ; pf.

3. pl. «īṣus» «īṣire» ; «aiṣīt»; inf. «iṣadhyai» to cause to move quickly, let

fly, throw, cast, swing ; to send out or off, stream out, pour out,

discharge; to deliver (a speech), announce, proclaim ; to impel, incite,

animate, promote

iṣ ifc. mfn. moving quickly, speedy. see «aram-iṣ».

iṣ cl.6.P., ep. and Ved. also ā. «ic-chati» (Subj. «icchāt» , «icchate» ( xi, 5,

17; impf. «aicchat, iyeṣa» and «īṣe, eṣiṣyate, aiṣīt, eṣitum» or «eṣṭum»), to

endeavour to obtain, strive, seek for ; to endeavour to make favourable;

to desire, wish, long for, request; to wish or be about to do anything,

intend &c.; to strive to obtain anything (acc.) from any one (abl. or loc.);

to expect or ask anything from any one &c.; to assent, be favourable,

concede ; to choose ; to acknowledge, maintain, regard, think Pass.

«iṣyate», to be wished or liked; to be wanted &c.; to be asked or

requested; to be prescribed or ordered ; to be approved or

acknowledged; to be accepted or regarded as &c.; to be worth; to be

wanted as a desideratum see 2. «iṣṭi»: Caus. «eṣayati», (in surg.) to

probe Desid. «eṣiṣiṣati»; [with «iṣ» cf. Old Germ. ‘eiscom’, «I ask»; Mod.

Germ. ‘heische’; Angl. Sax. ‘asciani’ cf. also Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘jeskoti’;

Russ. ‘iskate’, «to seek.»]

iṣ mfn. ifc. seeking for (see «gav-iṣ, paśv-iṣ», &c.)

iṣ f. wish ([cf. «iṭ-cara»]).

iṣ f. anything drunk, a draught, refreshment, enjoyment

f. libation

f. the refreshing waters of the sky

f. sap, strength, freshness, comfort, increase

f. good condition, affluence

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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iṣ I. 6 P. (icchati, iyeṣa, aiṣīt, eṣituṁ-eṣṭuṁ, iṣṭa)

(1) To wish, desire, long for; icchāmi saṁvardhitamājñayā te Ku. 3. 3;

oft. with pot. or imperat. mood; icchāmi bhuṁjīta or bhuṁktāṁ bhavān;

bhuṁjīyetīcchati Sk.

(2) To choose; mūtreṇa mauṁḍyamicchet tu kṣatriyaṁ daṁḍameva

vā Ms. 8. 384.

(3) To endeavour to obtain, strive or seek for; bhūtimicchatā, svargaṁ

&c.

(4) To be willing, be about to do anything, mean or intend (with. inf.).

(5) To ask or expect anything (acc.) from any one (loc. or abl.);

deveṣu yajñe bhāgamīṣire Śat. Br.

(6) To acknowledge, regard.

(7) To request, ask.

(8) To be favourable.

(9) To try to make favourable. (10) To assent or consent. —pass.

(1) To be wished or liked.

(2) To be asked, or requested.

(3) To be prescribed or laid down; hastacchedanamiṣyate Ms. 8. 322;

trirātraṁ daśarātraṁ vā śāvamāśaucamiṣyate Y. 3. 18.

(4) To be approved, accepted, or regarded as; jaṁbho daṁtepi

ceṣyate Trik. —II. 4 P. (iṣyati, iyeṣa, eṣiṣyati, eṣituṁ)

(1) To move; to cause to move.

(2) To let fly, cast, throw.

(3) To raise (as one’s voice).

(4) To sprinkle. —III. 9 P. (iṣṇāti)

(1) To cause to move quickly, let fly, cast.

(2) To fly off, escape.

(3) To strike, smite.

(4) To impel, urge, incite, animate, promote. —IV. 1 U. (eṣati-te,

aiṣīt-aiṣiṣṭa) To go, move.

iṣ a.

(1) Speedy, going quickly.

(2) Wishing, desirous. —f. Ved.

(1) A draught, refreshment, food.

(2) Libation.

(3) Strength, power, sap, freshness.

(4) Comfort; increase.

(5) Affluence.

(6) Refreshing waters of the sky.

(7) Wish.

ईड् — īḍ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899īḍ cl.2.ā. «īṭṭe» (2. sg. pres. «īḍiṣe», Ved. «īLiṣe» pf. «īḍe» fut. «īḍiṣyate»

aor. «aiḍiṣṭa». inf. «īḍitum», Ved. «īLe», &c.) to implore, request, ask for

(with two acc.); to praise &c.: Caus. P. «īḍayati», to ask; to praise

īḍ f. praise, extolling

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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īḍ 2 A. (īṭṭe, īḍāṁcakre, aiḍiṣṭa, īḍituṁ, īḍita)

(1) To praise; agnimīḍe purohitaṁ Rv. 1. 1. 1;

śālīnatāmavrajadīḍyamānaḥ R. 18. 17; neḍiṣe yadi kākutsthaṁ Bk. 9. 57,

18. 15.

(2) To implore, request, ask for (with two acc.); upasthāya

mātaramannamaiṭṭa Rv. 3. 48. 3. —Caus.

(1) To ask.

(2) To praise.

īḍ f. Refreshment, libation.

ईम् — īm Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899īm ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. «i»), Ved. a particle of affirmation and

restriction (generally after short words at the beginning of a period, or

after the relative pronouns, the conjunction «yad», prepositions and

particles such as «āt, uta, atha», &c.) «īm» has also the sense «now» (=

«idānīm»), and is by sometimes considered as an acc. case for «enam»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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īm ind. [ī-bā- muc] Ved.

(1) A particle of affirmation or restriction; usually after short words at

the beginning of a sentence, after yat, relative pronouns, prepositions and

particles like uta, atha &c.

(2) Now.

(3) This, here (enaṁ).

ईर् — īr Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899īr cl.2.ā. «īrte» (3. pl. «īrate» , «iraṁ-cakre, iriṣyati, airiṣṭa, īritum»; Ved.

inf. «iradhyai» , to go, move, rise, arise from ; to go away, retire ; to

agitate, elevate, raise (one’s voice) Caus. P. «īrayati» (cf. «īl»), to

agitate, throw, cast; to excite &c.; to cause to rise; to bring to life; to

raise one’s voice, utter, pronounce, proclaim, cite &c.; to elevate ā. to

raise one’s self

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

īr 2 A. (irte, īrāṁcakre, airiṣṭa, īrituṁ, īrṇa); also 1 P. (p. p. īrita)

(1) To go, move, shake (trans. also).

(2) To rise, arise or spring from.

(3) To go away, retire.

(4) To agitate, elevate; raise one’s voice. (10) U. or Caus. (īrayati,

īrita)

(1) To agitate, throw, cast; Śi. 8. 39; discharge, dart, hurl; airiracca

mahādrumaṁ Bk. 15. 52; R. 15. 20.

(2) To excite, prompt, urge; Bk. 12. 6.

(3) To cause to rise, produce.

(4) To utter, pronounce, proclaim, say, repeat; Māl. 1. 25; itīrayaṁtīva

tayā niraikṣi N. 14. 21; Śi. 9. 69; Ki. 1. 26; R. 9. 8; nibodha cemāṁ

giramīritāṁ mayā Sāv. 5. 23.

(5) To cause to go, set in motion, move, shake;

vāteritapallavāṁgulibhiḥ S. 1; aparāgasamīraṇeritaḥ Ki. 2. 50; Śi. 8. 20.

(6) To draw towards, attract; Śi. 10. 32.

(7) To employ, use.

(8) To bring to life, revive.

(9) To elevate. (10) To raise oneself (A.).

ईश् — īś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899īś cl.2.ā. «īṣṭe», or Ved. «īśe» (2. sg. «īśiṣe» and «īkṣe» ; Pot. 1. sg. «īśīya»

pf. 3. pl. «īśire, īśiṣyati, īśitum») to own, possess ; to belong to ; to

dispose of, be valid or powerful; to be master of (with gen., or Ved. with

gen. of an inf., or with a common inf., or the loc. of an abstract noun)

&c.; to command; to rule, reign &c.; to behave like a master, allow ;

([cf. Goth. ‘aigan’, «to have»; Old Germ. ‘eigan’, «own»; Mod. Germ.

‘eigen’.])

īś m. master, lord, the supreme spirit

m. N. of śiva.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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īś 2 A. (īṣṭe, īśāṁcakre, aiśiṣṭa, īśitā, īśituṁ, īśita)

(1) To rule, be master of, govern, command (with gen.) nāyaṁ

gātrāṇāmīṣṭe K. 312 v. l.; arthānāmīśiṣe tvaṁ vayamapi ca girāmīśmahe

yāvadarthaṁ Bh. 3. 30; sometimes with acc.; imāṁllokānīśata īśanībhiḥ

Śvet. Up. (also used in the Veda with gen. of an infinitive or loc. of an

abstract noun).

(2) To be able, have power; expressed by ‘can’; mādhuryamīṣṭe

hariṇān grahītuṁ R. 18. 13, 14. 38; kamiveśate ramayituṁ na guṇāḥ Ki.

6. 24; U. 7. 4; Śi. 1. 38; Mal. 10. 13.

(3) To act like a master, allow.

(4) To own, possess.

(5) To belong to.

īś m. A master, lord, the Supreme spirit.

उ — u Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899u the fifth letter and third short vowel of the alphabet, pronounced as the

‘u’ in ‘full’.

u ind. an interjection of compassion, anger ; a particle implying assent,

calling, command

u ind. an enclitic copula used frequently in the Vedas; (as a particle

implying restriction and antithesis, generally after pronominals,

prepositions, particles, and before «nu» and «su», equivalent to) and, also,

further; on the other hand (especially in connexion with a relative e.g. «ya

u», he on the contrary who &c.) This particle may serve to give emphasis,

like «id» and «eva», especially after prepositions or demonstrative

pronouns, in conjunction with «nu, vai, hi, cid», &c. (e.g. «ayam u vām

purutamo».. «johavīti» [ iii, 62, 2], this very person [your worshipper]

invokes you &c.) It is especially used in the figure of speech called

Anaphora, and particularly when the pronouns are repeated (e.g. «tam u

stuṣa indram tam gṛṇīṣe» [ ii, 20, 4], him I praise, Indra, him I sing). It

may be used in drawing a conclusion, like the English «now» (e.g. «tad u

tathā na kuryāt» [ v, 2, 2, 3], that now he should not do in such a

manner), and is frequently found in interrogative sentences (e.g. «ka u

tac ciketa» [ i, 164, 48], who, I ask, should know that?) Pāṇini calls this

particle «uṇ» to distinguish it from the interrogative «u». In the Pada-

pāṭha it is written «ūm». In the classical language «u» occurs only after

«atha, na», and «kim», with a slight modification of the sense, and often

only as an expletive (see «kim»); «u» — «u» or «u» — «uta», on the one hand

— on the other hand; partly — partly; as, well — as.

u cl.5.P. «unoti» (see «vy-u» cl.2. ā. (1. sg. «uve» cl.1. ā. «avate» ; to call

to, hail; to roar, bellow (see also «ota» = «ā-uta»).

u m. N. of śiva

m. also of Brahman

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

u I. 1 A. (avate, ūve, auṣṭa, otuṁ, uta]

(1) To sound, make a noise.

(2) To roar, bellow (as a bull &c.). —II. 5P. (unoti) Ved. To ask,

demand.

उक्ष् — ukṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ukṣ cl.1.P. ā. «ukṣati, ukṣate» (p. «ukṣat» «ukṣamāṇa» ; «ukṣāṁ-cakāra»

[; for «vavakṣa» &c. see «vakṣ»]; «aukṣat» and «aukṣīt, ukṣitum») to

sprinkle, moisten, wet &c.; to sprinkle or scatter in small drops; to emit;

to throw out, scatter (as sparks) &c.; to emit seed (as a bull); to be

strong Caus. ā. «ukṣayate», to strengthen ([cf. Lith. ‘Ukana’: Hib. ‘uisg’,

‘uisge’, «water, a river»; ‘uisgeach’, «aquatic, watery, fluid, moist,

pluvial:» Gk. [greek]: Lat. ‘uveo’ (for ‘ugveo’), ‘Umor’, &c.])

ukṣ mfn. ifc. dropping, pouring see «bṛhad-ukṣ»

mfn. becoming strong see «sākam-ukṣ».

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ukṣ 1. 6. U. (ukṣati, ukṣāṁcakāra, vavakṣa-kṣe Ved., aukṣīt, ukṣituṁ,

ukṣita)

(1) To sprinkle, wet, moisten, pour down upon; aukṣan

śoṇitamaṁbhodāḥ Bk. 17. 9, 3. 5; Śi. 5. 30; R. 11. 5, 20; Ku. 1. 54.

(2) To emit, send forth.

(3) To scatter, throw out (as sparks).

(4) To clean, purify.

(5) To grow up, become strong (Ved.).

उत्तर — uttara Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899uttara mfn. (compar. fr. 1. «ud»; opposed to «adhara»; declined Gram.

238. «a»), upper, higher, superior (e.g. «uttare dantās», the upper teeth)

&c.

mfn. northern (because the northern part of India is high) &c.

mfn. left (opposed to «dakṣiṇa» or right, because in praying the face

being turned to the east the north would be on the left hand) &c.

mfn. later, following, subsequent, latter, concluding, posterior, future

&c. (opposed to «pūrva», &c. e.g. «uttaraḥ kālaḥ», future time; «uttaraṁ

vākyam», a following speech, answer, reply; «phalam uttaram»,

subsequent result, future consequence; «varṣottareṣu», in future years)

mfn. followed by (e.g. «smottara» mfn. followed by «»sma»»

mfn. superior, chief, excellent, dominant, predominant, more powerful

mfn. gaining a cause (in law)

mfn. better, more excellent

uttara m. N. of a son of Virāṭa

uttara m. of a king of the Nāgas

uttara m. N. of a mountain

uttara m. of several men

uttara m. pl. N. of a school

uttara m. («ā»), of. (scil. «diś») the northern quarter, the north &c.

uttara m. N. of each of the Nakshatras that contain the word «»uttara»»

(cf. «uttara-phalgunī», &c.)

uttara m. N. of a daughter of Virāṭa and daughter-in-law of Arjuna

uttara m. of a female servant

uttara mfn. («e») f. du. the second and third verse of a Tṛica (or a stanza

consisting of three verses)

uttara n. upper surface or cover &c.

uttara n. the north

uttara n. the following member, the last part of a compound

uttara n. answer, reply &c.

uttara n. (in law) a defence, rejoinder, a defensive measure

uttara n. contradiction

uttara n. (in the Mimāṁsā philosophy) the answer (the fourth member of

an adhikaraṇa or case)

uttara n. superiority, excellence, competency &c.

uttara n. result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic, what

remains or is left, conclusion, remainder, excess, over and above, (often

ifc. e.g. «bhayottara», attended with danger, having danger as the result;

«dharmottara», chiefly characterized by virtue; «ṣaṣṭy-uttaraṁ sahasram»,

one thousand with an excess of sixty, i.e. 1060; «saptottaraṁ śatam»,

107)

uttara n. remainder, difference (in arithmetic)

uttara n. N. of a song

uttara n. N. of each of the Nakshatras that contain the word «»uttara»»

uttara n. a particular figure in rhetoric

uttara n. N. of the last book of the Rāmāyaṇa

uttara n. «asrottaram īkṣitā», looked at with tears at the close i.e. with a

glance ending in tears

uttara n. afterwards, thereafter

uttara n. behind

uttara n. in the following part (of a book)

uttara n. ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ])

uttara &c. see p.178, col.1; for 2. see «ut-tṝ», col.2.

uttara «ut-tara» mfn. (for 1. see p.178, col.1), crossing over

mfn. to be crossed (cf. «dur-uttara»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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uttara a. [ud-tarap]

(1) Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like a pronoun).

(2) Upper, higher (opp. adhara); uttareadhare daṁtāḥ Śat. Br.;

avanatottarakāyaṁ R. 9. 60; P. II. 2. 1.

(3)

(a) Laterlatter, following, subsequent (opp. pūrva); pūrvameghaḥ,

uttarameghaḥ, -bhīmāṁsā; uttarārdhaḥ &c.; -rāmacaritaṁ later

adventures of Rāma U. 1. 2; pūrvaḥ-uttaraḥ former-latter H. 1. 9; Ms. 2.

136.

(b) Future, concluding; -kālaḥ subsequent time; -phalaṁ; —

vacanaṁ a reply.

(4) Left (opp. dakṣiṇa).

(5) Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, powerful.

(6) Exceeding, transgressing, beyond; tarkottarāṁ Mv. 2. 6.

(7) More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with

numerals); ṣaḍuttarā viṁśatiḥ 26; aṣṭottaraṁ śataṁ 108.

(8) Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of,

followed by (at the end of comp); rājñāṁ tu caritārthatā duḥkhottaraiva

S. 5; caṣakottarā R. 7. 49; asrottaramīkṣitāṁ Ku. 5. 61; utsavottaro

maṁgalavidhiḥ Dk. 39, 166; K. 311; H. 1. 150; pravāla- puṣpaśayye R. 6.

50 over spread with; dharmottaraṁ 13. 7 rich in; 18. 7; kaṁpa- 13. 28;

17. 12; 19. 23.

(9) To be crossed over. —raḥ

(1) Future time, futurity.

(2) N. of Viṣṇu.

(3) N. of Śiva. —rā

(1) The north; astyuttarasyāṁ diśi devatātmā Ku. 1. 1.

(2) A lunar mansion.

(3) N. of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu. —raṁ

(1) An answer, reply; pracakrame ca prativaktumuttaraṁ R. 3. 47;

uttarāduttaraṁ vākyaṁ vadatāṁ saṁprajāyate Pt. 1. 60 a reply is

suggested to a reply.

(2) (In law) Defence, a rejoinder.

(3) The last part or following member of a compound.

(4) (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an adhikaraṇa q. v.; the answer.

(5) The upper surface or cover.

(6) Conclusion.

(7) Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; U. 3. 26.

(8) Superiority, excellence.

(9) Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. (10) Excess,

over and above; see above (uttara a. 8).

(11) Remainder, difference (in arith.). —raṁ ind.

(1) Above.

(2) Afterwards, after; tata uttaraṁ, ita uttaraṁ &c.

— Comp.

—adhara a. higher and lower (fig. also). (

—rau du.) the upper and under lip, the two lips; punarvivakṣuḥ

sphuritottarādharaḥ Ku. 5. 83; (spharaṇabhūyiṣṭho’dharo yasya Malli.).

—adhikāraḥ, —ritā, —tvaṁ right to property, heirship, inheritance.

—adhikārin m. an heir or claimant (subsequent to the death of the

original owner).

—aparā north-west.

—ayanaṁ (-yaṇaṁ na being changed to ṇa) 1. the progress of the

sun to the north (of the equator); Bg. 8. 24. —2. the period or time of the

summer solstice.

—araṇiḥ, —ṇī f. the upper araṇi (which by cutting becomes the

pramaṁtha or churner).

—artha a. for the sake of what follows.

—ardhaṁ 1. the upper part of the body. —2. the northern part. —3.

the latter half (opp. pūrvārdha). —4. the further end.

—ardhya a. being on the northern side.

—ahaḥ the following day.

—ābhāsaḥ a false reply, an indirect, evasive, or prevaricating reply.

-tā, —tvaṁ the semblance of a reply without reality.

—āśā the northern direction. -adhipatiḥ, —patiḥ the regent of the

northern direction, an epithet of Kubera.

—āṣāḍhā the 21st lunar mansion consisting of three stars.

—āsaṁgaḥ 1. an upper garment; kṛtottarāsaṁgaṁ K. 43; Śi. 2. 19;

Ku. 5. 16. —2. contact with the north.

—itara a. other than uttara i. e. southern. (

—rā) the southern direction.

—uttara a. [uttarasmāduttaraḥ] 1. more and more, higher and

higher, further and further. —2. successive, ever increasing; -snehena

dṛṣṭaḥ Pt. 1; Y. 2. 136. (

—raṁ) 1. a reply to an answer, reply on reply; alamuttarottareṇa

Mu. 3. —2. conversation, a rejoinder. —3. excess, exceeding quantity or

degree. —4. succession, gradation, sequence. —5. descending. (

—raṁ) ind. higher and higher, in constant continuation, more and

more; uttarottaramutkarṣaḥ K. P. 10; uttarottaraṁ vardhate H. 1.

—uttarin a. 1. ever-increasing. —2. one following the other.

—oṣṭhaḥ the upper lip (u ttaro-rau-ṣṭhaḥ). —kāṁḍaṁ the seventh

book of the Ramayaṇa.

—kāyaḥ the upper part of the body; R. 9. 60.

—kālaḥ 1. future time. —2. time calculated from one full moon to

another.

—kuru (m. pl.) one of the nine divisions of the world, the country of

the northern Kurus (said to be a country of eternal beatitude).

—kosalāḥ (m. pl.) the northern Kosalas;

pituranaṁtaramuttarakosalān R. 9. 1.

—kośalā the city of Ayodhyā; yadupateḥ kva gatā mathurā purī

raghupateḥ kva gatottarakośalā .. Udb.

—kriyā funeral rites, obsequies.

—khaṁḍaṁ the last section or book.

—khaṁḍanaṁ refutation.

—graṁthaḥ supplement to a work.

—chadaḥ a bed-covering, covering (in general); R. 5. 65, 17. 21;

nāgacarmottaracchadaḥ Mb.

—ja a. born subsequently or afterwards; Y. 1. 59.

—jyā the versed sine of an arc (Wilson); the second half of the

chord halved by the versed sine (B. and R.).

—jyotiṣāḥ (m. pl.) the northern Jyotishas.

—taṁtraṁ N. of a supplementary section in the medical work of

Suśruta.

—dāyaka a. replying, disobedient, pert, impertinent; H. 2. 121.

—diś f. the north. -īśaḥ, —pālaḥ 1. Kubera, the regent of the north.

—2. the planet budha. -balin 1. the planet Venus. —2. the moon.

—deśaḥ the country towards the north.

—dheya a. to be done subsequently.

—pakṣaḥ 1. the northern wing or side. —2. the dark half of a lunar

month. —3. the second part of an argument, i. e. a reply, the reason pro.

(opp. pūrvapakṣa); prāpayan pavanavyādhergiramuttarapakṣatām Śi. 2.

15. —4. a demonstrated truth or conclusion —5. the minor proposition in a

syllogism. —6. (in Mīm.) the fifth member of an Adhikarana q. v.

—paṭaḥ 1. an upper garment. —2. a bed-covering (uttaracchadaḥ).

—pathaḥ the northern way, way leading to the north.

—pathika a. travelling in the northern country.

—padaṁ 1. the last member of a compound. —2. a word that can

be compounded with another.

—padika, padakīya a. relating to, studying, or knowing the last

word or term.

—paścārdhaḥ the northwestern half.

—paścima a. northwestern. (

—maḥ) the north-western country. (—mā) [uttarasyāḥ

paścimāyāśca diśoṁtarālaṁ] the north-west.

—pādaḥ the second division of a legal plaint, that part which

relates to the reply or defence; pūrvapakṣaḥ smṛtaḥ pādo

dvitīyaścottaraḥ smṛtaḥ . kriyāpādagtṛtīyaḥ syāccaturyonirṇayaḥ smṛtaḥ ..

—purastāt ind. north-eastward (with gen.).

—puruṣaḥ = uttamapuruṣaḥ q. v.

—pūrva a. northeastern. (

—rvā) the north-east.

—pracchadaḥ a coverlid, quilt.

—pratyuttaraṁ 1. a dispute, debate, a rejoinder, retort. —2. the

pleadings in a lawsuit.

—pha (phā) lgunī the twelith lunar mansion consisting of two stars

(having the figure of a bed).

—bhādrapad-dā the 26th lunar mansion consisting of two stars

(figured by a couch).

—maṁdrā a loud but slow manner of singing.

—mātraṁ a mere reply.

—mīmāṁsā the later Mīmāmsā, the Vedānta philosophy, an inquiry

into the nature of Brahma or Jñāna Kāṇḍa (distinguished from

māṁmāṁsā proper which is usually called pūrvamīmāṁsā). —rahita a.

without a reply.

—rāmacaritaṁ-traṁ N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti, which

describes the later life of Rāma.

—lakṣaṇaṁ the indication of an (actual) reply.

—loman a. having the hair turned upwards.

—vayasaṁ, -s n. old age, the declining period of life.

—vastiḥ a kind of small syringe.

—vastraṁ, —vāsas n. an upper garment, mantle, cloak.

—vādin m. 1. a defendant, respondent; Y. 2. 17. —2. one whose

claims are of later date than another’s.

—vediḥ 1. the northern altar made for the sacred fire. —2. N. of a

Tīrtha near the kurukṣetra. —sakyaṁ the left thigh.

—saṁjñita a. denoted or named in reply (as a witness). (

—taḥ) hearsay-witness.

—sākṣin m. 1. a witness for the defence. —2. a witness deposing to

facts from the reports of others.

—sādhaka a. 1. finishing what remains or follows, assisting at a

ceremony. —2. who or what proves a reply. (

—kaḥ) an assistant, helper.

—hanuḥ Ved. the upper jaw bone.

uttara a.

(1) Crossing over.

(2) To be crossed over, as in duruttara.

उपरि — upari Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899upari ind. (as a separable adverb) above, upon, on, upwards, towards

the upper side of (opposed to «adhas» and, «nīcā» e.g. «upari-yā», to go

upwards; sometimes written with a following word as if compounded

with it see below); besides, in addition to, further («sahasraṁ śatāny

upari cāṣṭau», 1000 and 800 in addition); afterwards (e.g. «upari payaḥ

pibet», he should drink milk afterwards); «upary upari», higher and higher;

repeatedly, continuously &c. (As a separable preposition, with acc. loc.,

or gen.) over, above, upon, on, at the head of, on the upper side of,

beyond (e.g. «upari śailaṁ-gam», to go over the mountain; «upari

laṅkāyāṁ samprāptaḥ saḥ», he arrived over Laṅkā; «upary upari sarveṣām

atiṣṭhat», he stood at the very head of all; «ātmānaṁ tasya upari

kṣiptvā», having thrown himself upon him); in connection with, with

reference to, with regard to, towards (with gen. e.g. «mamopari

vikāritaḥ», changed in feeling with regard to me; «putrasyopari kruddhaḥ»,

enraged towards his son); after (with abl. e.g. «muhūrtād upari», after a

minute; see also «tad-upari» &c.) ([cf. Zend ‘upairi’; Goth. ‘ufar’; Old

Germ. ‘obar’; Mod. Germ. ‘Ѓber’; Eng. ‘over’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘super’.])

upari may stand first in a compound, as in the following examples:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

upari ind.

(1) As a separable preposition (usually with gen., rarely with acc. or

loc.) it means

(a) Above, over, upon, on, towards; (opp. adhaḥ) (with gen.);

gatamupari ghanānāṁ S. 7. 7; avāṅmukhasyopari vṛṣṭiḥ papāta R. 2. 60;

arkasyopari S. 2. 8; prāsādānāṁ Mal. 7. 5; U. 5. 2; Śi. 16. 9; 12. 37; so —

sthāpanaṁ, -sthita &c.; with loc. uparyeva sa laṁkāyāṁ Ram.; or acc.

yaṁtrāṇyupari yaṁtrāṇi ibid; oft. at the end of comp.; ratha-, taruvara,-

tad-.

(b) At the end of, at the head of; sarvānaṁdānāmupari vartamānā

K. 158.

(c) Beyond, in addition to; paṇasyopari saṁsthāpya vyayaṁ Y. 2.

253; bhuktasyopari Suśr.

(d) In connection with, with regard to, towards, upon;

parasparasyopari paryacīyata R. 3. 24; Śānti. 3. 23; tasyopari kruddhaḥ,

mamopari duṣṭabuddhiḥ &c.; tavopari prāyopaveśanaṁ kariṣyāmi on your

account.

(e) After; muhūrtādupari upādhyāyaścedāgacchet P. III. 3. 9 Sk.

upari joined to upari (with acc. or gen. or by itself) means

(a) Just above; lokānuparyuparyāste mādhavaḥ Vop.

(b) higher and higher, far high, high above; uparyupari

sarveṣāmāditya iva tejasā Mb.

(2) (As a separable adverb) It means

(a) high above, upon, towards the upper side of (opp. adhaḥ);

uparyupari paśyaṁtaḥ sarva eva daridrati H. 2. 2; so upariyā; -sthāpana,

-sthita &c.; oft. in comp. svamudroparicihnitaṁ Y. 1. 319.

(b) Besides, in addition, further, more; śatānyupari caivāṣṭau tathā

bhūyaśca saptatiḥ Mb.

(c) Afterwards; yadā pūrvaṁ nāsīdupari ca tathā naiva bhavitā

Śānti. 2. 7; sarpiḥ pītvopari payaḥ pibet Suśr.; uparyupari more and more,

repeatedly, continuously. [cf. Zend upairi, upara; Gr. huper; L. super; Old

Germ. obar; Germ. uber; Eng. over; Hind. upar].

— Comp.

—āsanaṁ sitting on high.

—gata a. gone up, ascended.

—cara a. moving above (as a bird).

—cita a. piled over or above.

—ja a. produced above, elevated, high.

—tana, stha a. upper, higher.

—pruta a. Ved. coming from above.

—budhna a. Ved. raised above the ground.

—bhāgaḥ the upper portion or side.

—bhāvaḥ being above or higher.

—bhūmiḥ f. the ground above

—martyaṁ ind. Ved. above men.

—śayanaṁ a place of rest.

—śreṇika a. being in the upper line or series.

—sada a. lying or sitting above. (—m.) a class of gods.

—sadyaṁ sitting above.

ऊ — ū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ū the sixth letter of the alphabet (corresponding to «u» long, and having

the sound of that letter in the word «rule»).

ū ind. an interjection of calling to; of compassion; a particle implying

promise to protect ; a particle used at the beginning of a sentence.

ū mfn. («av» , helping, protecting

ū mfn. («ūs») m. the moon

mfn. N. of śiva

ū mfn. («ve» , weaving, sewing.

ऊह् — ūh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ūh cl.1.P. ā. «ūhati, -te, ūhāṁcakāra» and «-cakre, ūhitā, auhīt, auhiṣṭa»

(connected with «vah», q.v., and in some forms not to be distinguished

from it), to push, thrust, move, remove (only when compounded with

prepositions); to change, alter, modify on

ūh cl.1.P. ā. «ūhati, -te» (Ved. «ohate»), «ūhāṁ-cakāra», &c. (by native

authorities not distinguished from 1. «ūh» above ), to observe, mark,

note, attend to, heed, regard ; to expect, hope for, wait for, listen for ; to

comprehend, conceive, conjecture, guess, suppose, infer, reason,

deliberate upon &c.: Caus. «ūhayati» (aor. «aujihat»), to consider, heed ;

to cause to suppose or infer

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ūh I. 1 U. (ūhati-te, ūhāṁcakāra-vakre, ūhituṁ, ūhita)

(1) To note, mark, observe.

(2) To guess, conjecture, infer; anuktamapyūhati paṁḍito janaḥ Pt. 1.

43.

(3) To comprehend, conceive, perceive, expect; ūhāṁcakre jayaṁ na

ca Bk. 14. 72, 3. 48, 15. 123.

(4) To reason, deliberate about.

(5) To reckon upon (with loc.).

(6) To wait for.

(7) To be regarded as. -II. 1 P.

(1) To change or modify.

(2) To push, thrust, remove (with a prep.) —Caus. To cause to

reason, think, infer or conjecture; Ki. 16. 19.

ऋ — ṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ṛ the seventh vowel of the Sanskṛit alphabet and peculiar to it

(resembling the sound of «ri» in «merrily»).

ṛ ind. an interjection expressing laughter ; a particle implying abuse ; a

sound inarticulate or reiterated as in stammering

ṛ m. heaven

ṛ f. N. of Aditi

ṛ cl.1.3.5.P. «ṛcchati, iyarti, ṛṇoti», and «ṛṇvati» (only Ved.); «āra, ariṣyati,

ārat», and «ārṣīt», to go, move, rise, tend upwards &c.; to go towards,

meet with, fall upon or into, reach, obtain &c.; to fall to one’s share,

occur, befall (with acc.) &c.; to advance towards a foe, attack, invade ;

to hurt, offend ; to move, excite, erect, raise, («iyarti vācam», he raises

his voice ; «stomān iyarmi», I sing hymns Caus. «arpayati», to cause to

move, throw, cast &c.; to cast through, pierce ; to put in or upon, place,

insert, fix into or upon, fasten &c.; to place on, apply &c.; to direct or

turn towards &c.; to deliver up, surrender, offer, reach over, present,

give &c.; to give back, restore &c.: Ved. Intens. «alarti» ; (2. sg. «alarṣi»

; to move or go towards with speed or zeal: Class. Intens. ā. «arāryate» (

7-4, 30), to wander about, haste towards ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] &c.: Zend

‘ir’: Lat. ‘or-ior’, ‘re-mus’, ‘aro’: Goth. ‘argan’: Angl. Sax. ‘ar’: Old High

Germ. ‘ruo-dar’, ‘ar-an’: Lith. ‘ir-ti’, «to row»; ‘ar-ti’, «to plough.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ṛ ind. An interjection of

(1) calling;

(2) ridicule;

(3) censure or abuse;

(4) used at the beginning of a sentence.

ṛ I. 1 P. (ṛcchati, āra, ārṣīt, ariṣyati, ṛta; caus. arpayati; desid. aririṣati)

(1) To go, move; aṁbhaśchāyāmacchāmṛcchati Śi. 4. 44.

(2) To rise, tend towards. —II. 3 P. (iyarti, ārat, ṛta) (Mostly used in

the Veda)

(1) To go.

(2) To move, shake.

(3) To obtain, gain, acquire, reach, meet with.

(4) To move, excite, raise (as voice, words &c.) vācamiyarti.

(5) To display. —III. 5 P. (ṛṇoti, ṛṇa)

(1) To injure, hurt.

(2) To attack. —Caus. (arpayati, ārpipat, arpita)

(1) To throw, cast, fling; fix or implant in; hṛdi śalyamarpitaṁ R. 8.

87.

(2) To put or place on, fix upon, direct or cast towards (as the eye

&c.); vāmaprakoṣṭhārpitahemavetraḥ Ku. 3. 41; S. 6. 5, 17, 3. 26; R. 17.

79; S. 6. 8; Bk. 5. 90; Ku. 6. 11; R. 15. 77; Bg. 8. 7, 12. 14;

karapallavārpita Śi. 9. 54.

(3) To place in, insert, give, set or place; apathe padamarpayaṁti hi

R. 9. 74, 78; citrārpitāṁ S. 6. 15 drawn in a picture; R. 2. 31; dvāradeśe

Amaru. 62; V. 4. 35; Mu. 7. 6; Bh. 3. 18; lokottaraṁ caritamarpayati

pratiṣṭhāṁ R. G.

(4) To hand or make over, give to, give in charge of, consign, deliver;

iti sūtasyābharaṇānyarpayati S. 1, 4. 19; Bk. 8. 118; Y. 2. 65.

(5) To give up, sacrifice (as the inherent sense); atra

kaliṁgagaṁgāśabdau ātmānamarpayataḥ S. D. 2.

(6) To give back, restore; R. 19. 10; Bk. 15. 16; Amaru. 94; Ms. 8.

191; Y. 2. 169.

(7) To pierce through, perforate, penetrate.

ऋच् — ṛc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ṛc cl.6.P. «ṛcati, ānarca, arcitā», &c., = «arc»1, p.89, col.3; to praise (cf.

«arka».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ṛc 6 P. (ṛcati, ānarca, ārcīt, arcituṁ)

(1) To praise, extol, celebrate; yābhyāṁ gāyatramṛcyate Rv. 8. 38.

10.

(2) To cover, screen.

(3) To shine.

ṛc f. [ṛcyate stūyate’nayā, ṛc karaṇe kvip]

(1) A hymn (in general).

(2) A single verse, stanza, or text; a verse of the Ṛgveda (opp. yajus

and sāman); tredhā vihitā vāgṛco yajūṁṣi sāmāni Śat. Br.

(3) The collective body of the Ṛgveda (pl.); ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire Rv.

10. 90. 9.

(4) Splendour (for. ruc).

(5) Praise.

(6) Worship.

— Comp.

—ayanaṁ [ṛcāmayanaṁ] N. of a book; ṛkpārāyaṇa; -ādi N. of a

collection of words in Pāṇini.

—āvānaṁ the time for reciting the Vedas.

—gāthā N. of a certain song.

—taṁtraṁ, —vyākaraṇaṁ N. of the Pariśiṣṭas of the Sama-veda.

—bhāj a. partaking of a Ṛk, (as a deity who is addressed with it).

—vidhānaṁ the performance of certain rites by reciting verses of

the Ṛg-veda.

—vedaḥ the oldest of the four Vedas, and the most ancient sacred

book of the Hindus. [The Ṛgveda is said to have been produced from fire;

cf. Ms. 1. 23. This Veda is divided, according to one arrangement, into 8

Aṣṭakas, each of which is divided into as many Adhyāyas: according to

another arrangement into 10 Maṇḍalas, which are again subdivided into

1000 Anuvākas, and comprises 1000 sūktas. The total number of verses

or Riks is above 1000].

—saṁhitā the arranged collection of the hymns of Ṛgveda.

—sāma (-me dual) the verses Ṛk and Sāman. -śṛṁgaḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

ऋज् — ṛj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ṛj cl.1.P. ā. «arjati, -te, ānṛje, arjitā, arjiṣyate, ārjiṣṭa», to go; to stand or

be firm; to obtain, acquire; to be strong or healthy: Caus. «arjayati», to

obtain, get, acquire ; ([cf. «arj», p.90, col.1.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ṛj 1 A. (arjate, ārjiṣṭa, arjituṁ, ṛjita)

(1) To go.

(2) To obtain, acquire.

(3) To stand or be firm.

(4) To be healthy or strong. —II. 1 P. To acquire, earn; cf. arj.

ऋध् — ṛdh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ṛdh cl.6.2.4.5.7.P. (Pot. 1. pl. «ṛdhema» ; Subj. 3. sg. «ṛdhat» ; pres. p.

«ṛdhat»; cf. «ṛdhad» below) «ṛdhyati; ṛdhnoti; ṛṇaddhi; ānardha, ardhitā,

ardhiṣyati», &c., to grow, increase, prosper, succeed &c.; to cause to

increase or prosper, promote, make prosperous, accomplish Pass.

«ṛdhyate», to be promoted, increase, prosper, succeed Caus. «ardhayati»,

to satisfy Desid. «ardidhiṣati» or «īrtsati»; ([cf. «rādh» and «vṛdh».])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ṛdh 4. 5. P. (ṛdhyati, ṛdhnoti, ānardha, ārdhīt, ardhituṁ, ṛddha);

sometimes 7 P. (ṛṇaddhi)

(1) To prosper, flourish, thrive, succeed; nābrahma kṣatramṛdhnoti

Ms. 9. 322.

(2) To grow, increase (fig. also).

(3) To cause to succeed, make prosperous.

(4) To satisfy, gratify, please, propitiate; Mal. 5. 29.

(5) To accomplish. —Desid. īrtsati or ardidhiṣati.

ऋष् — ṛṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ṛṣ cl.1.P. «arṣati, ānarṣa, arṣitā», to flow, flow quickly, glide, move with a

quick motion ; to bring near by flowing ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] (?);

[characters], «flowing back»; [characters], «darting back.»])

ṛṣ cl.6.P. «ṛṣati, ānarṣa, arṣitā», to go, move ; to stab, kill ; to push,

thrust.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ṛṣ I. 6 P. (ṛṣati, ārṣīt, ānarṣa, arṣituṁ, ṛṣṭa)

(1) To go, approach.

(2) To kill, injure, pierce.

(3) To push. —II. 1 P. (arṣati)

(1) To flow.

(2) To glide.

एन — ena Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ena a pronom. base (used for certain cases of the 3rd personal pronoun,

thus in the acc. sing. du. pl. [«enam, enām, enad», &c.], inst. sing.

[«enena, enayā»] gen. loc. du. [«enayos», Ved. «enos»]; the other cases

are formed fr. the pronom. base «a» see under «idam»), he, she, it; this,

that, (this pronoun is enclitic and cannot begin a sentence; it is generally

used alone, so that «enam puruṣam», «that man», would be very unusual

if not incorrect. Grammarians assert that the substitution of «enam» &c.

for «imam» or «etam» &c. takes place when something is referred to

which has already been mentioned in a previous part of the sentence; see

Gr. 223 and 836); ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Goth. ‘ains’; Old Pruss. ‘ains’; Lat.

‘oinos’, ‘unus’.])

ena and #enā , Ved. instr. of «idam» q.v.

ena (cf. «eṇa»), a stag. see «an-ena».

कद् — kad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kad cl.1.ā. «kadate, cakāda» ( ed. Gorresio vi, 65, 23; but ed. Bomb. vi,

86, 24 reads «cakāra»), to be confused, suffer mentally; to grieve; to

confound; to kill or hurt; to call; to cry or shed tears

kad ind. (originally the neuter form of the interrogative pronoun «ka»), a

particle of interrogation (= Lat. ‘nonne’, «num») ; anything wrong or bad

(cf. below); = «sukha» ; «kad» is used, like «kim», with the particles

«cana» and «cid», «sometimes, now and then»; «kac-cana» with the

negation «na», «in no way or manner» ; «kac-cid» is also used, like the

simple «kad», as a particle of interrogation (e.g. «kaccid dṛṣṭā tvayā rājan

damayantī», was Damayantī seen by thee, O king?) «kaccid» may be

translated by «I hope that»; at the beginning of a compound it may mark

the uselessness, badness or defectiveness of anything, as in the following

examples.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kad I. 4 A. (kadyate) To be confounded or confused, to suffer mentally.

—II. 1 A. (kadate) also 1 P.

(1) To cry, to weep or shed tears.

(2) To grieve.

(3) To call.

(4) To kill or hurt; see kaṁd.

kad ind. [kad-kvip] Ved. A particle of interrogation, ‘where’. This particle

which is a substitute for the word ku is often used as the first member of

a comp. and expresses the senses of badness, littleness, deterioration,

uselessness, defectiveness &c. of anything.

— Comp.

—akṣaraṁ 1. a bad letter. —2. bad writing.

—agniḥ a little fire.

—adhvan a bad road.

—annaṁ bad food.

—apatyaṁ a bad child, bad posterity.

—abhyāsaḥ a bad habit or custom.

—artha a. 1. useless, unmeaning. —2. having what purpose or aim?

(

—rthaḥ) a useless thing.

—arthanaṁ, —nā troubling, tormenting, torture.

—arthayati Den. P. 1. to despise, slight. —2. to trouble, torment;

Bh. 3. 100; N. 8. 75.

—arthita a. 1. despised, disdained, slighted; kadarthitasyāpi hi

dhairyavṛtterna śakyate dhairyaguṇaḥ pramāṁrṣṭu Bh. 2. 106. —2.

tormented, teased; āḥ kadarthito’hamebhirvāraṁvāraṁ

vīrasaṁvādavighnakāribhiḥ U. 5. —3. insignificant, mean. —4. bad, vile.

—arthīkṛ 8 U. to disdain, despise.

—arthīkṛta a. 1. despised, disdained. —2. rendered useless and

unavailing.

—arya a. 1. avaricious, miserly. —2. little, insignificant, mean. —3.

bad, disagreeable. (

—ryaḥ) a miser; Ms. 4. 210, 224; Y. 1. 161. -tā-tvaṁ 1. avarice. —

2. insignificance. —3. badness. -bhāvaḥ avarice, stinginess.

—aśvaḥ a bad horse.

—ākāra a. deformed, ugly.

—ācāra a. following evil practices, wicked, depraved. (

—raḥ) bad conduct.

—iṁdriyaṁ a bad organ of sense.

—uṣṭraḥ a bad camel.

—uṣṇa (also koṣṇa) a. tepid, lukewarm. (

—ṣṇaṁ) lukewarmness.

—tṛṇaṁ 1. a fragrant grass. —2. the plant kuṁbhikā. —toyaṁ an

intoxicating drink, wine.

—tri m. pl. three inferior articles.

—rathaḥ a bad chariot or carriage; yudhi kadrathavadbhīmaṁ

babhaṁja dhvajaśālinaṁ Bk. 5. 103.

—vada a. 1. speaking ill or inaccurately or indistinctly; yena jātaṁ

priyāpāye kadvadaṁ haṁsakokilaṁ Bk. 6. 75; vāgvidāṁ varamakadvado

nṛpaḥ Śi. 14. 1. —2. vile, contemptible.

कन् — kan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kan («kā» in Veda) cl.1.P. «kanati, cakāna, cake, akānīt, kanitā», &c. ;

(aor. 1. sg. «akāniṣam», 2. sg. «kāniṣas» , to be satisfied or pleased ; to

agree to, accept with satisfaction ; to shine; to go Intens. P. (Subj.

«cākanat»; Pot. «cākanyāt»; pf. 1. sg. «cākana»); ā. (Subj. 3. pl.

«cākananta» and «cakananta» , to be satisfied with, like, enjoy (with loc.

gen., or instr.) ; to please, be liked or wished for (with gen. of the

person) ; to strive after, seek, desire, wish (with acc. or dat.) ; ([cf. «kā,

kai, kam, kvan», and «can»: cf. also Zd. ‘-kan’; Gk. [greek]; Angl. Sax.

‘hana’; Lat. ‘canus’, ‘caneo’, ‘candeo’, ‘candela’ (?); Hib. ‘canu’, «full

moon.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kan 1 P. Ved. (kanati, kaṁtuṁ).

(1) To be satisfied or contented.

(2) To love, wish.

(3) To shine.

(4) To go.

कम् — kam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kam ind. (Gk. [greek] ) well (opposed to «a-kam», «ill») &c.; a particle

placed after the word to which it belongs with an affirmative sense,

«yes», «well» (but this sense is generally so weak that Indian

grammarians are perhaps right in enumerating «kam» among the

expletives ; it is often found attached to a dat. case, giving to that case a

stronger meaning, and is generally placed at the end of the Pāda, e.g.

«ajījana oṣadhīr bhojanāya kam», thou didst create the plants for actual

food ; «kam» is also used as an enclitic with the particles «nu, su», and

«hi» (but is treated in the Pada-pāṭha as a separate word; in this

connection «kam» has no accent but once ; a particle of interrogation (like

«kad» and «kim») ; (sometimes, like «kim» and «kad», at the beginning of

compounds) marking the strange or unusual character of anything or

expressing reproach ; head ; food ; water ; happiness, bliss

kam cl.1.ā. (not used in the conjugational tenses) «cakame, kamitā,

kamiṣyate, acakamata» to wish, desire, long for &c.; to love, be in love

with, have sexual intercourse with Caus. ā. (ep. also P.) «kāmayate, -ti,

kāmayāṁ-cakre, acīkamata», &c.; to wish, desire, long for (with acc. or

inf. or Pot. ; e.g. «kāmaye bhuṇjīta bhavān», I wish your worship may eat;

«kāmaye dātum», I wish to give &c.; to love, be in love with, have sexual

intercourse with &c.; to cause any one to love (in that sense P. ; (with

«bahu» or «aty-artham») to rate or value highly Desid. «cikamiṣate» and

«cikāmayiṣate»: Intens. «caṁkamyate»; ([cf. Lat. ‘comis’; also ‘amo’, with

the loss of the initial, for ‘camo’; ‘cA-rus’ for ‘cam-rus’: Hib. ‘caemh’,

«love, desire; fine, handsome, pleasant»; ‘caomhach’, «a friend,

companion»; ‘caomhaim’, «I save, spare, protect»; Armen. ‘kamim’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kam ind. Ved. A particle used as an expletive or enclitic.

kam 1. 10. A. (kāmayate, kāmita, cakabhe-kāmayāṁcakre, kāṁta)

(1) To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; kanye kāmayamānaṁ

māṁ na tvaṁ kāmayase kathaṁ Kāv. 1. 63 (an instance of grāmyatā);

kalahaṁsako maṁdārikāṁ kāmayate Mal. 1.

(2) To long for, wish, desire; na vīrasūśabdamakāmayetāṁ R. 14. 4;

niṣkraṣṭumarthaṁ cakame kuberāt 5. 26; 4. 48; 10. 53; Bk. 14. 82.

(3) To have intercourse with.

(4) To value highly.

कस् — kas Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kas cl.1.P. «kasati» ( xx, 30), to go, move, approach ; (perf. «cakāsa» =

«śuśubhe» to beam, shine Intens. «canīkasīti, canīkasyate» (cf. «kaś,

kaṁs, niḥ-kas», and «vi-kas».)

kas «kaste» v.l. for «kaṁs, kaṁste»

kas in the Bhāṣā = «kṛṣ»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kas I. 1 P. (kasati, kasita) To move, go, approach. —II. 2 A. (kaste or

kaṁste) To go.

(2) To destroy.

कि — ki Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ki a pronominal base, like 2. «ka» and 1. «ku», in the words «kim, kiyat,

kis, kī-dṛkṣa, kī-dṛś, kī-dṛśa, kīvat».

ki cl.3.P. «ciketi». see «ci».

ki m. n. an ant-hill

कित् — kit Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kit cl.3. «ciketti» see 2. «cit» and «ketaya».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kit I. 1 P. (ketati)

(1) To desire.

(2) To live.

(3) (cikitsati) To heal, cure.

(4) To doubt, suspect. —II. 3 P. Ved. (cikitti) To know.

कू — kū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kū or #ku cl.2.P. «kauti» (Ved. «kavīti» , or cl.1. ā. «kavate» ( xxii, 54), or

cl.6. «kuvate» ( xxviii, 108), or cl.9. P. ā. «kūnāti, kūnāte» (perf. 3. pl.

«cukuvur» , to sound, make any noise, cry out, moan, cry (as a bird), coo,

hum (as a bee) &c. cl.1. «kavate», to move Intens. ā. «kokūyate» ( P. ā.

«kokavīti» and «cokūyate» ( 7-4, 63 , to cry aloud ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ])

kū ind. (= «kva») where?

kū f. a female Piśāca or goblin

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kū 1. 6 A. (kavate, kuvate); also ku 9 U. (ku-kū-nāti, ku-kū-nīte)

(1) To sound, make noise, cry out in distress; khagāścukuvire’śubhaṁ

Bk. 14. 20; 1. 20; 14. 5; 15. 26; 16. 29.

कृ — kṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛ «to treat by force», commit a rape, violate (a female)

kṛ Ved. (I) cl.2.P. 2. sg. «karṣi» du. «kṛthas» pl. «kṛtha»; ā. 2. sg. «kṛṣe»;

impf. 2. and 3. sg. «akar», 3. sg. rarely «akat» ( iii, xi); «mithyā k-«, he

pronounces wrongly ; «kaikeyīm anu rājānaṁ kāraya», treat or deal with

Kaikeyī as the king does Desid. «cikīrṣati» (aor. 2. sg. «acikīrṣīs» iii), ep.

also «-te», to wish to make or do, intend to do, design, intend, begin,

strive after &c.; to wish to sacrifice or worship Intens. 3. pl. «karikrati»

(pr. p. «karikrat» see , to do repeatedly ; Class. «carkarti» or «carikarti» or

«carīkarti» ([ 7-4, 92 «carkarīti» or «carikarīti» or «carīkarīti» or «cekrīyate»

([ib. ; ([cf. Hib. ‘caraim’, «I perform, execute»; ‘ceard’, «an art, trade,

business, function»; ‘sucridh’, «easy»; Old Germ. ‘karawan’, «to prepare»;

Mod. Germ. ‘gar’, «prepared (as food)»; Lat. ‘creo’, ‘ceremonia’;

[characters].])

kṛ cl.3.P. p. «cakrat» (Pot. 2. sg. «cakriyās»; aor. 1. sg. «akārṣam» [ vii, 7,

1] or «akāriṣam» [ iv, 39, 6]), to make mention of, praise, speak highly of

(gen.) Intens. (1. sg. «carkarmi», 1. pl. «carkirāma», 3. pl. «carkiran»;

Impv. 2. sg. «carkṛtāt» and «carkṛdhi»; aor. 3. sg. ā. «carkṛṣe») id. (cf.

«kāru, kīri, kīrti».)

kṛ to injure, &c. see 2. «kṝ».

kṛ P. «-karoti», to make straight

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṛ I. 5 U. (kṛṇoti-kṛṇute) To hurt, injure, kill. —II. 8 U. (karoti-kurute,

cakāra-cakre, akārṣīt-akṛta, kartuṁ, kariṣyati-te, kṛta)

(1) To do (in general); tāta kiṁkaravāṇyahaṁ.

(2) To make; gaṇikāmavarodhamakarot Dk; nṛpeṇa cakre

yuvarājaśabdabhāk R. 3. 35; yuvarājaḥ kṛtaḥ &c.

(3) To manufacture, shape, prepare; kuṁbhakāro ghaṭaṁ karoti;

kaṭaṁ karoti &c.

(4) To build, create; gṛhaṁ kuru; sabhāṁ kuru madarthe bhoḥ

(5) To produce, cause, engender; ratimubhayaprārthanā kurute S. 2.

1.

(6) To form, arrange; aṁjaliṁ karoti; kapotahastakaṁ kṛtvā.

(7) To write, compose; cakāra sumanoharaṁ śāstraṁ Pt. 1.

(8) To perform, be engaged in; pūjāṁ karoti.

(9) To tell, narrate; iti bahuvidhāḥ kathāḥ kurvan &c. (10) To carry

out, execute, obey; evaṁ kriyate yuṣmadādeśaḥ Mal. 1; or kariṣyāmi

vacastava or śāsanaṁ me kuruṣva &c.

(11) To bring about, accomplish, effect; satsaṁgatiḥ kathaya kiṁ na

karoti pusāṁ Bh. 2. 23. —12. To throw or let out, discharge, emit;

mūtraṁ kṛ to discharge urine, make water; so purīṣaṁ kṛ to void

excrement.

(13) To assume, put on, take; strīrūpaṁ kṛtvā; nānārūpāṇi kurvāṇaḥ

Y. 3. 162.

(14) To send forth, utter; mānuṣīṁ giraṁ kṛtvā, kalaravaṁ kṛtvā &c.

(15) To place or put on (with loc.); kaṁṭhe hāramakaret K. 212;

pāṇimurasi kṛtvā &c.

(16) To entrust (with some duty), appoint; adhyakṣān

vividhānkuryāttatra tatra vipaścitaḥ Ms. 7. 81.

(17) To cook (as food) as in kṛtānnaṁ.

(18) To think, regard, consider; dṛṣṭistṛṇīkṛtajagattrayasattvasārā U.

6. 19.

(19) To take (as in the hand); kuru kare gurumekamayoghanaṁ N. 4.

59. (20) To make a sound, as in khātkṛtya, phūtkṛtya bhuṁkte; so

vaṣaṭakṛ, svāhākṛ &c.

(21) To pass, spend (time); varṣāṇi daśa cakruḥ spent; kṣaṇaṁ kuru

wait a moment.

(22) To direct towards, turn the attention to, resolve on; (with loc. or

dat.); nādharme kurute manaḥ Ms. 12. 118; nagaragamanāya matiṁ na

karoti S. 2.

(23) To do a thing for another (either for his advantage or injury;

prāptāgninirvāpaṇagarvamaṁbu ratnāṁkurajyotiṣi kiṁ karoti Vikr. 1. 18;

yadanena kṛtaṁ mayi, asau kiṁ me kariṣyati &c.

(24) To use, employ, make use of; kiṁ tayā kriyate dhenvā Pt. 1.

(25) To divide, break into parts (with adverbs ending in dhā); dvidhā

kṛ to divide into two parts; śatadhā kṛ, sahasradhā kṛ &c.

(26) To cause to become subject to, reduce completely to (a

particular condition, with adverbs ending in sāt); ātmasāt kṛ to subject or

appropriate to oneself; R. 8. 2; bhasmasāt kṛ to reduce to ashes.

(27) To appropriate, secure for oneself.

(28) To help, give aid.

(29) To make liable. (30) To violate or outrage (as a girl).

(31) To begin.

(32) To order.

(33) To free from.

(34) To proceed with, put in practice.

(35) To worship, sacrifice.

(36) To make like, consider equal to, cf. tṛṇīkṛ (said to be Atm. only in

the last 10 senses). This root is often used with nouns, adjectives, and

indeclinables to form verbs from them, somewhat like the English affixes

‘en’ or ‘(i) fy’, in the sense of ‘making a person or thing to be what it

previously is not’; e. g. kṛṣṇīkṛ to make that which is not already black,

black, i. e. blacken; so śvetīkṛ to whiten; ghanīkṛ to solidify; viralīkṛ to

rarefy &c. &c. Sometimes these formations take place in other senses

also; e. g. kroḍīkṛ ‘to clasp to the bosom’, embrace bhasmīkṛ to reduce to

ashes; pravaṇīkṛ to incline, bend; tṛṇīkṛ to value as little as straw;

maṁdīkṛ to slacken, make slow; so śūlākṛ to roast on the end of pointed

lances; sukhākṛ to please; samayākṛ to spend time &c. N. B. This root by

itself admits of either Pada; but it is Atm. generally with prepositions in

the following senses:

(1) doing injury to;

(2) censure, blame;

(3) serving;

(4) outraging, acting violently or rashly;

(5) preparing, changing the condition of, turning into;

(6) reciting.

(7) employing, using; see P. 1. 3. 32 and «Student’s Guide to Sanskrit

Composition» Par. 338. Note. The root kṛ is of the most frequent

application in Sanskrit literature, and its senses are variously modified, or

almost infinitely extended, according to the noun with which the root is

connected; e. g. padaṁ kṛ to set foot (fig. also); āśrame padaṁ kariṣyasi

S. 4. 19; krameṇa kṛtaṁ mama vapuṣi navayauvanena padaṁ K. 141;

manasā kṛ to think of, meditate; manasi kṛ to think; dṛṣṭvā

manasyevamakarot K. 136; or to resolve or determine; sakhyaṁ, maitrīṁ

kṛ to form friendship with; astrāṇi kṛ to practise the use of weapons;

daṁḍaṁ kṛ to inflict punishment; hṛdaye kṛ to pay heed to; kālaṁ kṛ to

die; matiṁ duddhiṁ-kṛ to think of, intend, mean; udakaṁ kṛ to offer

libations of water to the Manes; ciraṁ kṛ to delay; darduraṁ kṛ to play on

the lute; nakhāni kṛ to clean the nails; kanyāṁ kṛ to outrage or violate a

maiden; vinā kṛ to separate from, to be abandoned by, as in madanena

vinākṛtā ratiḥ Ku. 4. 21; madhye kṛ to place in the middle, to have

reference to; madhyekṛtya sthitaṁ krathakaiśikān M. 5. 2; vaśe kṛ to win

over, place in subjection, subdue; camatkṛ to cause surprise; make an

exhibition or a show; satkṛ to honour, treat with respect; tiryakkṛ to place

aside. —Caus. (kārayati-te) To cause to do, perform, make, execute &c.;

ājñāṁ kāraya rakṣebhiḥ Bk. 8. 84; bhṛtyaṁ bhṛtyena vā kaṭaṁ kārayati

Sk. —Desid. (cikīrṣīti -te) To wish to do &c.; Śi. 14. 41.

कृत् — kṛt Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛt mfn. only ifc. ( 6-1, 182) making, doing, performing, accomplishing,

effecting, manufacturing, acting, one who accomplishes or performs

anything, author (see «su-k-, karma-k-, pāpa-k-«, &c.)

kṛt m. an affix used to form nouns from roots

kṛt m. a noun formed with that affix

kṛt cl.6.P. «kṛntati», ep. also ā. «-te» and cl.1. P. «kartati» (perf. «cakarta»,

2nd fut. «kartsyati» or «kartiṣyati», 1st fut. «kartitā» ; Subj. «kṛntat»; aor.

«akartīt», Ved. 2. sg. «akṛtas»), to cut, cut in pieces, cut off, divide, tear

asunder, destroy &c.: Caus. «kartayati» id. Desid. «cikartiṣati» or

«cikṛtsati» ; ([cf. [characters]; Lith. ‘kertu’ inf. ‘kirsti’, «to cut»; Slav.

‘korju’, «to split»; Lat. ‘curtus’, ‘culter’; Hib. ‘ceartaighim’, «I prune, trim,

cut»; ‘cuirc’, «a knife.»])

kṛt cl.7.P. «kṛṇatti» (impf. 3. pl. «akṛntan»), to twist threads, spin = ( iii,

21); to wind (as a snake) f. «kṛntatī»); to surround, encompass, attire

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṛt a. [kṛ-kvip] (Generally at the end of comp.) Accomplisher, doer,

maker, performer, manufacturer, composer &c.; pāpa-, puṇya-, pratimā-

&c. —m.

(1) A class of affixes used to form derivatives (nouns, adjectives &c.)

from roots.

(2) A word so formed.

— Comp.

—aṁtaḥ a word ending with a kṛt affix.

—lopaḥ the rejection of kṛt affixes.

kṛt I. 6 P. (kṛṁtati-kṛtta)

(1) To cut, cut off, divide, tear asunder, cut in pieces, destroy;

praharati vidhirmarmacchedī na kṛṁtati jīvitaṁ U. 3. 31, 35; Bk. 9. 42; 15.

97; 16. 15; Ms. 8. 12. —II. 7 P. (kṛṇatti, kṛtta)

(1) To spin.

(2) To surround, encompass.

(3) To attire.

कृष् — kṛṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛṣ cl.1.P. «karṣati», rarely ā. «-te» (perf. «cakarṣa», 2. sg. «-ṣitha» ; fut.

«karkṣyati» or «krakṣy-; kṛṣiṣy-» ; «karṣṭā» or «kraṣṭā» ; aor. «akṛkṣat» [or

«akārkṣīt»] or «akrākṣīt», iii, 1, 44 7; inf. «kraṣṭum»), to draw, draw to

one’s self, drag, pull, drag away, tear &c.; to lead or conduct (as an

army) ; to bend (a bow) ; to draw into one’s power, become master of,

overpower ; to obtain ; to take away anything (acc.) from any one (acc.)

; to draw or make furrows, plough (ā.) (ind. p. «kṛṣṭvā»): cl.6. P. ā.

«kṛṣati, -te» (p. «kṛṣat»), to draw or make furrows, plough &c.; ā. to

obtain by ploughing ; to travel over Caus. «karṣayati», to draw, drag

(aor. 1. sg. «acikṛṣam») ; to draw or tear out ; to pull to and fro, cause

pain, torture, torment &c.; «to plough» see «karṣita»: Intens. (pr. p. and

Subj. 3. sg. «carkṛṣat»; impf. 3. pl. «acarkṛṣur») to plough ; «carīkṛṣyate»

or Ved. «karīk-«, to plough repeatedly ([cf. Lith. ‘karszu’, ‘pleszau’; Russ.

‘ceshu’; Lat. ‘verro’, ‘vello’; Goth. ‘falh’.])

kṛṣ mfn. see «kaṁsa-k-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṛṣ I. 6 U. (kṛṣati-te, kṛṣṭa) To plough, make furrows. —II. 1 P. (karṣati,

kṛṣṭa)

(1) To draw, drag, pull, drag away, tear; prasahya siṁhaḥ kila tāṁ

cakarṣa R. 2. 27; V. 1. 19.

(2) To draw towards oneself, attract; Bk. 15. 47; Bg. 15. 7.

(3) To lead or conduct as an army; sa senāṁ mahatīṁ karṣan R. 4.

32.

(4) To bend (as a bow); nātyāyataṣṭakṛśāṁrgaḥ R. 5. 50.

(5) To be come master of, subdue, vanquish, overpower;

balavāniṁdriyagrāmo vidvāṁsamapi karṣati Ms. 2. 215; nakraḥ

svasthānamāsādya gajeṁdramapi karṣati Pt. 3. 46.

(6) To plough, till; anulomakṛṣṭaṁ kṣetraṁ pratilomaṁ karṣati Sk.

(7) To obtain; kulasaṁkhyāṁ ca gacchaṁti karṣaṁti ca mahadyaśaḥ

Mb.

(8) To take away from, deprive one of (with two acc.). —Caus.

(1) To draw out, tear up.

(2) To extract.

(3) To torture, torment, give pain.

(4) To plough, till, cultivate.

क्रन्द् — krand Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899krand cl.1.P. ā. «krandati, krandate» (v.l. «kradate» fr. «krad» ; Subj.

«krandat»; impf. «krandat» and «akrandat»; aor. 2. sg. «kradas, cakradas»,

and «akrān», 3. sg. «akrān» and «akrān; akrandīt» ; p. «krandat»), to neigh

(as a horse), roar (metaphorically applied to the clouds and to wind and

water) ; to creak (as a wheel) ; to sound, make a noise ; to cry piteously,

weep, lament, grieve, be confused with sorrow &c.; to call out piteously

to any one (acc.) (perf. «cakranda») Caus. «krandayati» (aor.

«acikradat», 3. pl. «-dan»), to cause to roar ; to cause to weep or lament ;

to roar, rave ; to neigh after (acc.) Intens. P. «kanikrantti» (ā. «-ntte» ; p.

«kanikradat», once «kanikrat» ; p. ā. «kanikradyamana» vi), to neigh, roar,

rave, cry out ; to creak, crackle ; ([cf. Goth. ‘greta’, «to lament.»])

क्रम् — kram Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kram cl.1.P. ā. «krāmati» ( 7-3, 76; ep. also «kramati»), «kramate» ( 1-3,

43, ep. also «krāmate»; according to cl.4. P. «krāmyati» [«kramyati» ; aor.

«akramīt» &c.; ā. «kramiṣṭa, kraṁsate» [ i, 121, 1], 3. pl. «cakramanta» [

ii, 19, 2]; perf. «cakrāma», or «cakrame»; p. «cakramāṇa» ; fut.

«kramiṣyati» or «kraṁsyate» ind. p. «krāntvā, krantvā», or «kramitvā» , to

step, walk, go, go towards, approach (with «accha, adhi» acc. or loc.)

&c.; to approach in order to ask for assistance (with loc.) ; to go across,

go over &c.; Ved. to climb (as on a tree’s branch) ; to cover (in

copulation) ; to stretch over, project over, tower above, (ind. p.

«krāntvā») ; to take possession of ; ā. to undertake, strive after, make

effort for (dat.) ; (loc.) ; ā. ( 1-. 3, 38) to proceed well, advance, make

progress, gain a footing, succeed, have effect ; to be appliable or

practicable ; P. to be liable to the peculiar arrangement of a Vedic text

called Krama (i.e. to be doubled, as a letter or word) ; ā. to read

according to the Krama arrangement of a Vedic text («a-krānta»): Caus.

P. «kramayati», to cause to step ; xi; «kramayati» or «krām-«, to make

liable to the peculiar arrangement called Krama (i.e. to double a letter or

word) &c.: Intens. «caṅkramyate» ( 3-1, 23 ; p. «caṅ-kramyamāṇa» [ vii,

1, 19, 3 or «-kramam-» or «caṅkramīti» ( xiv, 137 and 141; impf. 2. pl.

«caṅkramata» ; fut. p. «caṅkramiṣyat» ; ind. p. «-mitvā» ; cf. «-mita»), to

step to and fro, walk or wander about.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kram 1 U., 4 P. (krāmati, kramate, krāmyati, cakrāma, cakrame, akramīt,

akraṁsta, krāṁta)

(1) To walk, step, go; krāmatyanudite sūrye vālī vyapagataklamaḥ

Ram.; gamyamānaṁ na tenāsīdagataṁ krāmatā puraḥ Bk. 8. 2; 25.

(2) To go to, approach (with acc).; devā imān lokānakramaṁta Śat.

Br.

(3) To pass or go over, go across, traverse; U. 2. 13; sukhaṁ

yojanapaṁcāśatkrameyaṁ Ram.

(4) To leap, jump; kramaṁ babaṁdha kramituṁ sakopaḥ (hariḥ) Bk.

2. 9. 5. 51.

(5) To go up, ascend; krāmatyuccairbhūbhṛto yasya tejaḥ Śi. 16. 83.

(6)

(a) To cover, occupy, take possession of, fill; krāṁtā yathā cetasi

viramayena R. 14. 17.

(b) To reach up to, pervade, penetrate;

krāmadbhirghanapadavīmanekasaṁkhyaiḥ Ki. 5. 34.

(7) To surpass, excel; sthitaḥ sarvonnatenorvīṁ krāṁtvā

merurivātmanā R. 1. 14.

(8) To undertake, strive after, be able or competent for, show energy

for (with dat. or inf.); vyākaraṇādhyayanāya kramate Sk. dharmāya

kramate sādhuḥ Vop.; vyutpattirāvarjitakovidāpi na raṁjanāya kramate

jaḍānāṁ Vikr. 1. 16; hatvā rakṣāṁsi lavitumakramīnmārutiḥ punaḥ .

aśokavanikāmeva Bk. 9. 23.

(9) To be developed or increased to have full scope, be at home (with

loc.); kṛtyeṣu kramaṁte Dk. 170; kramaṁte’smiñśāstrāṇi, or ṛkṣu

kramate buddhiḥ Sk.; kramamāṇo’risaṁsadi Bk. 8. 22. (10) To succeed,

have effect (Atm.); na cakramasyākramatādhikaṁ dharaṁ Śi. 1. 54.

(11) To be repeated (as a letter or word in the arrangement called

krama q. v.).

(12) To fulfil, accomplish.

(13) To have sexual intercourse with. (By P. I. 3. 38 kram by itself is

used in the Atm. in the sense of ‘continuity’ or ‘want of interruption,’

‘energy or application’, and ‘development or increase’, and also

‘conquering or getting over’). —Caus. (kramayati, krāmayati)

(1) To cause to go &c.

(2) To repeat a letter (as in the krama arrangement). —Desid.

cikramiṣati, cikraṁsate &c.

क्षद् — kṣad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṣad cl.1.ā. «kṣadate» (perf. p. «cakṣadāna»), to cut, dissect, divide, kill ;

to carve (meat), distribute (food) ; to take food, consume, eat sg. ā. or

dat. inf. «kṣadase») and x, 79, 7 (perf. «cakṣade»). ([As a Sautra root

«kṣad» means «to cover, shelter.»])

kṣad see «bāhu-kṣad».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṣad 1 A. (kṣadate) Ved.

(1) To cut.

(2) To kill.

(3) To consume, eat.

(4) To cover, protect.

क्षप् — kṣap Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṣap cl.1.P. ā. «kṣapati, -te» (pr. p. «kṣapamāṇa»; inf. «kṣapitum» , to be

abstinent, fast, do penance &c.; (for «kṣip»

kṣap cl.10.P. «kṣapayati», to throw, cast (cf. «kṣip».)

kṣap = Caus. 4. «kṣi» q.v.

kṣap f. night

f. a measure of time equivalent to a whole day of twenty-four hours

f. darkness

f. water

kṣap f. «kṣapaḥ, kṣapaḥ», 1. «kṣapā» acc. pl. gen. sg., instr ind. at night

kṣap f. ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘crepus-culum’])

kṣap «kṣa-p-» m. «earth-protector», ruler, governor

kṣap «kṣa-p-» m. («kṣa-p-«) iii, 55, 17; vii, 10, 5 and viii, 71, 2.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṣap 1 U. (kṣapati-te, kṣapita) To fast, to be abstinent; Ms. 5. 69. —Caus.

or 10 U. (kṣapayati-te, kṣapita)

(1) To throw, send, cast.

(2) To miss.

kṣap f. Ved.

(1) Night.

(2) A measure of time.

(3) Darkness.

(4) Water.

क्षम् — kṣam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṣam cl.1.ā. «kṣamate» (ep. also P. «-ti»; Ved. cl.2. P. «kṣamiti» ; cl.4. P.

«kṣāmyati» [cf. Impv. ā. 3. sg. «kṣamyatām» ; perf. «cakṣame» &c., 3. pl.

«-mire» ; 1. du. «cakṣaṇvahe» & 1. pl. «-ṇmahe» ; fut. 2nd «kṣaṁsyate, -ti,

kṣamiṣyati»; aor. 2. sg. «akṣaṁsthās» ; inf. «kṣantum» &c.), to be patient

or composed, suppress anger, keep quiet &c.; to submit to (dat.) ; iv; to

bear patiently, endure, put up with (acc.), suffer ; to pardon, forgive

anything (acc.) to (gen. or dat.) &c. (e.g. «kṣamasva me tad», forgive me

that ; to allow, permit, suffer (); (with Pot.) ; to bear any one, be

indulgent to (Pass.) ; to resist ; to be able to do anything (inf.) ; to seem

good iv: Caus. P. ā. «kṣamayati, kṣāmayate», to ask any one (acc.)

pardon for anything (acc.) ; (perf. «kṣamayām āsa») to suffer or bear

patiently (cf. «kṣamāpaya»); ([cf. Goth. ‘hramja’ (?) Angl. Sax.

‘hremman’, «to hinder, disquiet.»])

kṣam f. (nom. «kṣās» acc. «kṣām» instr. «kṣamā» once «jmā» [ vi, 52, 15]

dat. «kṣe» [? , gen. abl. «gmas, jmas», once «kṣmas» [ i, 100, 15], loc.

«kṣami»; du. nom. «kṣāmā» [ ii, 39, 7; x, 12, 1; cf. «dyāva-kṣāmā»]; pl.

nom. «kṣāmas» [ viii, 70, 4; «kṣāmīs» fr. «-mi» , «kṣās» acc. «kṣās» [ x, 2,

6] loc. «kṣāsu» the ground, earth, [characters]

kṣam f. ([cf. «kṣmā»; cf. also Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘humus’, ‘homo’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṣam 1 A., 4 P. (kṣamate, kṣāmyati, cakṣame, cakṣāma, kṣāṁta or

kṣamita)

(1) To permit, allow, suffer; ato nṛpāścakṣamire sametāḥ

strīratnalābhaṁ na tadātmajasya R. 7. 34; 12. 46.

(2) To pardon, forgive (as an offence); kṣāṁtaṁ na kṣamayā Bh. 3.

13; kṣamasva parameśvara; nighnasya me bhartṛnideśaraukṣyaṁ devi

kṣamasveti babhūva namraḥ R. 14. 58.

(3) To be patient or quiet, wait; R. 15. 45.

(4) To endure, put up with, suffer; api kṣamaṁte’smadupajāpaṁ

prakṛtayaḥ Mu. 2; nājñābhaṁgakarān rājā kṣameta svasutānapi H. 2.

107.

(5) To oppose, resist.

(6) To be competent or able (to do anything); ṛne raveḥ kṣālayituṁ

kṣameta kaḥ kṣapātamaskāṁḍamalīmasaṁ nabhaḥ Śi. 1. 38, 9. 65.

kṣam f. Ved. The ground, earth.

क्षर् — kṣar Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṣar cl.1.P. «kṣarati» (ep. also ā. «-te»; Ved. cl.2. P. «kṣariti» ; Subj.

«kṣarat»; impf. «akṣarat»; aor. 3. sg. «akṣār» (cf. ; «akṣārīt» ; p. «kṣarat»;

inf. «kṣaradhyai» , to flow, stream, glide, distil, trickle &c.; to melt away,

wane, perish ; to fall or slip from, be deprived of (abl.) ; to cause to flow,

pour out &c. (with «mūtram», «to urine» ; to give forth a stream, give

forth anything richly 8898 (pf. «cakṣāra») Caus. «kṣārayati», to cause to

flow (as urine) ; to overflow or soil with acrid substances (cf. «kṣāra»)

(cf. «kṣārita».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṣar 1 P. [kṣarati, kṣarita] (Used transitively or intransitively)

(1) To flow, glide.

(2) To send or stream forth, pour out, emit; R. 13. 74; Bk. 9. 8.

(3) To drop, trickle, ooze.

(4) To waste away, wane, perish.

(5) To become useless, have no effect; yajño’nṛtane kṣarati tapaḥ

kṣarati vismayāt Ms. 4. 237.

(6) To melt.

(7) To slip from, be deprived of (with abl.). —Caus. (kṣārayati-te) To

accuse, traduce (usually with ā). —WITH —vi to melt away, dissolve.

क्षिप् — kṣip Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṣip cl.6.P. «kṣipati» ā. «kṣipate» ( &c.; cl.4. P. «kṣipyati», only ; Subj.

«kṣipat»; perf. «cikṣepa» &c.; ep. also «cikṣipe»; fut. 2nd «kṣepsyati» &c.;

ep. also «-te»; inf. «kṣeptum»; cf. , to throw, cast, send, despatch (Pass.

pr. p. «kṣipyat», i, 1126) &c.; to move hastily (the arms or legs) ; to

throw a glance (as the eye) ; to strike or hit (with a weapon) ; to put or

place anything on or in (loc.), pour on, scatter, fix or attach to (loc.) &c.;

to direct (the thoughts) upon (loc.) ; to throw away, cast away, get rid of

; to lay (the blame) on (loc.) ; to utter abusive words, insult, revile,

abuse &c.; «to disdain» i.e. to excel, beat, outvie ; to strike down, ruin,

destroy ; (ā. «to destroy one another, go to ruin» Pot. 3. pl. «kṣiperan» ;

to pass or while away (the time or night, «kālam, kṣapām») lv, 154; xcii,

84; to lose (time, «kālam»; cf. «kālakṣepa») ; to skip or pass over (a day,

«dinam».) ; (in math.) to add Caus. P. «kṣepayati», to cause to cast or

throw into («antar») ; to throw into ; to cause to descend into (loc.) lxxv,

121; to pass or while away (the night, «kṣapām») lvi, 75; (aor. Subj. 2.

sg. «cikṣipas») to hurt, injure (cf. Subj. «kṣepayat» s.v. 2. «kṣi»); ([cf. Lat.

‘sipo’, ‘dissipo’, for ‘xipo’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

kṣip 6 U. (but only P. when preceded by adhi, prati and ati), 4. P.

(kṣipati-te, kṣipyati, kṣipta)

(1) To throw, cast, send, dispatch, discharge, let go (with loc. or

sometimes dat.); marudbhya iti tu dvāri kṣipedapsvadbhya ityapi Ms. 3.

88; śilāṁ vā kṣepsyate mayi Mb.; R. 12. 95; with prati also; Bh. 3. 67, Śi.

15. 86.

(2) To place, put on or upon, throw into, srajamapi śirasyaṁdhaḥ

kṣiptāṁ dhunotyahiśaṁkayā S. 7. 24; Y. 1. 230; Bg. 16. 19.

(3) To fix on, attach to (as a blame); bhṛtye doṣān kṣipati H. 2.

(4) To cast or throw off, cast away, rid oneself of; kiṁ kūrmasya

bharavyathā na vapuṣi kṣmāṁ na kṣipatyeṣa yat Mu. 2. 18.

(5)

(a) To take away, destroy; Mal. 1. 17.

(b) To kill or slay; kesarī niṣṭhurakṣiptamṛgayūtho mṛgādhipaḥ Śi.

2. 53.

(6) To reject, disdain.

(7) To insult, revile, abuse, scold; Ms. 8. 312, 270; Śānti. 3. 10.

(8) To pour on, scatter, strew. —9, To strike, hit. (10) To distract,

afflict; Mal. 4. 8. —WITH paryā to bind or tie up, collect (as hair);

(keśāṁtaṁ) paryākṣipat kācidudārabaṁdhaṁ Ku. 7. 14.

kṣip f. Ved. A finger; Rv. 3. 23. 3, 9. 97. 57.

खिद् — khid Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899khid cl.6. «khindati» ( 7-1, 59; Ved. «khidati» ; perf. «cikheda», or Ved.

«cakhāda» ; fut. «khetsyati» , to strike, press, press down ; to be

depressed or wearied cl.7.ā. «khintte», to be pressed down, suffer pain

cl.4. ā. «khidyate» (rarely P. , to be pressed down or depressed, be

distressed or wearied, feel tired or exhausted &c.: Caus. P. «khedayati»

(rarely ā. , to press down, molest, disturb, make tired or exhausted 85

(v.l.) ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] ?])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

khid I. 6 P. (khiṁdati, khinna) To strike, press down, afflict. —II. 4. 7. A.

(khidyate, khiṁtte, khinna)

(1) To suffer pain or misery, to be afflicted or wearied, feel tired,

depressed or exhausted; S. 5. 7; sa puruṣo yaḥ khidyate neṁdriyaiḥ H. 2.

141 overpowered; kiṁ nāma mayi khidyate garu Ve. 1; Śānti. 3. 7; Bk. 14.

108, 17. 10. —Caus.

(1) To frighten, terrify.

(2) To exhaust, fatigue, make tired.

खुद् — khud Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899khud cl.6.P. «khudati», to sport wantonly or amorously Intens. (p.

«canīkhudat») id. ; («kanīkhunat», fr. «khun»)

ख्या — khyā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899khyā cl.2.P. «khyāti» (in the non-conjugational tenses also ā., perf.

«cakhyau, cakhye» ; impf. «akhyat, akhyata» ; the simple verb occurs only

in Pass. and Caus.: Pass. «khyāyate», to be named, be known ; (aor.

«akhyāyi») to be named or announced to (gen.) Caus. «khyāpayati», to

make known, promulgate, proclaim &c.; to relate, tell, say, declare,

betray, denounce ; «to make well known, praise» see «khyāpita»; ([cf.

Lat. ‘in-quam’, &c.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

khyā 2 P. (m. also in non-conjugational tenses) (khyāti, khyāta) To tell,

declare, communicate (with dat. of person). —Pass. (khyāyate)

(1) To be named or called; Bk. 6. 97.

(2) To be known or famous. —Caus. (khyāpayati-te)

(1) To make known, proclaim; Ms. 7. 201.

(2) To tell, declare, relate; Bh. 2. 69; Ms. 11. 99.

(3) To extol, make renowned, praise.

गम् — gam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gam Ved. cl.1.P. «gamati» (; Subj. «gamam, gamat» [«gamātas,

gamātha» , «gamāma, gaman» ; Pot. «gamema» ; inf. «gamadhyai» cl.2.

P. «ganti» (; Impv. 3. sg. «gantu», [2. sg. «gadhi» see «ā-«, or «gahi» see

«adhi-, abhy-ā-, ā-, upā-«], 2. pl. «gantā» or «gantana» ; impf. 2. and 3.

sg. «agan» [ pl. «aganma» [; cf. pl. «agman» ; Subj. [or aor. Subj. cf. 1.

pl. «ganma», 3. pl. «gman» ; Pot. 2. sg. «gamyās» ; Prec. 3. sg. «gamyās» ;

pr. p. «gmat», x, 22, 6): cl.3. P. «jaganti» ( ii, 14; Pot. «jagamyām, -yāt» ;

impf. 2. and 3. sg. «ajagan», 2. pl. «ajaganta» or «-tana» Ved. and Class.

cl.1. P. (also ā. &c.), with substitution of «gacch» ([= [characters]]) for

«gam, gacchati» (cf. ; Subj. «gācchāti» ; 2. sg. «gacchās» [ vi, 35, 3] or

«gacchāsi» [ v, 5, 6]; 2. pl. «gacchāta» ; 3. pl. «gacchān» ; impf.

«agacchat»; Pot. «gacchet»; pr. p. «gacchat» &c.; aor. «agamat» ; for ā.

with prepositions cf. fut. «gamiṣyati» &c.; 1st fut. «gantā» [ 7-2, 58]

&c.; perf. 1. sg. «jagamā» [],3. sg. «jagāma», 2. du. «jagmathur», 3. pl.

«jagmur» &c.; p. «jaganvas» [ &c.] or «jagmivas» f. «jagmuṣī» &c.; Ved.

inf. «gantave, gantavai»; Class. inf. «gantum»: Ved. ind. p. «gatvāya,

gatvī»; Class. ind. p. «gatvā» [ &c.], with prepositions «-gamya» or «-

gatya» to go, move, go away, set out, come &c.; to go to or towards,

approach (with acc. or loc. or dat. [; cf. «prati» [ &c.; to go or pass (as

time e.g. «kāle gacchati», time going on, in the course of time) ; to fall to

the share of (acc.) &c.; to go against with hostile intentions, attack ; to

decease, die ; to approach carnally, have sexual intercourse with (acc.)

&c.; to go to any state or condition, undergo, partake of, participate in,

receive, obtain (e.g. «mitratāṁ gacchati», «e goes to friendship» i.e. he

becomes friendly) &c.; «jānubhyām avanīṁ-gam», «to go to the earth

with the knees», kneel down ; «dharaṇīṁ mūrdhnā-gam», «to go to the

earth with the head», make a bow ; «manasā-gam», to go with the mind,

observe, perceive ; (without «manasā») to observe, understand, guess ;

(especially Pass. «gamyate», «to be understood or meant») and ;

«doṣeṇa» or «doṣato-gam», to approach with an accusation, ascribe guilt

to a person (acc.) Caus. «gamayati» ( 2-4, 46; Impv. 2. sg. Ved.

«gamayā» or «gāmaya» [ v, 5, 10], 3. sg. «gamayatāt» ; perf. «gamayāṁ

cakāra» &c.) to cause to go ( 8-1, 60 or come, lead or conduct towards,

send to (dat. , bring to a place (acc. [ 1-4, 52] or loc.) &c.; to cause to

go to any condition, cause to become &c.; to impart, grant ; to send

away ; «to let go», not care about ; to excel ; to spend time &c.; to

cause to understand, make clear or intelligible, explain ; to convey an

idea or meaning, denote ; (causal of the causal) to cause a person (acc.)

to go by means of «jigamiṣati» another Desid. «jigamiṣati» ( «jigāṁsate»

; impf. «ajigāṁsat» to wish to go, be going ; to strive to obtain ; to wish

to bring (to light, «prakāśam») i: Intens. «jaṅganti» (), «jaṅgamīti» or

«jaṅgamyate» ( 7-4, 85 , to visit «ganigmat») (impf. «aganīgan»); ([cf.

[characters]; Goth. ‘qvam’; Eng. ‘come’; Lat. ‘venio’ for ‘gvemio’.])

gam gen. abl. «gmas» see 2. «kṣam».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gam 1 P. (gacchati, jagāma, agamat, gamiṣyati, gaṁtuṁ, gata desid;

jigamiṣati, jigāṁsate Atm.; freq. jaṁgamyate; jaṁgamīti or jaṁgaṁti)

(1) To go, move in general; gacchatvāryā punardarśanāya V. 5;

gacchati puraḥ śarīraṁ dhāvati paścādasaṁstutaṁ cetaḥ S. 1. 34;

kvādhunā gamyate ‘where art thou going’.

(2) To depart, go forth, go away, set forth or out; utkṣipyaināṁ

jyotirekaṁ jagāma S. 5. 30.

(3) To go to, reach, resort to, arrive at, approach; yadagamyopi

gamyate Pt. 1. 7; eno gacchati kartāraṁ Ms. 8. 19 the sin goes to (recoils

on) the doer; 4. 199; so dharaṇiṁ mūrdhnā gam &c.

(4) To pass, pass away, elapse (as time); dineṣu gacchatsu R. 3. 8 as

days rolled on, in course of time; Me. 83; kāvyaśāstravinodena kālo

gacchati dhīmatāṁ H. 1. 1; gacchatā kālena in the long run.

(5) To go to the state or condition of, become, undergo, suffer,

partake of &c. (usually joined with nouns ending in tā, —tva &c. or any

noun in the acc.); gamiṣyāmyupahāsyatāṁ R. 1. 3; paścādumākhyāṁ

sumukhī jagāma Ku. 1. 26 went by or received the name of Umā; so

tṛptiṁ gacchati becomes satis fied; viṣādaṁ gataḥ became dejected;

kopaṁ na gacchati does not become angry; ānṛṇyaṁ gataḥ became

released from debt; manasā gam to think of, remember; Ku. 2. 63;

vṛṣeṇa gacchataḥ riding a bull; Ku. 5. 80.

(6) To cohabit, have sexual intercourse with; guroḥ sutāṁ … yo

gacchati pumān Pt. 2. 107; Y. 1. 80. —Caus. (gamayati-te)

(1) To cause to go, lead or reduce to (as a state); gamitaḥ gatiṁ Ku.

4. 24; Bh. 3. 38; Ki. 2. 7.

(2) To spend, pass (as time).

(3) To make clear, explain, expound.

(4) To signify, denote, convey an idea or sense of; dvau nañau

prakṛtārthaṁ gamayataḥ ‘two negatives make one affirmative.’

(5) To send to.

(6) To bring to a place (acc.).

(7) To impart, grant, bestow.

(8) To intend, mean.

गा — gā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gā cl.3.P. «jigāti» (; «jagāti», Nalgh. ii, 14 (v.l.); Subj. «jigāt»; Impv.

«jigātu»; aor. «agāt»; 3. pl. «agan» ; Subj. [1. sg. «geṣam» see «anu-» and

«upa-«], 2. sg. «gās», 3. sg. «gāt», 2. pl. «gāta», 3. pl. «gur»; [perf. «jigāya»

see «ud-«], perf. Pot. «jagāyāt» [ ii, 14] ; inf. «gātave» ; in Class. Sanskṛit

only the aor. P. «agāt» occurs, for ā. see «adhi-«; aor. Pass. «agāyi,

agāsātām» on ; cl.2. P. «gāti» ; ā. «gāte» to go, go towards, come,

approach (with acc. or loc.) &c.; to go after, pursue ; to fall to one’s

(dat.) share, be one’s (acc.) due, viii, 45, 32 ; to come into any state or

condition (acc.), undergo, obtain &c.; to go away (from abl.; to any place

loc.) ; to come to an end ; to walk (on a path acc. or instr.) ; («jigāti») to

be born on Desid. «jigīṣati», to desire to go ([cf. [characters], Old

Germ. ‘gam’, ‘gas’, &c.; Goth. ‘ga-tvo’; Eng. ‘go’.])

gā mfn. Ved. ifc. «going» (cf. «a-gā; agre-, tamo-, puro-,

samana-«and»svasti-gā»)

gā mfn. ( «gai») ifc. «singing» see «sāma-gā»

gā f. see s.v. 3. «ga».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gā 1 or 2 A, 3 P. (gāte, jigāti)

(1) To go, see i.

(2) To come to any state or condition.

(3) To praise, sing.

gā A song, verse.

गु — gu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gu (cf. 1. «gā») cl.1.ā. «gavate», to go

gu ifc. «going» see «adhri-gu, vanar-gu» (cf. also «priyaṁgu, śāci-gu»);

«fit for» see «tāta-gu, nigu» (cf. «agre-gū».)

gu (= 1. «gū» q.v.) cl.6.P. «guvati», to void by stool (cf. «vi-gūna».)

gu ifc. = «go», «cow; earth; ray» ( 1-2, 48) see «a-gu, anu-gu, anuṣṇa-gu,

ariṣṭagu, upa-gu, uṣṇa-gu, kṛśa-gu, tamo-gu», &c.; («u») n. water ; the

hair on the body

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gu I. 6 P. (guvati, gūna) To void by stool, void excrement, discharge

faeces. —II. 1 A. Ved. (gavate) To speak indistinctly.

गुफ् — guph Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899guph (= «gumph») cl.6. «-phati» ( Vii, 1, 59 ; ind. p. «guphitvā», i, 2, 23),

to string together, tie or string as a garland

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

guph , or guṁph 6 P. (gu-guṁ-phati, guṁphita)

(1) To put string or weave together, tie, wind round; guṁphitāḥ śirasi

veṇayo’bhavan Śi. 14. 30; viśvābhirāmaguṇagauravaguṁphitānāṁ Bv. 1.

71; Bk. 7. 105.

(2) (fig.) To write, compose.

गुर् — gur Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gur (cf. 1. «gṝ») cl.6. «gurate», to raise, lift up (or «to make effort») ; (cf.

«ati-, apa-, abhi-, ava-, ā-, ud-, pra-«): «gur», or «gūr» cl.4. «gūryate», to

hurt, xxvi, 45; to go Caus. «gorayate» or «gūray-«, to raise, lift up (or «to

make effort»), xxxiii, 21; to eat (cf. «gūr».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gur I. 6 A. [gurate, gūrta-gūrṇa]

(1) To make an effort or exertion. —II. 4 A. (p. p. gūrṇa)

(1) To hurt, kill, injure.

(2) To go.

गुह् — guh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899guh cl.1.P. ā. «gūhati, -te» (cf. ; impf. «agūhat» ; perf. «jugūha» ; fut.

«gūhiṣyati» ; aor. «agūhīt», xv; Subj. 2. sg. «ghukṣas» [vi] or Ved. «guhas»

[ viii, 6, 17]; pr. p. P. «gūhat», iv, 51, 9; ā. «gūhamāna» &c.; Pass.

«guhyamāna» ; aor. «guhamāna» ; Ved. ind. p. «gūdhvī», vii, 80, 2) to

cover, conceal, hide, keep secret &c.: Desid. «jughukṣati» ( 7-2, 12; 3.

du. «jugukṣatas», Pada-p. «jughukṣ-«) to wish to conceal or hide away

guh (only acc. «guham» and instr. 1. «guhā») f. a hiding-place

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

guh 1 U. (gūhati-te, jugūha, juguhe, agūhīt, agūhiṣṭa, agūḍha, aghukṣat-

ta, gūhiṣyati-te, ghokṣyati-te, gūhituṁ, goḍhuṁ, gūḍha) To cover, hide,

conceal, keep secret; guhyaṁ ca gūhati guṇān prakaṭīkaroti Bh. 2. 72;

gūhetkūrma ivāṁgāni Ms. 7. 105; R. 14. 49; Bk. 16. 41.

(2) To cover with clothes.

गूर्ध् — gūrdh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gūrdh cl.10.P. «-dhayati» ( iii, 14) to praise

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gūrdh 10 P. (gūrdhayati) Ved. To praise, extol.

गॄ — gṝ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gṝ cl.9.P. ā. «gṛṇāti, -ṇīte» (1. sg. ā. and 3. sg. Pass. «gṛṇe» ; 1. sg. ā.

«gṛṇīṣe» ; 2. pl. «gṛṇatā» ; p. P. «gṛṇat» &c.; ā. & Pass. «gṛṇāna» ; Ved.

inf. Impv. «gṛṇīṣaṇi» , to call, call out to, invoke ; to announce, proclaim ;

to mention with praise, praise, extol ; to pronounce, recite ; to relate,

teach in verses, 4, 9 ; ([cf. [characters]; Hib. ‘goirim’; Old Germ. ‘quar’,

‘quir’, &c.; Old Pruss. ‘gerbu’, «to speak»; Angl. Sax. ‘gale’; Germ.

‘Nachtigal’; Lat. ‘gallus’ ?])

gṝ cl.6.P. «girati» or (cf. P. viii, 2, 21) «gilati» ( i ā. «girate» (1. sg.

«girāmi» ; perf. «jagāra» ; aor. Subj. 3. pl. «garan» , to swallow, devour,

eat &c.; to emit or eject from the mouth Caus. (aor. 2. sg. «ajīgar») to

swallow Intens. «jegilyate» Desid. «jigariṣati», vii, 2, 75; ([cf. 2. «gal», 2

«gir, gila», 2. «gīrṇa»; Lith. ‘gerru’, «to drink»; Lat. ‘glu-tio’, ‘gula’; Slav.

‘gr-lo’; Russ. ‘zora’.])

gṝ (= 3. «kṝ») cl.10.ā. «gārayate», to know ; to make known, teach

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gṝ I. 9 P. (gṛṇāti, gūrṇa)

(1) To utter a sound, call out, invoke, nāmāpi nāma

gṛṇatāmamṛtatvāya kalpatāṁ Mv. 7. 15.

(2) To announce, speak, utter, proclaim; R. 10. 63.

(3) To relate, promulgate.

(4) To praise, extol; keciddhītāḥ prāṁjalayo gṛṇaṁti Bg. 11. 21; Bk. 8.

77. —WITH anu to encourage; Bk. 8. 77. —II. 6 P. (girati or gilati)

(1) To swallow, devour, eat up.

(2) To send forth, pour out, spit out, or eject, from the mouth. —WITH

ava (Atm.) to eat, devour; tathāvagiramāṇaiśca piśācairmāṁsaśoṇitaṁ

Bk. 8. 30. —III. 10 A. (gārayate)

(1) To make known, relate.

(2) To teach.

ग्रस् — gras Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gras cl.1.P. ā. «grasati, -te» (perf. Pot. ā. «jagrasīta» ; p. ā. and Pass.

«jagrasāna» , to seize with the mouth, take into the mouth, swallow,

devour, eat, consume &c.; to swallow up, cause to disappear ; to eclipse

&c.; to swallow or slur over words, pronounce indistinctly () 27; to

suppress, stop or neglect (a lawsuit) Caus. P. «grāsayati», to cause to

swallow or devour ; to consume, swallow ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘gra-

men’; Germ. ‘gras’; Eng. ‘grass’.])

gras mfn. ifc. «swallowing» (e.g. «piṇḍa-» q.v.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gras I. 1 A. [grasate, grasta]

(1) To swallow, devour, eat up, consume; sa imāṁ pṛthivīṁ kṛtsnāṁ

saṁkṣipya grasate punaḥ Mb.; Bg. 11. 30.

(2) To seize.

(3) To eclipse; dvāveba grasate dineśvaraniśāprāṇeśvarau bhāsurau

Bh. 2. 34; himāṁśumāśu grasate tanmradimnaḥ sphuṭaṁ phalaṁ Śi. 2.

49.

(4) To slur over words.

(5) To destory. —WITH saṁ to destroy; Bk. 12. 4. —II. 1 P., 10 U.

(grasati, grāsayati-te) To eat, devour.

ग्रह् — grah Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899grah ([ in a few passages only &c.]) or «grabh» ([; rarely cl.9.P.

«gṛbhṇāti» «gṛhṇāti» (also ā. «gṛhṇīte», irreg. «gṛhṇate» ; 3. pl. «gṛbhṇate»

; Impv. 2. sg. «gṛhāṇa», [«-ṇā», Saṁhitā-p., p. Pass. nom. pl. n. x, 103,

12 &c.; «gṛbhṇāna» & «gṛhṇ-» [Ved.]; «gṛhṇa» ; «-gṛhṇāhi, -gṛbhṇīhi» see

«prati-grabh»; ā. «gṛbhṇīṣva» [ i, 18] or «gṛhṇ-«; 3. sg. P. «gṛhṇītāt»; Ved.

Impv. «gṛbhāya» &c. see s.v. «-ya» cf. «gṛhaya»; perf. «jagrāha» &c.; 1.

sg. «-grabhā» ; «-gṛbhma» ; ā. «-gṛhe», x, 12, 5 &c.; 3. pl. «-gṛbhre» & «-

gṛbhrire» ; P. Pot. «-gṛbhyāt», x, 31, 2; ([cf. Zd. ‘gerep’, ‘geurv’; Goth.

‘greipa’; Germ. ‘greife’; Lith. ‘grebju’; Slav. ‘grablju’; Hib. ‘grabaim’, «I

devour, stop.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

grah 9 U. (In Vedic literature grabh; gṛhṇāti, jagrāha, agrahīt, grahītuṁ,

gṛhīta caus. grāhayati; desid. jighṛkṣati)

(1) To seize, take, take or catch hold of, lay hold of, catch, grasp;

tayorjagahatuḥ pādān rājā rājñī ca māgadhī R. 1. 57; ālāne gṛhyate hastī

vājī valgāsu gṛhyate Mk. 1. 50; taṁ kaṁṭhe jagrāha K. 363; pāṇiṁ

gṛhītvā, caraṇaṁ gṛhītvā &c.

(2) To receive, take, accept, exact; prajānāmeva bhūtyarthaṁ sa

tābhyo balimagrahīt R. 1. 18; Ms. 7. 124; 9. 162.

(3) To apprehend, capture, take prisoner; baṁdigrāhaṁ gṛhītvā V. 1;

yāṁstatra corān gṛhṇīyāt Ms. 8. 34.

(4) To arrest, stop, catch; Bg. 6. 35.

(5) To captivate, attract; mahārājagṛhītahṛdayayā mayā V. 4; hṛdaye

gṛhyate nārī Mk. 1. 50; mādhuryamīṣṭe hariṇān grahītuṁ R. 18. 13.

(6) To win over, persuade, induce to one’s side; lubdhamarthena

gṛhṇīyāt Chaṇ. 33; Pt. 1 69, 184.

(7) (Hence) To please, gratify, satisfy, propitiate; grahītumāryān

paricaryayā muhurmahānubhāvāhi nitāṁtama rthinaḥ Śi. 1. 17. 33.

(8) To affect, seize or possess (as a demon, spirit &c.); as in

piśacagṛhīta, vetāla gṛhīta.

(9) To assume, take; dyutimagrahīd grahagaṇaḥ Śi. 9. 23; Bk. 19. 29.

(10) To learn, know, recognize, understand; Ki. 10. 8, Pt. 1. 43.

(11) To regard, consider, believe, take for; mayāpi mṛtpiṁḍabuddhinā

tathaiva gṛhītaṁ S. 6; parihāsavijalpitaṁ sakhe paramāthena na

gṛhyatāṁ vacaḥ S. 2. 18. evaṁ jano gṛhṇāti M. 1; Mu. 3.

(12) To catch or perceive (as by an organ of sense); jyāninādamatha

gṛhṇatī tayoḥ R. 11. 15.

(13) To master, grasp, comprehend; R. 18. 46.

(14) To guess, conjecture, infer; netravaktravikāraiśca

gṛhyateṁ’targataṁ manaḥ Ms. 8. 26.

(15) To utter, mention (as a name); yadi mayānyasya nāmāpi na

gṛhītaṁ K. 305; na tu nāmāpi gṛhṇīyāt patyau prete parasya tu Ms. 5.

157.

(16) To buy, purchase; kiyatā mūlyenaitatpustakaṁ gṛhītaṁ Pt. 2; Y.

2. 169; Ms. 8. 201.

(17) To deprive (one) of, take away from, rob or seize away; Bk. 9. 9;

15. 63.

(18) To wear, put on (as clothes &c.); vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya

navāni gṛhṇāti naro’parāṇi Bg. 2. 22.

(19) To conceive. (20) To observe (as a fast).

(21) To eclipse.

(22) To undertake, undergo, begin.

(23) To take up, draw (water.)

(24) To stop, intercept.

(25) To withdraw, draw back.

(26) To include.

(27) To receive hospitably (as a guest). [The senses of this root may

be variously modified according to the noun with which it is joined]. —

Caus.

(1) To cause to take, catch, seize or accept.

(2) To give away in marriage; Ku. 1. 52

(3) To teach, make one acquainted with.

(4) To make one take, deliver over to.

(5) To become familiar with. —WITH anusaṁ to salute humbly. —apa

to take away, tear off. —abhi to seize forcibly. —II. 1 P., 10 U. (grahati,

grāhayati-te) To take, receive, &c.

ग्रामणी — grāmaṇī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» m. (fr. «-nī» ; vi, 4, 82; gen. pl. «-ṇyām», or Ved. «-

ṇīnām», vii, 1, 56; 3, 116 ; «i» n. «leading, chief», vii, 1, 74 the leader or

chief of a village or community, lord of the manor, squire, leader of a

troop or army, chief, superintendent &c.

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» m. (mfn. see before «-ṇi» n.) chief, pre-eminent

m. a village barber (chief person of a village)

m. a groom («bhogika»)

m. a Yaksha

m. N. of a Gandharva chief

m. of a demon causing diseases 9556

m. of one of śiva’s attendants

m. of a locality g. «takṣaśilādi»

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. a female peasant or villager

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. a harlot

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. (for «-miṇī») the Indigo plant

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. «-tva» n. the condition or office of a chief or leader

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. «-putra» m. the son of a harlot

grāmaṇī «grāma-ṇī» f. «-sava» m. N. of an Ekāha rite

घ — gha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gha the 4th consonant of the Sanskṛit alphabet (aspirate of the

preceding).

gha ind. (used to lay stress on a word) at least, surely, verily, indeed,

especially (= Gk. [greek] ), («ghā» cf. ; as a rule it is preceded by other

particles («uta, uto, uta vā, cid, na, vā») or by a pronoun or a preposition;

it is also found between «iva» and «id»; or between «iva» and «id aha», or

between «vā» and «id»; sometimes it occurs in the clause which depends

on a conditional or relative sentence (e.g. «ā ghā gamad yadi śravat», «e

will surely come when he hears» , i, 161, 8; viii, 46, 4.

gha mfn. («han») ifc. «striking, killing» cf. «jīva-, tāḍa-, pāṇi-, rāja-«, &c.

(cf. also «parigha»)

gha m. a rattling or gurgling or tinkling sound

m. a bell

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

gha a. (Used only as the last member of comp.) Striking, killing,

destroying; as in pāṇigha, rājagha &c. —ghaḥ

(1) A bell.

(2) Rattling, gurgling or tinkling noise.

च — ca Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ca the 20th letter of the alphabet, 1st of the 2nd (or palatal) class of

consonants, having the sound of «ch» in «church».

ca ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as (= [characters], Lat. ‘que’,

placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects

with what precedes; when used with a personal pronoun this must

appear in its fuller accented form (e.g. «tava ca mama ca» [not «te ca me

ca»], «both of thee and me»), when used after verbs the first of them is

accented ; it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences; in

the double «ca» occurs more frequently than the single (e.g. «ahaṁ ca

tvaṁ ca», «I and thou», viii, 62, 11); the double «ca» may also be used

somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskṛit (e.g. «kva hariṇakānāṁ jīvitaṁ

cātilolaṁ kva ca vajra-sārāḥ śarās te», «where is the frail existence, of

fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows?» ; in later literature,

however, the first «ca» is more usually omitted (e.g. «ahaṁ tvaṁ ca»),

and when more than two things are enumerated only one «ca» is often

found (e.g. «tejasā yaśasā lakṣmyā sthityā ca parayā», «in glory, in fame,

in beauty, and in high position» ; elsewhere, when more than two things

are enumerated, «ca» is placed after some and omitted after others (e.g.

«ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī», «the payer of a debt and a

physician [and] a Brāhman [and] a river» ; in Ved. and even in class.

Sanskṛit [ iii, 20; ix, 322 «ca» would generally be used, the second may

occasionally be omitted (e.g. «indraś ca soma», «both Indra [and thou]

Soma» ; «durbhedyaś cāśusaṁdheyaḥ», «both difficult to be divided [and]

quickly united» i); with lexicographers «ca» may imply a reference to

certain other words which are not expressed (e.g. «kamaṇḍalau ca

karakaḥ», «the word «karaka» has the meaning «pitcher» and other

meanings»); sometimes «ca» is = «eva», even, indeed, certainly, just (e.g.

«su-cintitaṁ cauṣadhaṁ na nāma-mātreṇa karoty arogam», «even a

well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name» ;

«yāvanta eva te tāvāṁśca saḥ», «as great as they [were] just so great

was he» ; occasionally «ca» is disjunctive, «but», «on the contrary», «on

the other hand», «yet», «nevertheless» («varam ādyau na cāntimaḥ»,

«better the two first but not the last» ; «śāntam idam āśrama-padaṁ

sphurati ca bāhuḥ», «this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs» ; «ca-

ca», though-yet ; «ca-na ca», though — yet not ; «ca» — «na tu» (v.l. «nanu»)

id., Mālav-. iv, 8; «na ca» — «ca», though not — yet ; «ca» may be used for

«vā», «either», «or» (e.g. «iha cāmutra vā», «either here or hereafter» ;

«strī vā pumān vā yac cānyat sattvam», «either a woman or a man or any

other being» neg. particle is joined with «ca» the two may then be

translated by «neither», «nor»; occasionally one «ca» or one «na» is

omitted (e.g. «na ca paribhoktuṁ naiva śaknomi hātum», «I am able

neither to enjoy nor to abandon» ; «na pūrvāhṇe nā ca parāhṇe», «neither

in the forenoon nor in the afternoon»); «ca-ca» may express immediate

connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence (e.g.

«mama ca muktaṁ tamasā mano manasijena dhanuṣi śaraś ca niveśitaḥ»,

«no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his

bow by the heart-born god», vi, 8); «ca» is sometimes = «ced», «if» (cf. ;

the verb is accented) ; «ca» may be used as an expletive (e.g. «anyaiś ca

kratubhiś ca», «and with other sacrifices»); «ca» is often joined to an adv.

like «eva, api, tathā, tathaiva», &c., either with or without a neg. particle

(e.g. «vairiṇaṁ nopaseveta sahāyaṁ caiva vairiṇaḥ», «one ought not to

serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy» ; (see «eva, api», &c.) For

the meaning of «ca» after an interrogative see 2. «ka», 2. «kathā, kim,

kva»); ([cf. [characters], Lat. ‘que’, ‘pe’ (in ‘nempe’ &c.); Goth. ‘uh’; Zd.

‘ca’; Old Pers. ‘ca’.])

ca mfn. pure

mfn. moving to and fro

mfn. mischievous

mfn. seedless

ca m. a thief.

ca m. the moon

ca m. a tortoise

ca m. śiva

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ca a.

(1) Seedless.

(2) Bad, vile. —caḥ An epithet of Śiva.

(2) Chewing, eating.

(3) The moon.

(4) A tortoise.

(5) A thief. —ind. A particle expressing

(1) Copulation (and, also as well as, moreover) used to join words or

assertions together; (in this sense it is used with each of the words or

assertions which it joins together; or it is used after the last of the words

or as sertions so joined, but it never stands first in a sentence): mano

niṣṭhāśūnyaṁ bhramati ca kimapyālikhati ca Mal. 1. 31; tau

gururgurupatnī ca prītyā pratinanaṁdatuḥ R. 1. 57; Ms. 1. 64; 3. 5;

kulena kāṁtyā vayasā navena guṇaiśca taistairvinayapradhānaiḥ R. 6. 79;

Ms. 1. 105; 3. 116.

(2) Disjunction (but, still, yet); śāṁtamidamāśramapadaṁ raphurati

ca bāhuḥ S. 1. 16.

(3) Certainty, determination, (indeed, certainly, exactly, quite, having

the force of eva); atītaḥ paṁthānaṁ tava ca mahimā vāṅmanasayoḥ G.

M.; te tu yāvaṁta evājau tāvāṁśca dadṛśe sa taiḥ R. 12. 45.

(4) Condition (if = cet); jīvituṁ cecchase (= icchase ced) mūḍha

hetuṁ me gadataḥ śṛṇu Mb.; lobhaścāsti (asti ced) guṇena kiṁ Bh. 2. 45

v. l.

(5) It is often used expletively (pādapūraṇārthe); bhīmaḥ

pārthastathaiva ca G. M. (Lexicographers give, besides the above, the

following senses of ca which are included in the general idea of

copulation;

(1) anvācaya joining a subordinate fact with a principal one; bho

bhikṣāmaṭa gāṁ cānaya; see anvācaya.

(2) samāhāra collective combination; as pāṇī ca pādau ca pāṇipādaṁ.

(2) itaṁratarayoga or mutual connection; as plakṣaśca nyagrodhaśca

plakṣanyagrodhau.

(4) samuccaya aggregation; as pacati ca paṭhati ca). ca is frequently

repeated with two assertions

(1) in the sense of ‘on the one hand-on the other hand’, ‘though-yet’,

to denote antithesis; na sulabhā sakaleṁdumukhī ca sā kimapi

cedamanaṁgaviceṣṭitaṁ V. 2. 9; 4. 3; R. 16. 7; or

(2) to express simultaneous or undelayed occurrence of two events

(no sooner than, as soon as); te ca prāpurudanvaṁtaṁ bubudhe

cādipūruṣaḥ R. 10. 6; 3. 40; 11. 50, 81; Ku. 3. 58, 66; S. 6. 7; Mal. 9. 39.

चक्ष् — cakṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899cakṣ (a reduplicated form of «kāś» = «kśā»; in the non-conjugational

tenses «khyā» is substituted ; some pf. forms, however, are found) cl.2.ā.

«caṣṭe» (2. du. «cakṣathe» ; pf. p. «cakṣāṇa» [«a-» neg.]; rarely P. impf.

2. sg. «acakṣas» pl. «acakṣma» ; Ved. inf. «cakṣase» , to appear, become

visible ; to see, look at, observe, notice ; to tell, inform ; to take any one

(acc.) for (acc.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

cakṣ 2 A (caṣṭe) (Defective in non-conjugational tenses).

(1) To see, observe, perceive.

(2) To speak, say, tell (with dat. of the person).

(3) To abandon, leave.

चत् — cat Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899cat cl.1. «catati», «to hide one’s self.» see «catat» and «catta»; to go ; P.

and ā. to ask, beg (= «cad») Caus. «cātayati, -te» (aor. «acīcattam,

acīcate» f.), «to cause to hide», scare, frighten away (cf. «niś-, pra-, vi-«;

cf. also «cātaka, cātana, cāttra».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

cat 1 U. (catati-te)

(1) To ask, beg, request.

(2) To go. —Caus. (cātayati -te)

(1) To cause to hide.

(2) To scare, terrify.

चन्द् — cand Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899cand (fr. «ścand» q.v.) cl.1. «-dati» ( xi, 5), to shine, be bright ; to

gladden ; ([cf. Lat. ‘candeo’, ‘candela’.])

चम् — cam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899cam cl.1. «-mati» (perf. «cacāma» aor. «acamīt» ; Pass. «acami» , to sip,

drink ; to eat cl.5. «camnoti» Caus. «cāmayati», xix, 69 (cf. «ā, anv-ā-;

paryā-cānta, sam-ā-camya».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

cam 1 P. (camati, cāṁta)

(1) To drink, sip, drink off; cacāma madhu mādhvīkaṁ Bk. 14. 94.

(2) To eat.

चर् — car Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899car cl.1. «carati», rarely «-te» (Subj. «carat», 3 pl. «carān» ; perf. «cacāra»

[ &c.], 2 sg. «cacartha» ; pl. «cerur», &c.; «-ratur» &c.; ā. «cere» ; fut.

«cariṣyati, -te»; aor. «acārīt» [ xiv &c.]; inf. «caritum» [ii or «cartum» [ iii,

xiii v], Ved. «caradhyai» [ i, 61, 12], «caritave» [113, 5], «carase» [92, 9

and v, 47, 4], «carāyai» [vii, 77, 1], «caritos» [ i, 1, 1, 7]; ind. p. «caritvā»

; «cartvā» ; «cīrtvā», xiii, 495; p. «carat») to move one’s self, go, walk,

move, stir, roam about, wander (said of men, animals, water, ships,

stars, &c.) &c.; to spread, be diffused (as fire) ; to move or travel

through, pervade, go along, follow &c.; to behave, conduct one’s self,

act, live, treat (with instr. or loc.) &c.; to be engaged in, occupied or

busy with (instr e.g. «yajṇena c-«, «to be engaged in a sacrifice» &c.;

(with [ iv or without [ ii, xiv] «mithunam») to have intercourse with, have

to do with (instr.); (with a p. or adj. or ind. p. or adv.) to continue

performing or being (e.g. «arcantaś cerur», «they continued worshipping»

; «svāminam avajṇāya caret», «e may go on despising his master» &c.;

(in astron.) to be in any asterism or conjunction ; to undertake, set

about, under go, observe, practise, do or act in general, effect, make

(e.g. «vratāni» «to observe vows» &c.; «vighnaṁ c-«, «to put a hindrance»

; «bhaikṣaṁ c-» «to beg» ; «vivādaṁ c-«, «to be engaged in a lawsuit» ;

«mṛgayāṁ c-«, «to hunt» ; «sambandhāṁś c», «to enter into connections»

; «mārgaṁ cacāra bāṇaiḥ», «e made a way with arrows» ; «tapasā

indriyāṇi c-«, to exercise one’s organs with penance &c.; to consume, eat

(with acc.), graze ; to make or render (with double acc.) e.g. «narendraṁ

satya-sthaṁ carāma», «let us make the king keep his word» Caus.

«cārayati», to cause to move or walk about (aor. «acīcarat») ; to pasture

; to send, direct, turn, move &c.; to cause any one (acc.) to walk

through (acc.) ; to drive away from (abl.) ; to cause any one (acc.) to

practise or perform (with acc.) ; to cause (any animal acc.) to eat ; to

cause to copulate ; to ascertain (as through a spy instr.) ; to doubt (cf.

«vi-«) Desid. «cicariṣati», to try to go «cicarṣat»); to wish to act or

conduct one’s self ; to try to have intercourse with (instr.), vi: Intens.

«carcarīti» ā. or rarely ([ iii, 12850]) Pass. «caṇcūryate» («-curīti» and «-

cūrti» ; ind. p. «-cūrya» ; p. once P. «-cūryat» 3602) to move quickly or

repeatedly, walk about, roam about (in loc.) &c.; to act wantonly or

coquettishly (cf. ; ([cf. [characters] &c.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

car 1 P. (carati, cacāra, acārīt, carituṁ, carita or sometimes cīrṇa)

(1) To walk, move, go about, roam, wander; naṣṭāśaṁkā hariṇaśiśavo

maṁdamadaṁ caraṁti S. 1. 15 (car may mean here ‘to graze’ also);

iṁdriyāṇāṁ hi caratāṁ Bg. 2. 67; kapayaścerurārtasya rāmasyeva

manorathāḥ R. 12. 59; Ms. 2. 23, 6. 68; 8. 236; 9. 306; 10. 55.

(2)

(a) To perform, do, act; racayati rekhāḥ salile yastu khale carati

satkāraṁ Bv. 1. 98.

(b) To practise, perform, observe; carataḥ kila duścaraṁ tapaḥ R.

8. 79; Y. 1. 60; Ms. 3. 30.

(3) To act, behave towards, conduct oneself (oft. with loc. of the

person); caraṁtīnāṁ ca kāmataḥ Ms. 5. 90; 9. 287; ātmavatsarvabhūteṣu

yaścaret Mb.; tasyāṁ tvaṁ sādhu nācaraḥ R. 1. 76 (where the root may

be also ācara).

(4) To graze; suciraṁ hi caran śasyaṁ H. 3. 9.

(5) To eat, consume.

(6) To be engaged in, be busy with.

(7) To live, continue to be, continue in any state.

(8) To spread, be diffused.

(9) To live, be, exist. (10) To move, travel through, pervade, go along,

follow. —Caus. (cārayati)

(1) To cause to move or go.

(2) To send, direct, move.

(3) To drive away.

(4) To cause to perform or practise.

(5) To cause to copulate.

(6) To cause to graze, pasture.

(7) To obtain knowledge of, acquaint oneself with.

(8) To doubt. [cf. L. curro.]

चि — ci Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ci cl.5. «cinoti, -nute» (1. pl. «cinumas» and «-nmas» ; perf. «cikāya» and

«cicāya», vii, 3, 58; 2. «cicetha», 2, 61 ; 3. pl. «cikyur» ; p. «cikivas» ; ā.

«cikye» and «cicye» ; p. «cikyāna» v; 2nd fut. p. «ceṣyat» ; 1st fut. «cetā» ;

aor. «acaiṣīt» on iii, 1, 42 and vii, 2, 1; Ved. «cikayām akar», iii, 1, 42 ; 1.

sg. «acaiṣam», 2. sg. «acais» ; 3. pl. «acaiṣur» ; ā. «aceṣṭa» ; Prec.

«ceṣīṣṭa» «cīyāt», vii, 4, 25 ; ind. p. «citvā» &c.; Pass. «cīyate» &c.; fut.

«cāyiṣyate» & «ceṣy-» Cond. «acāyiṣyata» & «aceṣy-» to arrange in order,

heap up, pile up, construct (a sacrificial altar; P., if the priests construct

the altar for another; ā., if the sacrificer builds it for himself) ; to collect,

gather together, accumulate, acquire for one’s self ; to search through

(for collecting; cf. 2. «ci») (); to cover, inlay, set with ; Pass. «cīyate», to

become covered with ; to increase, thrive ( Caus. «cayayati» and

«capay-«, to heap up, gather ; «cāyayati» and «cāpay-» Desid. «cikīṣate»

(also «-ti», vii, 3, 58 to wish to pile up ; «cicīṣati» ( 7-3, 58 ; vi, 4, 16, [ed.

«vivīṣ-«] to wish to accumulate or collect Desid. Caus. (p. «cicīṣayat») to

cause any one to wish to arrange in order Intens. «cecīyate» on

ci Ved. cl.3. («ciketi», fr. «ki» ; Impv. «ciketu» ; Subj. ā. «ciketa»; impf.

«aciket» ; aor. 2. pl. ā. «acidhvam» ; 3. sg. «acait» [fr. 4. «cit» to observe,

perceive (with acc. or gen.) ; to fix the gaze upon, be intent upon ; to

seek for cl.5. «cinoti» (p. «-nvat», ā. «-nvāna») to seek for, investigate,

search through, make inquiries (cf. 1. «ci») Intens. «cekite» see 4. «cit»;

([cf. Lat. ‘scio’.])

ci cl.1. «cayate» (p. «cayamāna») to detest, hate ( iv, 25) ; to revenge,

punish, take vengeance on (acc.), ii, 27, 4; ix, 47, 2 ; ([cf. «apaciti, kāti»;

[characters]. ])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ci I. 5 U. (cinoti, cinute, cikācā-ya, cicye-kye, acaiṣīt-aceṣṭa, cetuṁ, -cita;

caus. cāyayati, cāpayati, also cayayati, capayati, desid. cicīṣati, -cikīṣati)

(1) To collect, gather, accumulate (said to govern two accusatives

being a dvikarmaka root, but this use is very rare in classical literature);

vṛkṣaṁ puṣpāṇi cinvatī.

(2) To gather for oneself, acquire, gain; cicīṣatāṁ

janmavatāmalaghvīṁ bhūtiṁ Ki. 3. 11, 2. 19, Mv. 3. 4.

(3) To search, look out for; Bh. 3. 46.

(4) To pile or heap up, place in a line; parvatāniva te

bhūmāvacairṣuvānarottamān Bk. 15. 76.

(5) To set, inlay, cover or fill with, see cita. —pass. To bear fruit,

grow, increase, thrive, prosper; sicyate cīyate caiva latā puṣpaphalapradā

Pt. 1. 222 bears fruit; cīyate bāliśasyāpi satkṣetrapatitā kṛṣiḥ Mu. 1. 3;

gajahaṁsa tava saiva śubhratā cīyate na ca na cāpacīyate K. P. 10. —II. 3

P. (ciketi) Ved.

(1) To observe, see, perceive.

(2) To look steadfastly upon.

(3) To be intent upon.

(4) To seek for, search, investigate, make inquiries, search through.

—III. 1 A. (cayate)

(1) To detest, hate.

(2) To revenge, take vengeance on. —IV. 1 U. (cāyati-te)

(1) To fear, dread, be afraid of (with acc.).

(2) To respect, honour.

(3) To observe; cf. cāy.

चुद् — cud Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899cud cl.1. «codati, -te» (Subj. «codat»; Impv. «-da, -data, dasva», (2. du.)

«-dethām»; aor. 2. sg. «codīs»; pr. p. see «a-codat»), to impel, incite,

animate ; to bring or offer quickly (as the Soma) ; ā. to hasten Caus.

«codayati», rarely «-te» (Subj. 2. sg. «-yāsi, -yāse»; aor. «acūcudat» ; p.

«codayat»; Pan. «codyamāna»), to sharpen, whet (cf. 3, 5); ix, 50, 1; x,

120, 5; to impel, incite, cause to move quickly, accelerate &c.; (with

«cakṣus») to direct (the eye) towards (loc.) ; to inspire, excite, animate ;

to request, petition, ask, urge on, press or importune with a request &c.;

help on, assist in the attainment of (dat.) ; to bring or offer quickly, vi,

48, 9; vii, 77, 4; to ask for ; to inquire after ; to enjoin, fix, settle ; to

object, criticise ; to be quick ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘cudo’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

cud I. 10 U. (codayati-te, —codita)

(1) To send, direct, throw forward, urge or drive on, push on;

codayāśvān S. 1.

(2) To prompt, inspire, impel, animate, excite; R. 4. 24.

(3) To hasten, accelerate.

(4) To question, ask.

(5) To press with a request.

(6) To put forward, adduce, as an argument or objection.

(7) To enjoin, lay down; Ms. 2. 165.

(8) To request, solicit.

(9) To help on. (10) To bring or offer quickly.

(11) To fix, settle, direct.

(12) To be quick. —II. 1 U. Ved. (codati te)

(1) To impel, incite.

(2) To offer quickly (Soma).

(3) To hasten, be quick.

छिद् — chid Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899chid cl.7. «chinatti, chintte» (Impv. «-nattu»; 2. sg. «-ndhi» [cf. ; 2. du. «-

ntam»; Subj. 1. sg. «-nadai»; Pot. «-ndet» ; cl.9.1. sg. «chinnāmi» ; impf. 2.

sg. «achinad», or «-nas» ; pf. «ciccheda, -cchide»; p. «-cchidvas», vii, 67 ;

aor. «acchidat» or «acchaitsīt» [Subj. «ch-» &c.] ; 2. sg. «chitsi» ; 1. pl.

«chedma» ; ā. «acchitta» and 2. sg. «-tthās» [Subj. «ch-» ; fut. «chetsyati»,

vii, 2, 10 ; ind. p. «chittvā» inf. «chettum»; Pass. «chidyate»; p. see «a-

cchidyamāna»; aor. «acchedi» and «chedi» to cut off, amputate, cut

through, hew, chop, split, pierce &c.; to divide, separate from (abl.;

exceptionally instr. ; to destroy, annihilate, efface, blot out &c.; (in

math.) to divide Pass. to be split or cut, break Caus. «chedayati» (aor.

«acicchidat») to cut off. śṅkhśr. xvii ; to cause to cut off or through f. and

292 Desid. see «cicchitsu»: Intens. «cecchidīti» ( 7-4, 65 , «-dyate» (83 2

; fut. Ist «-ditā», 2, 10 2 ; ([cf. [characters] &c.; Lat. ‘scindo’; Goth.

‘skeida’.])

chid mfn. ifc. ( 3-2, 61) cutting, cutting off. cutting through, splitting,

piercing (cf. «ukha-cchid, keśa-, pakṣa-, marma-, vana-, hṛdaya-«)

mfn. destroying, annihilating, removing (cf. «darpa-, duḥkha-, paṅka-,

bhava-«)

chid m. the divisor, denominator

chid f. the cutting off (with gen.)

chid f. «annihilation of (in comp.)» see «bhava-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

chid 7 U. (chinatti, chiṁtte, ciccheda, acchidat, acchaitsīt, acchitta,

chettuṁ, chinna)

(1) To cut, cut or lop off, hew, mow, tear, pierce, break asunder,

rend, split, divide; nainaṁ chiṁdaṁti śastrāṇi Bg. 2. 23; R. 12. 80; Ms. 4.

69, 70; 9. 276; Y. 2. 302.

(2) To disturb, interrupt (as sleep).

(3) To remove, drive off, destroy, quell, annihilate; tṛṣṇāṁ chiṁddhi

Bh. 2. 77; etanme saṁśayaṁ chiṁddhi matirme saṁpramuhyati Mb;

rāghavo rathamaprāptāṁ tāmāśāṁ ca suradviṣāṁ .

ardhacaṁdramukhairbāṇaiściccheda kadalīsukhaṁ .. R. 12. 96; Ku. 7. 16.

(4) To take away, remove, deprive of; na naḥ kiṁcid chidyate S. B. we

do not lose anything [cf. L. scindo].

chid a. (At the end of comp.) Cutting, dividing, destroying, removing,

splitting &c.; śramacchidāmāśramapādapānāṁ R. 5. 6; paṁkacchidaḥ

phalasya M. 2. 8. —m. The divisor, denominator.

जन् — jan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jan cl.1. ([ and 10. «janati, -te» (Subj. «janat» ; «-nāt» ā. «-nata» impf.

«ajanat» ; p. «janat»), «janayati, -te» (in later language only P. Subj. «-

nayat»; impf. «ajanayat»; aor. «ajījanat»; p. «janayat»; inf. «janayitavai»

xiv), twice cl.3. (Subj. «jajanat» [ ix, 8]; cf. ; pr. «jajanti» aor. ā.

«janiṣṭa»; ā. «ajani» «jajāna»; 3. pl. «jajṇur» &c.; once «jajanur», viii, 97,

10 p. «-jṇivas»; Ved. inf. «janitos», iv, 6, 7 iii; [ 3-4, 6]; Ved. ind. p. «-

nitvī» to generate, beget, produce, create, cause &c.; to produce (a

song of praise, &c.) ; (cl. 10 or Caus.) to cause to be born ,; to assign,

procure cl.4. «jāyate» (ep. also «-ti»; impf. «ajāyata»; pr. p. «jayamāna»;

fut. «janiṣyate»; aor. «aaniṣṭa»; 1. [ viii, 6, 10] and 3. sg. «ajani»; 3 «sani»

«jani», i, 141, 1; «jāni», 7, 36; perf. «jajṇe», 2. sg. «-jṇiṣe» 3. pl. «-jṇire», p.

«-jṇāna») and ([]) cl, 2. (?) ā. (2. sg. «jaṇiṣe», 2. pl. «-jiṇre, -niṣvā» [vi,

15, 18], «-nidhvam» cf. ; impf. 3. p. «ajṇata» [aor. cl.1.ā. (impf. 3. pl.

«ajanatā» ; p. «janamāna», viii, 99, 3) to be born or produced, come into

existence &c.; to grow (as plants, teeth) iv f. ; to be born as, be by birth

or nature (with double nom.) ; to be born or destined for (acc.) (v.l.

«jayate» for «jāy-«); to be born again Introd. 14; to become, be &c.; to

be changed into (dat.) ; to take place, happen ; to be possible or

applicable or suitable ; to generate, produce Pass. «janyate», to be born

or produced Desid. «jijaniṣati», 42 Intens. «jaṇjanyate» and «jājāy-«, 43

(cf. ; ([cf. [characters] Lat. ‘gigno’, ‘(g) nascor’; Hib. ‘genim’, «I beget,

generate.»])

jan «jan-» m. ( 6-4, 53) a progenitor, father, [characters] (Lat.) «genitor»

; («janitrī») f. a mother, [characters] ‘genitrix’

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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jan 4 A. (jāyate, jajñe, ajāni-ajaniṣṭa, janituṁ, jāta; pass. janyate or

jāyate)

(1) To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); ajani te vai

putraḥ Ait. Br.; Ms. 1. 9; 3. 39, 41; prāṇādvāyurajāyata Rv. 10. 90. 12;

Ms. 10. 8; 3. 76; 1. 75.

(2) To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.).

(3) To be, become, happen, take place, occur; aniṣṭādiṣṭalābhe’pi na

gatirjāyate śubhā H. 1. 6; raktanetro’jāni kṣaṇāt Bk. 6. 32; Y. 3. 226; Ms.

1. 99.

(4) To be possible, applicable &c.

(5) To be born or destined for anything. —Caus’ (janayati)

(1) To give birth, beget, cause, produce.

(2) To cause, occasion.

जागृ — jāgṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jāgṛ cl.2. «-garti» (cf. cl.1. «-garati» sg. irr. «-gṛmi», 6518; 3. pl. «jāgrati»

&c. [ 6-1, 189 ; Impv. «-gṛhi, -gṛtāt, -gṛtam, -gṛta»; Subj. «-garat»; Pot.

«-gṛyāt», or «-griy-» impf. «ajāgar» [ x, 104, 9]; p. «jāgrat»; rarely ā.

«jāgramāṇa» ; pf. Ved. «jāgāra» [ sg. «-gara» [ x, 149, 5], p. «-gṛvas» [see

s.v.]; pf. class. [ 3-1, 38; vii, 3, 85; but cf. vi, 1, 8 «jajāgāra» or

«jāgaraṁ-cakāra»; fut. 2nd «jāgriṣyati» &c. [ā. fut. 1st «-ritā» 1 ; aor.

«ajāgarīt», vii, 2, 5; Pass. impers. «ajagāri», 3, 85; Prec. «jāgaryāt», iii, 4,

104 to be awake or watchful &c.; to awake ; to watch over, be attentive

to or intent on, care for, provide, superintend (with loc. or loc. with

«adhi») &c. (with acc. ; (said of fire) to go on burning Prāyaśc. i, 5; to be

evident ; to look on Caus. (aor. 2. and 3. sg. «ajīgar» Impv. «jigṛtam, —

ta») to awaken ; «jāgarayati», ( 7-3, 85; aor. Pass. impers. «aṇāgari» or

«-gāri» id. ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘vigilo’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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jāgṛ 2 P. (jāgārti, jāgarita)

(1) To be awake, be watchful or attentive (fig. also);

so’pasarpairjajāgāra yathākālaṁ svapannapi R. 17. 51; gurau

ṣāḍguṇyaciṁtāyāmārye cārye ca jāgrati Mu. 7. 13; to sit up during the

night; yā niśā sarvabhūtānāṁ tasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī Bg. 2. 69.

(2) To be roused from sleep, awake.

(3) To foresee, be provident.

जि — ji Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ji cl.1. «jayati, -te» (impf. «ajayat»; aor. «ajaiṣīt», Ved. «ajais», 1. pl.

«ajaiṣma, jeṣma», 2. sg. «jes» and ā. «jeṣi» Subj. «jeṣat, -ṣas, -ṣāma» ;

aor. ā. «ajeṣṭa»; fut. 1st. «jetā» &c.; fut. 2nd. «jeṣyati», x, 34, 6 &c.; pf.

«jigāya» [ 7-3, 57], «jigetha, jigyur»; p. «jigīvas» [«-givas» ; acc. pl. «-

gyuṣas»] &c.; Inf. «jiṣe», i, 111, 4 and 112, 12; «jetave» ; Class. «jetum»:

Pass. «jīyate, ajīyata» [ xi, 65], «ajāyi, jāyiṣyate»; for «jīyate» and cl.9.

«jināti» see «jyā») to win or acquire (by conquest or in gambling), conquer

(in battle), vanquish (in a game or lawsuit), defeat, excel, surpass &c.

(with «punar», «to reconquer» ; to conquer (the passions), overcome or

remove (any desire or difficulties or diseases) &c.; to expel from (abl.) ;

to win anything (acc.) from (acc.), vanquish anyone (acc.) in a game

(acc.) ; to be victorious, gain the upper hand ; often pr. in the sense of an

Impv. «long live!» «glory to» &c.: Caus. «jāpayati» ( 6-1, 48 and vii, 3, 36)

to cause to win ; (aor. 2. pl, «ajījipata» and «ajījap-«) ; to conquer (aor.

«ajījayat»): Pass. «jāpyate», to be made to conquer Desid. «jigīṣati, -te» (

7-3, 57; p. «-ṣat, -ṣamāṇa») to wish to win or obtain or conquer or excel

&c.; (ā.) to seek for prey Intens. «jejīyate»

ji mfn. conquering

ji m. a Piśāca

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ji 1 P. (Atm. when preceded, by parā and vi) (jayati, jigāya jigye ajaiṣīt-

ajeṣṭa, jetuṁ, jita)

(1) To conquer, defeat, overcome, vanquish, subjugate; jayati

tulāmadhirūḍho bhāsvānapi jaladapaṭalāni Pt. 1. 330; Bk. 15. 76, 19. 2.

(2) To surpass, excel; garjitānaṁtarāṁ vṛṣṭiṁ saubhāgyena jigāya sā

Ku. 2. 53; R. 3. 34; Ghaṭ. 22; Śi. 1. 19.

(3) To win (by conquest, in gambling or in a law-suit), acquire by

conquest; prāgajīyata ghṛṇā tato mahī R. 11. 65; (where ji means ‘to

conquer’ also); Ms. 7. 96.

(4) To curb, restrain, control, conquer (as passions).

(5) To be victorious, be supreme or pre-eminent (generally used in

benedictory stanzas or salutations); jayatu jayatu mahārājaḥ (in

dramas). sa jayati pariṇaddhaḥ śaktibhiḥ śaktināthaḥ Mal. 5. 1;

jitamuḍupatinā namaḥ surebhyaḥ Ratn. 1. 5; Bh. 2. 24; Gīt. 1. 1.

(6) To convict.

(7) To overcome or get the better of (as a disease &c.).

(8) To expect from (with abl.). —Caus. (jāpayati) To cause to win or

conquer. —Desid. (jigīṣati) To wish to win, acquire or excel, to vie with,

emulate, to seek for; calati nayānna jigīṣatāṁ hi cetaḥ Ki. 10. 29. —WITH

adhi to conquer, defeat, vanquish; Bk. 19. 2.

जीव् — jīv Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jīv cl.1. «jīvati» (ep. also ā.; Subj. «-vāti» ; «-vāt» ; p. «jīvat»; aor. «ajivīt;

jīvīt» ; pf. «jijīva»; fut. «jīviṣyati»; Prec. «-vyāsam, -vyāsma» ; inf. «jīvitum»,

xiv &c.; Ved. «-vāse» ; «jīvitavaī». to live, be or remain alive &c.; to

revive ; (with «punar») ; to live by (instr.; exceptionally loc., v, 1059f.)

&c.: Caus. «jīvayati» (ep. also ā.; aor. «aījijvat» or «ajijīv-» to make alive,

restore to life, vivify &c.; to support life, keep alive &c.; to nourish, bring

up, i, xiii ; to shout «»jīva»» (i.e. long live!) cxxiv, 113; «jīvāpayati» (cf. «-

pita») to restore to life Desid. «jijīviṣati» (ā to wish to live &c.; to seek a

livelihood, wish to live by (instr.) ; «jujyūṣati» id. ; cf. «jijyūṣita»; ([cf. Lat.

‘vivo’; Lith. ‘gIvenu’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

jīv 1 P. (jīvati, jīvita)

(1) To live, be alive; yasmiñjīvati jīvaṁti bahavaḥ so’tra jīvati Pt. 1.

23; mā jīvan yaḥ parāvajñāduḥkhadagdhopi jīvati Śi. 2. 45; Ms. 2. 235.

(2) To revive, come to life.

(3) To live by, subsist on, make a livelihood by (with instr.);

satyānṛtaṁ tu vāṇijyaṁ tena caivāpi jīvyate Ms. 4. 6; vipaṇena ca

jīvaṁtaḥ 3. 152, 162; 11. 26; sometimes used with acognate accusative

in this sense; ajihmāmaśaṭhāṁ śuddhāṁ jīvedbrāhmaṇajīvikāṁ Ms. 4. 11.

(4) (Fig.) To live or prey upon, depend upon as one’s source of

existence (with loc.); caurāḥ pramatte jīvaṁti vyādhiteṣu cikitsakāḥ .

pramadāḥ kāmayāneṣu yajamāneṣu yācakāḥ .. rājā vivadamāneṣu nityaṁ

mūrkheṣu paṁḍitāḥ Mb. —Caus.

(1) To restore to life.

(2) To nourish, nurture, bring up.

जुर् — jur Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jur («jṝ») cl.4.6. P. «jūryati» ( «jūr» ā. «-te» «jūryat» and «jurat»; pf. p.

«jujurvas») to become old or decrepit, decay, perish ; to cause to grow

old or perish, i, 182, 3; cf. «a-jurya».

jur m. an old man (),ii, 14, 3 (? see 2. «jū»)

jur mfn. «growing old» see «a-, amā-, ṛta-, dhiyā-» and «sanā-jur».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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jur 6. 4. P. (jurati, jūryati) Ved.

(1) To decay, become or grow old, waste away, perish.

jur m. An old man.

जुष् — juṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899juṣ cl.6.ā. «-ṣate» (also P. [«-ṣat, ajuṣat»] &c.; Subj. «-ṣāte»; Pot. «-

ṣeta»; 3. pl. «-ṣerata» ; Impv. «-ṣatām»; impf. «ajuṣata», ii, 37, 4; 1. sg.

«ajuṣe» ; p. «-ṣamāṇa») cl.3.P.irr. «jujoṣati» (Subj. and p. «jujoṣat»; cf. 2;

Impv. 2. pl. «-juṣṭana» cl.1. P. «joṣati» (Subj. «joṣat»; — aor. p. «juṣāṇa»;

3. pl. «ajuṣran», i, 71, 1; 2. sg. «joṣi», ii, iv; 3. sg. «joṣiṣat», ii, 35, 1 [cf.

on ; pf. «jujoṣa, -juṣe»; p. «-juṣvas», generally «-ṣāṇa»; ind. p. «juṣṭvī» to

be pleased or satisfied or favourable &c.; to like, be fond of delight in

(acc. or gen.), enjoy (with «tanvām» or «-vas», «to be delighted», iii, 1, 1;

x, 8, 3) &c.; to have pleasure in granting anything (acc.) to (loc.) ; to

have pleasure in (dat.), resolve to (Ved. Inf.), i, 167, 5; iv, 24, 5 ; to give

pleasure to (loc.) ; to choose for (dat.) ; to devote one’s self to (acc.),

practise, undergo, suffer ; to delight in visiting, frequent, visit, inhabit,

enter (a carriage &c.) ; to afflict iii: Caus. ā. (Subj. 2. sg. «joṣayāse») to

like, love, behave kindly towards (acc.), cherish ; to delight in, approve of

(acc.), choose ; (P. cf. ; ([cf. [characters]; Zd. ‘zaoSa’; Hib. ‘gus’; Goth.

‘kiusu’; Lat. ‘gus-tus’.])

juṣ mfn. ifc. liking, fond of, devoted to (once with acc. ; cf. «nikṛtiṁ-«)

mfn. dwelling in

mfn. visiting, approaching

mfn. having, showing Introd. 5l; xv, 4 169

mfn. similar

juṣ mfn. cf. «sa-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

juṣ I. 6 A. (juṣate-juṣṭa)

(1) To be pleased or satisfied.

(2) To be favourable or propitious.

(3) To like, be found of, take pleasure or delight in, enjoy; sattvaṁ

juṣāṇasya bhavāya dehināṁ Bhag.

(4) To devote or attach oneself to, practise, undergo, suffer;

paulastyo’juṣata śucaṁ vipannavaṁdhuḥ Bk. 17. 112.

(5) To frequent, visit, inhabit; jupraṁte parvataśreṣṭhamṛṣayaḥ

parvasaṁdhiṣu Mb.

(6) To enter, seat oneself, resort to; rathaṁ ca jujuṣe śubhaṁ Bk. 14.

95.

(7) To choose.

(8) To enjoy, possess, have; Māl. 5. 18.

(9) To happen to. (10) To delight in granting or performing.

(11) To show oneself favourable towards. —Caus.

(1) To like, be fond of.

(2) To fondle, cherish.

(3) To delight in, approve of, rejoice at. —II. 1 P., 10 U. (joṣati,

joṣayati-te)

(1) To reason, think.

(2) To investigate, examine.

(3) To hurt.

(4) To be satisfied.

juṣ a. (At the end of comp.)

(1) Liking, enjoying, taking delight in; Bh. 3. 103.

(2) Visiting, approaching, going to, taking, amusing, resorting to &c.;

paralokajuṣāṁ R. 8. 85; rajojuṣe janmani K. 1.

जू — jū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jū (cf. «jinv»), cl, i. ā., 9. P. «javate, junāti» ( «ju» cl.1.P. «javati» v.l.; a

Sautra root ; Subj. 2. sg. «junās»; aor Subj. «jūjuvat»; pf. 3. pl. «jūjuvur»)

to, press forwards, hurry on, be quick ; to impel quickly, urge or drive on,

incite ; to scare ; to excite, promote, animate, inspire Caus. aor.

«ajījavat» Caus. Desid. «jijavayiṣati» ; cf. «pra-«.

jū mfn. ( 3-2, 177 and 178 2) quick, speedy, (m.) courser

jū mfn. (ii, 14, 3? acc. pl.; see 2. «jur»)

mfn. inciting, driving ,

jū f. speed

jū f. the atmosphere

jū f. a female goblin

jū f. Sarasvatī

jū f. a spot on the forehead (?) of horses and oxen

jū f. cf. «apī-, kaśo-, dhī-, nabho-, mano-, yātu-, vayo-, vasū-, viśva-,

sadyo-, sanā-«, and «senā-jū».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

jū 1 U., 9 P. (javati-te, junāti)

(1) To press or hurry on, move on quickly.

(2) To impel quickly, urge or drive on.

(3) To excite, animate, inspire.

jū a. Ved. Quick, speedy.

जूर्व् — jūrv Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jūrv (cf. 2. «jūr») cl.1.P. (p. «jūrvat») to consume by heat, singe ( ii); to

hurt ( xv); cf. «ni-» «saṁ-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

jūrv 1 P. (jūrvati) Ved.

(1) To burn.

(2) To hurt, injure, kill.

जॄ — jṝ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jṝ (cf. «jur») cl.1.P. (3. pl. «jaranti»; Impv. 2. du. «jaratam»; p. «jarat» see

s.v.) to make old or decrepit ; to cause to grow old, vii, 67, 10; (1. «jṛ»)

to humiliate cl.4.P. «jīryati» ( &c.; also ā. «-te»; p. «jīryat», rarely «-

yamāṇa»; once cl.1. ā. Subj. 3. pl. «jaranta» ; cl.9. «jṛṇāti» ; cl.10.

«jārayati», xxxiv, 9; pf. «jajāra», AX, x, 8, 26 &c.; once «jāgāra», v, 19, 10;

3. pl. «jajarur» and «jerur» ; aor. «ajarat» and «ajārīt», iii, 1, 38; Subj. 3. pl.

«jāriṣur» ; fut. 1st «jaritā» and «-rītā» ; ind. p. «-ritvā» and «-rītvā» to grow

old, become decrepit, decay, wear out, wither, be consumed, break up,

perish &c.; to be dissolved or digested ; Bhaṭt.: Caus. «jarayati» (ep. also

ā. «-te»; p. «-rayat» [once, «jar-«, i, 124, 10] &c.) to make old, wear out,

consume &c.; to digest ; to cause to be digested

jṝ (= «gṝ») cl.1.ā. «jarate» (p. «jaramāṇa») to crackle (as fire) ; ( iii, 14)

to call out to, address, invoke, praise ; cf. [characters].

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

jṝ I. 1. 4. 9. P., 10 U. (jarati, jīryati, jṛṇāti, jārayati-te, jajāra, jārayāmāsa,

ajarat ajārīt, ajījarat, -jari-rī-tuṁ, jīrṇa or jārita)

(1) To grow old, wear out, wither away, decay; jīryaṁte jīryataḥ keśā

daṁtā jīryaṁti jīryataḥ . jīryataścakṣuṣī śrotre tṛṣṇaikā taruṇāyate Pt. 5.

16; Bk. 9. 41.

(2) To perish, be consumed (fig. also); ajārīdiva ca prajñā balaṁ

śokāttathā’jarat Bk. 6. 30; jerurāśā daśāsyasya 14. 112.

(3) To be dissolved or digested; jīrṇamannaṁ praśaṁsīyāt Chāṇ. 79;

udare cājarannanye Bk. 15. 150.

(4) To break up or fall to pieces. —Caus. (ja-jā-ra yati)

(1) To make old, wear out, consume.

(2) To cause to be digested; to digest. —II. 1 A. (jarate) Ved.

(1) To move, approach, come near.

(2) To crackle (as fire).

(3) To roar.

(4) To call out to, invoke, praise.

ज्या — jyā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899jyā (cf. «ji») cl.9.P. «jināti» (Pot. «-nīyāt»; p. «-nat»; pf. «jijyau»; fut.

«jyāsyati» ; ind p. «-jyāya», 42) Ved. to overpower, oppress, deprive any

one (acc.) of property (acc.) &c.; (derived fr. «jyāyas», «senior») to

become old cl.4. ā. «jīyate» or Pass. «-yate», Ved. to be oppressed or

treated badly, be deprived of property (or everything, «sarva-jyānim» vii)

&c.: Caus. «jyāpayati», to call any one old 46: Desid. (p. «jijyāsat») to

wish to overpower Intens. «jejīyate» ; cf. «pari-«; [characters].

jyā f. = [characters] see «parama-yā»

f. excessive demand

jyā f. a bow-string, [characters] &c.

jyā f. (in geom.) the chord of an arc

jyā f. = «jyārdha»

jyā f. cf. «adhi-, uj-, parama-, vi-» and «sa-jya»

jyā f. «eka-, krama-, krānti-«.

jyā f. the earth

f. a mother

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

jyā I. 9 P. (jināti)

(1) To overpower, oppress.

(2) To grow old.

(3) A. (jīyate) To be oppressed.

jyā

(1) A bow-string; viśrāmaṁ labhatāmidaṁ ca

śithilajyābaṁdhamasmaddhanuḥ S. 2. 6; R. 3. 59, 11. 15; 12. 104.

(2) The chord of an arc.

(3) The earth.

(4) A mother.

(5) Overpowering force or strength.

(6) Excessive demand, importunity.

तंस् — taṁs Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899taṁs (cl. 1. P. «-sati», to decorate ; ā. «-sate» [aor. «ataṁsiṣṭa»] to

decorate one’s self ; pf. «tatasre») «to move», pour out (fig. a wish)

Caus. «taṁsayati» (cl. 10. «to decorate» ; impf. «ataṁsayat»), to draw to

and fro «tantasyati», «to afflict» or «to be distressed» (cf. «vi-taṁs») g.

«kaṇḍv-ādi»; ([fr. «tan»?; cf. «tasara»; Goth. ‘at-pinsan’; Old Germ.

‘dinsan’, «to draw.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

taṁs I. 1 A. Ved. (taṁsate)

(1) To shake.

(2) To pour out.

(3) To beg, request. —II. 1 P., 10 U. (taṁsati, taṁsayatite) To

decorate.

तक् — tak Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tak cl.2. «-kti» (cl. 1. «kati» [«to laugh» or «to bear» ; inf. «-kitum» to rush

along ; ([cf. «niṣ-ṭak, pari-takana, pra-takta»; Lith. ‘teku’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tak 1. 2. P. Ved. (takati, takti)

(1) To fly (as an arrow or bird), rush at or upon

(2) To laugh at, deride, scoff

(3) To bear, endure.

tak 1 P. (taṁkati, taṁkita)

(1) To endure, bear.

(2) To laugh.

(3) To live in distress.

तक्ष् — takṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899takṣ cl.1.P. «-kṣati» (ep. also ā. impf. «takṣat, atakṣat» ; rarely cl.2.3. pl.

«takṣati» [ 7-1, 39 ; impf. [aor.?] «atakṣma», 2. pl. «ataṣṭa» ; once cl.5.

[«takṣṇoti» Pot. «-kṣṇuyur» ; see also «apa-«; aor, «atakṣīt» ; 3. pl. «-

kṣiṣur» ; Subj. «takṣiṣat» [ 3-4, 7 ; pf. «tatakṣa», once ā. «-kṣe» pl. «-

kskur» , once «takṣur», ii, 19, 8; 2. du. «takṣathur», x, 39, 4; pr. p. f.

«takṣatī», i, 164, 41; pf. Pass, p. «taṣṭa» see s.v.) to form by cutting,

plane, chisel, chop &c.; to cut, split ; to fashion, form (out of wood &c.),

make, create ; to form in the mind, invent ; to make (any one young;

double acc.), make able or prepare for (dat.) ; (in math.) to reduce by

dividing ; Lil. &c.; = «tvac» ; to, skin Caus. «takṣayati» (aor. «atatakṣat»)

; cf. «tvakṣ». 2. Taksh, «paring»; see «kāṣṭha-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

takṣ 1. 5. P. (takṣati, takṣṇoti, taṣṭa)

(1) To chop, cut off, pare, chisel, slice, split; ātmānaṁ takṣati hyeṣa

vanaṁ paraśunā yathā Mb.; nidhāya takṣyate yatra kāṣṭhe kāṣṭhaṁ sa

udghanaḥ Ak.

(2) To fashion, shape, form (out of wood &c.).

(3) To make, create in general.

(4) To wound, hurt.

(5) To invent, form in the mind.

(6) To make one’s own, appropriate.

(7) To cover.

(8) To peel.

(9) To make thin. —WITH nis

(1) to slice out of.

(2) to form, create.

takṣ a. (At the end of comp.) Paring, cutting &c.; also takṣa.

तन् — tan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tan in comp. for «tad».

tan cl.1.10. «-nati, tānayati», to believe in ; «to assist» or «to afflict with

pain»

tan (= «stan») cl.4. «-nyati» (aor. 2. sg. «tatanas») to resound, roar ;

([cf. [characters] &c.])

tan cl.8.P. ā. «-noti, -nute» (3. pl. «-nvate» [«ā-» and «vi-tanvate» ; Impv.

«-nu» [«ava» and «vi-tanuhi» ; cf. 1 ; «-nuṣva» ; Subj. 2. sg. «-nuthās», v,

79, 9; 1. du. «-navāvahai», i, 170, 4; impf. 3. pl. «atanvata», x, 90, 6 ; pf.

P. «tatāna», once «tāt-» ; 2. sg. «tatantha» [],class. «tenitha» [ 7-2, 64 ; ā.

1. 2. 3. sg. [«ā-«] «tatane, [abhi-]tatniṣe, [vi-]tatne» ; 3. sg. irr. «tate», i,

83, 5; 3. pl. «tatnire» [164, 5 «vi-» «ten-» [iv, 14, 4 («vi-«) &c.; cf. ; aor. P.

«atan» ; «[ā-]atān», 67, 6 ; «[pari-, vi-]atanat» ; «[anv-ā]atāṁsīt» ;

«atānīt» ; «tatanat, [abhi-]-tanāma, -tanan» ; 2. pl. «ataniṣṭa» ; 3. du.

«atāniṣṭām» ; ā. «atata» or «ataniṣṭa, atathās» or «ataniṣṭhās» ; 3. pl.

«atnata» ; «tatananta», i, 52, 11; 1. sg. «atasi» pl. «ataṁsmahi» ; fut. 2nd

«taṁsyate» ; fut. 1st «[vi-]tāyitā» ; p. pr. «tanvat, -vāna»; pf. «tatanvas»;

ind. p. «tatvā, -tvāya, -tatya» ; [«vi-«] «tāya» ; inf. tantum ; Pass. «tāyate»

«-yamāna»] x, 17, 7 &c.; «tanyate» ; aor. «atāyi» to extend, spread, be

diffused (as light) over, shine, extend towards, reach to &c.; to be

protracted, continue, endure ; to stretch (a cord), extend or bend (a

bow), spread, spin out, weave &c.; to emboss ; to prepare (a way for) ;

to direct (one’s way, «gatim») towards ; to propagate (one’s self or one’s

family, «tanūs, tantum») 2386 ; to (spread i.e. to) speak (words) ; to

protract li, 226; to put forth, show, manifest, display, augment &c.

(Pass. to be put forth or extended, increase ; to accomplish, perform (a

ceremony) &c.; to sacrifice, xiii, 2, 5, 2 127; to compose (a literary

work) ; to render (any one thirsty, double acc.) 455: Desid. «titaniṣati, —

taṁsati, -tāṁs-» Intens. «tantanyate, tantanīti», vi, 4, 44 & vii, 4, 85 ;

([cf. [characters] &c.])

tan (only dat, «tane» and instr. «tanā») continuation, uninterrupted

succession ; propagation, offspring, posterity ([«tanvā tanā ca» or

«tmanā tānā» or «tanve tane» («ca»), «for one’s own person and one’s

children»]); («tanā», once «tanā», x, 93, 12) instr. ind. in uninterrupted

succession, one after another, continually ; viii ff.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tan I. 8 U. (tanoti, tanute, tatāna, tene, ata-tā-nīt, tanituṁ, tata; pass.

tanyate or tāyate; desid. titaṁsati, titāṁsati, titaniṣati)

(1) To stretch, extend, lengthen, lengthen out; vāhvoḥ

sakarayostatayoḥ Ak.

(2) To spread, shed, diffuse; Bk. 2. 3, 10. 32, 15. 91; Ku. 2. 33.

(3) To cover, fill; sa tamīṁ tamobhirabhigamya tatāṁ Śi. 9. 23; Ki. 5.

11.

(4) To cause, produce, form, give, grant, bestow; tvayi vimukhe mayi

sapadi sudhānidhirapi tanute tanudāhaṁ Gīt. 4; piturmudaṁ tena tatāna

so’rbhakaḥ R. 3. 25; 7. 7; U. 3. 39; Māl. 9. 43; yo durjanaṁ vaśayituṁ

tanute manīṣāṁ Bv. 1. 95, 10.

(5) To perform, do, accomplish (as a sacrifice); iti kṣitīśo navatiṁ

navādhikāṁ mahākratūnāṁ mahanīyaśāsanaḥ .

samārurukṣurdivamāyuṣaḥ kṣaye tatāna sopānaparaṁparāmiva .. R. 3.

69; Ms. 4. 205.

(6) To compose, write (as a work &c.); as in nāmnāṁ mālāṁ

tanomyahaṁ or tanute ṭīkāṁ.

(7) To stretch or bend (as a bow).

(8) To spin out, weave.

(9) To propagate, or be propagated. (10) To continue, last.

(11) To protract, prolong, augment.

(12) To emboss.

(13) To prepare (a way for).

(14) To direct one’s way towards. [cf. L. tendo]. —II. 1 P., 10 U.

(tanati, tānayati-te)

(1) To confide, trust, place confidence in.

(2) To help, assist, aid.

(3) To pain or afflict with disease.

(4) To be harmless.

(5) To sound.

tan f. Ved.

(1) Continuation, diffusion.

(2) Offspring, posterity.

तम् — tam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tam cl.4. «tāmyati» ( 7-3, 74; rarely ā. ; pf. «tatāma» ; aor. Pass. «atami»

; Ved. inf. «tamitos», with «ā» preceding, «till exhaustion» ; pf. Pass. p. «-

tānta» q.v.) to gasp for breath (as one suffocating), choke, be suffocated,

faint away, be exhausted, perish, be distressed or disturbed or perplexed

(«na mā tamat» [aor. subj.] «may I not be exhausted») &c.; to stop (as

breath), become immovable or stiff ; to desire (cf. 2. «-ma, -mata»)

Caus. «tamayati» (aor. Pass. «atāmi» to suffocate, deprive of breath ; cf.

«a-tameru».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tam 4 P. (tāmyati, tāṁta)

(1) To choke, be suffocated.

(2) To be exhausted or fatigued; lalitaśirīṣapuṣpahananairapi tāmyati

yat Māl. 5. 31.

(3) To be distressed (in body or mind), be uneasy or pained, pine,

waste away; praviśati muhuḥ kuṁjaṁ guṁjanmuhurbahu tāmyati Gīt. 5;

gāḍhotkaṁṭhā lalitalulitairaṁgakaistāmyatīti Māl. 1. 15, 9. 33; tṛṣṇe

mudhā tāmyasi Mu. 3. 1; Amaru. 7.

(4) To stop, become immoveable.

(5) To wish, desire. —Caus. (tamayati) To suffocate, choke.

तिज् — tij Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tij cl.1. «tejate» («-ti» ; p. «tejamāna»; Ved. inf. «tejase») to be or

become sharp («tetijāna», «sharp» ; to sharpen, x, 138, 5: Caus.

«tejayati» id. ; to stir up, excite Desid. «titikṣate» ( 3-1, 5; 1. pl. «-

kṣmahe» ; fut. «-kṣiṣyate» ; ep. also P. e.g. p. «-kṣat» iii) «to desire to

become sharp or firm», to bear with firmness, suffer with courage or

patience, endure viii &c.: Intens. «tetikte» ( 7-4, 65; p. «-tijāna» see

above ) to sharpen ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘dis-tinguo’, &c.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tij I. 1 A. (Strictly desid. of tij) (titikṣate, titikṣita)

(1) To endure, bear.

(2) To put up with, suffer patiently or with courage; titikṣamāṇasya

pareṇa niṁdāṁ M. 1. 17; tāṁstitikṣasva bhārata Bg. 2. 14; Mv. 2. 12; Ki.

13. 68; Ms. 6. 47. —II. 10 U. or Caus. (tejayati-te, tejita)

(1) To sharpen, whet; kusumacāpamatejayadaṁśubhiḥ R. 9. 39.

(2) To stir up, excite, instigate.

तु — tu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tu cl.2. («tauti» ; fut. 2nd «totā» or «tavitā» to have authority, be strong

(pf. «tūtāva» cf. ; to go ; to injure Caus. (aor. «tūtot», 2. sg. «-tos») to

make strong or efficient ; cf. «ut-, saṁ-; tavas», &c., «tīvra»; [Zd. ‘tav’,

«to be able»; Lat. ‘tumour’, ‘tueri’, ‘totus’.]

tu (never found at the beginning of a sentence or verse; metrically also

«tū» ; cf. pray! I beg, do, now, then, Lat. ‘dum’ used (esp. with the

Imper.) ; but (also with «eva» or «vai» following) &c.; and ; or, i, 68; xi,

202; often incorrectly written for «nu» ; sometimes used as a mere

expletive

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tu 2 P. (tauti and tavīti)

(1) To have authority or power, to be strong.

(2) To get, attain.

(3) To thrive, increase, become full.

(4) To go, move.

(5) To injure, hurt, strike.

tu ind. (Never used at the beginning of a sentenec, but usually after the

first word)

(1) An adversative particle meaning ‘but’, ‘on the contrary’, ‘on the

other hand’, ‘nevertheless’; sa sarveṣāṁ sukhānāmaṁtaṁ yayau . ekaṁ

tu sutamukhadarśanasukhaṁ na lebhe K. 59; viparyaye tu piturasyāḥ

samīpanayanamavasthitameva S. 5; (in this sense tu is often added to

kiṁ and paraṁ, and kiṁtu and paraṁtu are, unlike tu, always used at the

beginning of a sentence).

(2) And now, on one’s part, and; ekadā tu pratīhārī samupasṛtyābravīt

K. 8; rājā tu tāmāryāṁ śrutvā’bravīt 12.

(3) As to, as regards, as for; pravartyatāṁ brāhmaṇānuddiśya pākaḥ .

caṁdroparāgaṁ prati tu kenāpi vipralabdhāsi Mu. 1; Māl. 8. 4.

(4) It sometimes marks a difference (bheda) or superior quality;

mṛṣṭaṁ payo mṛṣṭataraṁ tu dugdhaṁ G. M.

(5) Sometimes it is used as an emphatic particle; bhīmastu

pāṁḍavānāṁ raudraḥ G. M.

(6) And sometimes it is used as a mere expletive; nirarthakaṁ tu

hītyādi pūraṇaikaprayojanaṁ Chandr. 2. 6.

तुज् — tuj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tuj f. (only acc. «-jam» dat. «-je») = «tuc», iii-v. 1.

tuj cl.6. (3.du. ā. «-jete»; p. P. «-jat»; inf. «jase» and «tuje»; Pass. p. «-

jyamāna»), and «tuṇj» (3. pl. P. «-janti» ā. «-jate»; p. «-jāna, tuṇjāna», and

«tuṇjamāna»), to strike, hit, push ; to press out («»tuṇjati», to give» ; ā. to

flow forth, iii, 1, 16; to instigate, incite, i, iii; Pass. to be vexed, i, 11, 5:

cl.1. «tojati», to hurt : Caus. (p. «tujayat»; aor. Pot. «tutujyāt», p.

«tūtujāna» q.v.) to promote ; to move quickly. vii, 104, 7; «tuṇjayati», «to

speak» or «to shine» ; «tuṇj-» or «tojayati», to hurt, xxxii, 30; to be strong

; to give or take ; to abide ; cf. «ā-tuji». 3.

tuj mfn. urging

tuj f. (only instr. «-jā») shock, impulse, assault

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tuj 1 P. (tojati) To hurt, injure.

tuj f. Ved.

(1) Shock.

(2) Pressure.

(3) Assault.

तुन्द् — tund Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tund cl.1. «-dati», to be active (v.l.); cf. «ni-tud».
तुर्व् — turv Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899turv (cf. 1. «tur») cl.1.P. (2. sg. «tūrvasi» du. Impv. «-vatam»; p. «tūrvat»)

to overpower, excel (inf. «turvaṇe», vi, viii, x); to cause to overpower,

help to victory, save, vi, viii; cf. «pra-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

turv 1 P. (tu-tū-rvati) Ved.

(1) To injure, hurt, kill; vṛtraṁ yādiṁdra tūrvasi Rv. 8. 99. 6.

(2) To excel.

(3) To overpower.

(4) To save.

तुश् — tuś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tuś cl.1. «tośate», to drip, trickle, ix.

tuś (= «tuṣ») cl.1. «tośate» (p. «tośamāna») to be satisfied or pleased

with (instr.) ; to appease

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tuś Ved. 1 A. (tośate)

(1) To strike, hurt, kill.

(2) To be pressed out or extracted.

(3) To trickle.

तॄ — tṝ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tṝ cl.1.P. (rarely ā.) «tarati» (Subj. «tarat» impf. «atarat», p. «tarat» inf.

«taradhyai, -rīṣani» cl.5. «tarute» (x, 76, 2; Pot. 1. pl. «turyāma», v f.)

cl.3. «titarti» (; p. nom. pl. «titratas» ; Pot. «tuturyāt», v f. viii), with

prepositions Ved. chiefly cl.6. P. ā. («tirate» Subj. «tirāti» impf. «atirat», p.

«tirat» inf. «tiram, tire» ; -aor. «atārīt», i, vii; 1. pl. «-riṣma» i, vii, «-rima»

viii, 13, 21; «taruṣante» v, «-ta» i, «-ṣema» vii [cf. ; ā. and Pass. «-tāri» ; P.

«atārṣīt» ; «-ṣam» ; pf. «tatāra» &c.; 3. pl. «titirur», i f.; «teritha, -ratur» ;

p. «titirvas» gen. «tataruṣas» ; fut. «tariṣyati, -rīṣ-, taritā, -rītā» [cf. «pra-

tar-«] ; «tarutā» ; Prec. «tīryāt, tariṣīṣṭa» ; inf. «tartum» ; «-rīt-» iv f. «-rit-»

; ind. p. «tīrtvā» ; «-tūrya» see «vi-«) to pass across or over, cross over (a

river), sail across &c.; to float, swim lxxx, 14 ; to get through, attain an

end or aim, live through (a definite period), study to the end &c.; to fulfil,

accomplish, perform i f.; to surpass, overcome, subdue, escape &c.; to

acquire, gain, viii, 100, 8 ; ā. to contend, compete ; to carry through or

over, save, vii, 18, 6 Caus. «tārayati» (p. «-rayat») to carry or lead over or

across &c.; to cause to arrive at ; to rescue, save, liberate from (abl.)

&c.: Desid. «titīrṣati» (also «titariṣati, -rīṣ-» ; p. ā. «titīrṣamāṇa» to wish

to cross or reach by crossing iv: Intens. «tartarīti» (2. du. «-rīthas»; p.

gen. «tarilratas» [ 7-4, 65]; see also «vi-; tātarti», 92 to reach the end by

passing or running or living through ; ([cf. «tara, tiras, tīrṇa»; Lat. ‘termo’,

‘trans’; Goth. ‘thairh’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tṝ 1 P. (tarati, tatāra, atārīt, tarirī-ṣyati, tīrṇa)

(1) To cross over, cross; kenoḍupena paralokanadīṁ tariṣye Mk. 8.

23; sa tīrtvā kapiśāṁ R. 4. 38; Ms. 4. 77.

(2)

(a) To cross over, traverse (as a way); Ku. 7. 48; Me. 19.

(b) To sail across, navigate (as a river).

(3) To float, swim; śilā tariṣyatyudake na parṇaṁ Bk. 12. 77.

(4)

(a) To get over, surmount, overcome, overpower; dhīrā hi

taraṁtyāpadaṁ K. 175; kṛcchraṁ mahattīrṇa. R. 14. 6; Pt. 4. 1; Bg. 18.

58; Ms. 11. 34.

(b) To subdue, destroy, become master of.

(5) To go to the end of, master completely; R. 3. 30.

(6) To fulfil, accomplish, perform (as a promise); daivāttīrṇapratijñaḥ

Mu. 4. 12.

(7) To be saved or rescued, escape from; gāvo varṣabhayāttīrṇā

vayaṁ tīrṇā mahābhayāt Hariv.

(8) To acquire, gain.

(9) To move forward rapidly. (10) To fill completely, pervade.

(11) To live through (a definite period).

(12) To deliver, liberate from.

(13) To strive together, compete. —Pass. (tīryate) To be crossed &c.

—Caus. (tārayati-te)

(1) To carry or lead over.

(2) To cause to arrive at.

(3) To save, rescue, deliver, liberate. —Desid. (titīrṣati. titariṣati,

titarīṣati) To wish to cross &c.; dorbhyāṁ titīrṣati taraṁgavatībhujaṁgaṁ

K. P. 10.

त्यज् — tyaj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tyaj cl.1. «-jati» (metrically also «-te»; pf. Ved. «tityāja», Class. «tat-» ;

«tatyaja» ; fut. «tyakṣyati» ; «tyajiṣy-» ; aor. «atyāhṣīt»; inf. «tyaktum») to

leave, abandon, quit &c.; to leave a place, go away from &c.; to let go,

dismiss, discharge ; to give up, surrender, resign, part from, renounce 1

&c. («tanum» or «deham» or «kalevaram», «to abandon the body, die»

&c.; «prāṇān» or «śvāsam» or «jīvitam», «to give up breath or life, risk or

lose one’s life» &c.); P. ā. to shun, avoid, get rid of, free one’s self from

(any passion &c.) &c.; to give away, distribute, offer (as a sacrifice or

oblation to a deity; «tyajate» etymologically = [characters] ) &c.; to set

aside, leave unnoticed, disregard ; (ind. p. «tyaktvā») to except ; Pass.

«tyajyate», to be abandoned by, get rid of (instr.) Caus. «tyājayati» (aor.

«atityajat» to cause anyone to quit ; to cause anyone to give up lxxxiii,

34; to expel, turn out, xx, 126; to cause any one to lose, deprive of

(instr.) ; to empty the body by evacuations Desid. «tityakṣati», to be

about to lose (one’s life, «prāṇān»)

tyaj mfn. ifc. leaving, abandoning

mfn. giving up, offering

tyaj mfn. cf. «tanu-, tanū-, su-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tyaj 1 P. (tyajati, tatyāja, atyākṣīt, tyakṣyati, tyakta)

(1) To leave (in all senses), abandon, quit, go away from; vartma

bhānostyajāśu Me. 39; Ms. 6. 77, 9. 177; S. 5. 26.

(2) To let go, dismiss, discharge; Bk. 6. 122.

(3) To give up, renounce, resign, surrender; Bh. 3. 16; Ms. 2. 95, 6.

33; Bg. 6. 24, 16. 21.

(4) To shun, avoid.

(5) To get rid of, free oneself from; Bg. 2. 3.

(6) To set aside, disregard; ta ime’vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁstyaktvā

dhanāni ca Bg. 1. 33.

(7) To except.

(8) To distribute, give away; kṛtaṁ (saṁcayaṁ) āśvayuje tyajet Y. 3.

47; Ms. 6. 15.

(9) To shoot off. —Caus.

(1) To cause to give up &c., to deprive (a person) of anything.

(2) To expel, turn out.

(3) To quit. —Desid. (tityakṣati) To wish to leave &c.

त्रप् — trap Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899trap cl.1. «-pate» (pf. «trepe» to become perplexed, be ashamed Caus.

«trapayati», or «trāp-» id. ; «trap-«, to make perplexed or ashamed, śāntiś.

iv, 15; cf. «apa-, vy-apa-; tṛpala» and «tṛpra» (?).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

trap 1 A. (trapate, trapita) To be ashamed or abashed, be embarrassed;

trapaṁte tīrthīni tvaritamiha yasyāddhṛtividhau G. L. 28. —WITH apa to

turn away or retire through shame; tasmādbalerapatrepe Bk. 14. 84;

yenāpatrapate sādhurasādhustena tuṣyati Mb.

त्रि — tri Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tri m. «trayas» f. nom. acc. «tisras» n. «trīṇi» ([«trī» xi]) 3 &c. («tribhis»

& «tisṛbhis», &c. ; only once «tribhis» [viii, 59, 5] with the later

accentuation, cf. ; gen. «trīṇām» [ x, 185, 1; cf. and «tisṝṇām» [ viii, 19,

37 and 101, 6], later on [fr. «-ya»] «trayāṇām» [ and «tisṛṇām» [ v, 69, 2

against metre; cf. ; ifc., vii, 2, 99 f. ; ([cf. [characters] Lat. ‘tres’; Goth.

‘threis’; &c.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tri num. a. [Uṇ. 5. 66](declined in pl. only, nom. trayaḥ m., tisraḥ f. trīṇi

n.) Three; ta eva hi trayo lokāsta eva traya āśramāḥ &c. Ms. 2. 229;

priyatamābhirasau tisṛbhirbabhau R. 9. 18; trīrṇi varṣāṇyudīkṣeta

kumāryutṛmatī satī Ms. 9. 90. [Cf. L. tres; Gr. treis; A. S., Zend thri; Eng.

three.]

— Comp.

—aṁśaḥ 1. a three-fold share. —2. a third part. —3. three-fourths.

—akṣa a. triocular.

—akṣaḥ, —akṣakaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—akṣaraḥ 1. the mystic syllable om consisting of three letters; see

under a. —2. a match-maker or ghaṭaka (that word consisting of three

syllables.) —3. a genealogist. (

—rī) knowledge, learning; see vidyā. —aṁkaṭaṁ, —aṁgaṭaṁ 1.

three strings suspended to either end of a pole for carrying burdens. —2.

a sort of collyrium. (

—ṭaḥ) N. of Śiva.

—aṁjanaṁ the three kinds of collyrium; i. e. kālāṁjana,

rasāṁjana, and puṣpāṁjana. —aṁjalaṁ, —li three handfuls taken

collectively.

—adhipatiḥ an epithet of Viṣṇu.

—adhiṣṭhānaḥ the soul. (

—naṁ) spirit, life (catanya). —adhvagā, —mārgagā, —vartmagā

epithets of the river. Ganges (flowing through the three worlds).

—anīka a. having the three properties of heat, rain and cold; Rv. 3.

56. 3. (

—kā) an army consisting of horses, elephants and chariots.

—aṁbakaḥ (also triyaṁbaka in the same sense though rarely used

in classical literature) ‘having three eyes’, N. of Śiva; triyaṁbakaṁ

saṁyaminaṁ dadarśa Ku. 3. 44; jaḍīkṛtastryaṁbakavīkṣaṇena R. 2. 42, 3.

49. -sakhaḥ an epithet of Kubera.

—aṁbakā an epithet of Pārvatī.

—abda a. three years old. (bdaṁ) three years taken collectively.

—aśīta a. eighty-third.

—aśītiḥ f. eighty-three.

—aṣṭan a. twentyfour.

—aśra, —asra a. triangular. (

—sraṁ) a triangle.

—ahaḥ 1. a period of three days. —2. a festival lasting three days.

—āhika a. 1. performed or produced in three days. —2. recurring

after the third day, tertian (as fever). —3. having provision for three days.

—ṛcaṁ (tṛcaṁ also) three Riks taken collectively; Ms. 8. 106.

—aihika a. having provision for three days.

—kakud m. 1. N. of the mountain Trikūṭa. —2. N. of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa.

—3. the highest, chief. —4. a sacrifice lasting for ten nights.

—kakbh m. Ved. 1. Indra. —2. Indra’s thunderbolt.

—karman n. the chief three duties of a Brāhmaṇa i. e. sacrifice,

study of the Vedas, and making gifts or charity. (—m.) one who engages

in these three duties (as a Brāhmaṇa).

—kāyaḥ N. of Buddha.

—kālaṁ 1. the three times; the past, the present, and the future,

or morning, noon and evening. —2. the three tenses (the past, present,

and future) of a verb. (

—laṁ) ind. three times, thrice. -jña, -darśin a. omniscient. (m.) 1.

a divine sage, seer. —2. a deity. —3. N. of Buddha. -vid m. 1. a Buddha.

—2. an Arhat (with the Jainas).

—kūṭaḥ N. of a mountain in Ceylon on the top of which was

situated Laṅkā, the capital of Rāvaṇa; Śi. 2. 5.

—kūrcakaṁ a knife with three edges.

—koṇa a. triangular, forming a triangle. (

—ṇaḥ) 1. a triangle. —2. the vulva

—khaṁ 1. tin. —2. a cucumber.

—khaṭvaṁ, —khadvī three bedsteads taken collectively.

—gaṇaḥ an aggregate of the three objects of worldly existence; i.

e. dharbha, artha and kāma; na bādhataṁ’sya trigaṇaḥ parasparaṁ Ki. 1.

11; see trivarga below.

—gata a. 1. tripled. —2. done in three days.

—gartāḥ (pl.) 1. N. of a country, also called jalaṁdhara, in the

north-west of India.

(2) the people or rulers of that country. —gartā 1. a lascivious woman,

wanton. —2. a woman in general. —3. a pearl. —4. a kind of cricket. —

guṇa a. 1. consisting of three threads; vratāya mauṁjīṁ triguṇāṁ

babhāra yāṁ Ku. 5. 10. —2. three-times repeated, thrice, treble,

threefold, triple; sapta vyatīyustriguṇāni tasya (dināni) R. 2. 25. —3.

containing the three Guṇas satva, rajasa and tamas (—ṇaṁ) the

Pradhāna (in Sān. phil.) (—ind.) three times; in three ways’ (—ṇāḥ m. pl.)

the three qualities or constituents of nature; trayīmayāyatriguṇātmana

namaḥ K. 1. (—ṇā) 1. Māyā or illusion (in Vedānta phil.). —2. an epithet of

Durgā —cakṣus m. an epithet of Śiva. —catura a. (pl.) three or four; gatvā

javāttracaturāṇi padāni sī tā B. R. 6. 34. —catvāriṁśa a. forty third. —

catvāriṁśat f. forty-three. —jagat n. —jagatī the three worlds,

(1) the heaven, the atmosphere, and the earth; or

(2) the heaven, the earth, and the lower world. —jaṭaḥ an epithet of

Śiva. —jaṭā N. of a female demon, one of the Rākṣasa at tendants kept by

Rāvaṇa to watch over Sītā, when she was retained as a captive in the

Aśoka-vanikā. She acted very kindly towards Sītā and induced her

companions to do the same —jīdā —jyā the sine of three signs or 90-, a

radius. —ṇatā a bow. —ṇava, —ṇavan a. pl. three times nine, i. e. 27. —

ṇāciketaḥ a part of the Adhvaryu sacrifice or Yajurveda, or one who

performs a vow connected therewith (according to Kull. on Ms. 3. 185).

—ṇītā a wife (‘thrice married’; it being supposed that a girl belongs to

Soma, Gandharva and Agni before she obtains a human husband). —

takṣaṁ, takṣī three carpenters taken collectively. —daḍaṁ 1. the three

staves of a Sannyasin (who has resigned the world) tied together so as

to form one. —2. the triple subjection of thought. word, and deed. (—ḍaḥ)

the state of a religious ascetic. —daṁḍin m. 1. areligious mendicant or

Sannyasin who has renounced all worldly attachments, and who carries

three long staves tied together so as to form one in his right hand. —2.

one who has obtained command over his mind, speech, and body (or

thought, word, and deed), cf. vāgdaṁḍo’tha manodaṁḍaḥ

kāyadaṁḍastathaiva ca . yasyaite nihitā buddhau vidaṁḍīti sa ucyate ..

Ms. 12. 10. —daśāḥ (pl.) 1. thirty. —2. the thirty-three gods. (—śaḥ) a

god, an immortal; Ku. 3. 1. -aṁkuśaḥ, -āyudhaṁ Indra’s thunderbolt; R.

9. 54. -āyudhaṁ rainbow. -adhipaḥ, -īśvaraḥ, -patiḥ epithets of Indra. —

adhipatiḥ N. of Śiva. -adhyakṣaḥ -ayanaḥ an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ariḥ, a

demon. -ācāryaḥ an epithet of Bṛhaspati. -ālayaḥ, -āvāsaḥ 1. heaven. —2.

the mountain Meru.

(3) a god. -āhāraḥ ‘the food of the gods’, nectar. -iṁdraḥ 1. Indra. —2.

Siva. —3. Brahman. -guruḥ an epithet of Bṛhaspati, -gopaḥ a kind of

insect; (cf. iṁdragopa); śraddadhe tridaśagopamātrake dāhaśaktimiva

kṛṣṇavartmani R. 11. 42. -dīrghikā an epithet of the Ganges. -maṁjarī the

holy basil. -vadhū, -vanitā, an Apsaras or heavenly damsel; kailāsasya

tridaśavanitādarpaṇasyatithiḥ rayāḥ Me. 58. -vartman the sky. —

śraṁṣṭhaḥ 1. Agni. —2. Brahman. —vinaṁ three days collectively. -spṛś m.

concurrence of three lunarions with one solar day. —divaṁ 1. the heaven;

trimārgayeva tridivaraya mārgaḥ Ku. 1. 28; S. 7. 3.

(2) sky, atmosphere. —3. paradise. —4. happiness. (—vā) cardamoms.

-adhīśaḥ, -īśaḥ 1. an epithet of Indra. —2. a god. -udbhavā 1. the Ganges.

—2. small cardamoms. -okas m. a god. —dṛś m. an epithet of Śiva. —

doṣaṁ vitiation or derangement of the three humours of the body, i. e.

vāta, pitta and vapha. —dhātuḥ an epithet of Gaṇeśa. —dhāman m 1. N. of

Viṣṇu. —2. of Vyāsa; —3. of Śiva. —4. of Agni. —5. death. —dhārā the

Ganges. —ṇayanaḥ (nayanaḥ) —netraḥ, —locanaḥ epithets of Śiva; R. 3.

66; Ku. 3. 66, 5. 72. —navata a. ninety-third. —navatiḥ f. ninetythree. —

nayanā Pārvatī. —nābhaḥ Viṣṇu. —netracūmaṇiḥ the moon. —paṁca a.

three-fold five, i. e. fifteen. —paṁcāśa a. fifty-third. —paṁcāśat f. fifty-

three. —paṭuḥ glass (kāca). —patākaḥ 1. the hand with three fingers

stretched out or erect. —2. the forehead marked naturally with three

horizontal lines. —patrakaḥ the Palāśa tree. —pathaṁ 1. the three patls

taken collectively, i. e. the sky, atmosphere, and the earth, or the sky,

earth and the lower world.

(2) a place where three reads meet. (—thā) an epithet of Mathurā. —

gā an epithet of the Ganges; dhṛtasatpathastripathagāmabhitaḥ sa

tamāruroha puruhūtasutaḥ Ki. 6. 1; Amaru. 99. —pad, —pād, —pāt m.

Ved. 1. Viṣṇu. —2. fever (personified). —pada a. three-footed. (—daṁ) a

tripod. —padikā 1. a tripod. —2. a stand with three feet. —padī 1. the girth

of an elephant; nāsrasatkariṇāṁ graivaṁ tripadīcchedināmapi R. 4. 48.

(2) the Gāyatrī metre. —3. a tripod. —4. the plant godhāpadī. —

parikrāṁta a. one who walks thrice round a sacred fire. —parṇaḥ the

Kimśuka tree. —pāṭaḥ 1. intersection of a prolonged side and

perpendicular (in a quadrangular figure). —2. the figure formed by such

intersection. —pāṭhin a. 1. familiar with Samhitā, Pada, and Krama. —2.

one who learns a thing after three repetitions. —pādaḥ 1. the Supreme

Being. —2. fever. —pād a. 1. having three feet. —2. consisting of three

parts, having threefourths; R. 15. 96. —3. trinomial. (—m.) 1. an epithet

of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation. —2. the Supreme Being. —puṭa a.

triangular. (—ṭaḥ) 1. an arrow. —2. the palm of the hand. —3. a cubit. —4.

a bank or shore. —puṭakaḥ a triangle. —puṭā an epithet of Durgā. —puṭin

m. the castoroil plant. —puṁḍraṁ, —puṁḍrakaṁ a mark on the forehead

consisting of three lines made with cowdung ashes. —puraṁ 1. a

collection of three cities. —2. the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in

the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt

down, along with the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of

the gods); Ku. 7. 48; Amaru. 2; Me. 56; Bh. 2. 123; (—raḥ) N. of a demon

or demons presiding over these cities. -adhipatiḥ N. of Maya, -aṁtakaḥ,

-ariḥ, -ghnaḥ, -dahanaḥ, -dviṣ m. -haraḥ &c. epithets of Śiva; Bh. 3. 123;

R. 17. 14. -dāhaḥ burning of the three cities; Ki. 5. 14. (—rī) 1. N. of a

place near Jabbalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi. —2. N. of a

country. —puruṣa a. 1. having the length of three men. —2. having three

assistants. (—ṣaṁ) the three ancestors, father, grand-father, and great-

grand-father. —pṛṣṭhaṁ the highest heaven. —pauruṣa a. 1. belonging to,

or extending over, three generations of men. —2. offered to three (as

oblations). —3. inherited from three (as an estate). —prasrutaḥ an

elephant in rut. —phalā the three myrobalans taken collectively, (Mar.

hiraḍā, behaḍā and āṁvaLakāṭhī). —baṁdhanaḥ the individual soul. —bali,

—balī, —valiḥ, —valī f. 1. the three folds or wrinklas of skin above the

navel of a woman (regarded as a mark of beauty);

kṣāmodaroparilasattrivalīlatānāṁ Bh. 1. 93, 81; cf. Ku. 1. 39. —2. the

anus. —balīkaṁ the anus. —bāhuḥ a kind of fighting with swords. —bhaṁ

three signs of the zodiac, or ninety degrees. —bhadraṁ copulation, sexual

union, cohabitation. —bhāgaḥ 1. the third part. —2. the third part of a sign

of the zodiac. —bhujaṁ a triangle. —bhuvanaṁ the three worlds; puṇyaṁ

yāyāstribhuvamagurordhāma caṁḍīśvarasya Me. 33, Bh. 1. 99. -guruḥ

Śiva. -patiḥ Viṣṇu. —bhūmaḥ a palace with three floors. —madhu n. —

madhuraṁ sugar, honey, and ghee. —mārgā the Ganges; Ku. 1. 28. —

mukuṭaḥ the Trikūṭa mountain. —mukhaḥ an epithet of Buddha. —muni

ind. having the three sages pāṇini, kātyāyana and pataṁjali; trimuni

vyākaraṇam. —mūrtiḥ 1. the united form of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśa,

the Hindu triad; Ku. 2. 4. —2. Buddha, or Jina. —mūrdhan m. a demon; U.

2. 15. —yaṣṭiḥ a necklace of three strings. —yāmakaṁ sin. —yāmā 1. night

(consisting of 3 watches or praharas, the first and last half prahara being

excluded); saṁkṣipyeta kṣaṇa iva kathaṁ dīrghayāmā triyāmā Me. 108,

Ku. 7. 21, 26; R. 9. 70, V. 3. 22. —2. turmeric. —3. the Indigo plant. —4.

the river Yamunā. —yugaḥ an epithet of Śiva. —yoniḥ a law-suit (in which

a person engages from anger, covetousness, or infatuation). —rasakaṁ

spirituous liquor. —rātra a. lasting for three nights. (—traḥ) a festival

lasting for three nights. (—traṁ) a period of three nights. —rekhaḥ a

conch-shell. —liṁga a. having three genders, i. e. an adjective. —2.

possessing the three Guṇas. (—gāḥ) the country called Telanga. (—gī) the

three genders taken collectively. —lokaṁ the three worlds. (—kaḥ) an

inhabitant of the three worlds. -ātman m. the Supreme Being. -īśaḥ the

sun. -nāyaḥ ‘lord of the three worlds’ an epithet of 1. Indra; R. 3. 45. —2.

of Śiva; Ku. 5. 77. —lokī the three worlds taken collectively, the universe;

satvāmeva trilokīsariti haraśiraścuṁbinīvicchaṭāyāṁ Bh. 3. 95; Śānti. 4.

22. —locanaḥ Śiva. (—nā) 1. an unchaste woman. —2. an epithet of

Durgā. —lohakaṁ the three metals: gold, silver, and copper. —vargaḥ 1.

the three objects of worldly existence, i. e. dharma, artha, and kāma; Ku.

5. 38. —2. the three states of loss, stability, and increase; kṣayaḥ

sthānaṁ ca vṛddhiśca trivargo nītivedināṁ Ak. —3. the three qualities of

nature, i. e. sattva, rajas, and tamas. —4. the three higher castes. —5.

the three myrobalans. —6. propriety, decorum. —varṇakaṁ the first three

of the four castes of Hindus taken collectively. —varṣa a. three years old.

—vāraṁ ind. three times, thrice. —vikramaḥ Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf

incarnation. —vidyaḥ a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. —vidha a. of

three kinds, three-fold. —viṣṭapaṁ, —piṣṭapaṁ 1. the world of Indra

heaven; triviṣṭapasyeva patiṁ jayaṁtaḥ R. 6. 78. —2. the three worlds. —

sad m. a god. —vṛt a. 1. threefold. —2. consisting of three parts. (—m.) 1.

a sacrifice. —2. a girdle of three strings.

(3) an amulet of three strings. (—f.) a plant possessing valuable

purgative properties. -karaṇa combining three things, i. e. earth, water,

and fire. —veṇiḥ, —ṇī f. the place near Prayāga where the Ganges joins

the Yamunā and receives under ground the Sarasvatī. —vedaḥ a

Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. —śaṁkuḥ 1. N. of a celebrated king

of the Solar race, king of Ayodhyā and father of Hariśchandra. [He was a

wise, pious, and just king, but his chief fault was that he loved his person

to an inordinate degree. Desiring to celebrate a sacrifice by virtue of

which he could go up to heaven in his mortal body, he requested his

family-priest Vasiṣṭha to officiate for him; but being refused he next

requested his hundred sons who also rejected his absurd proposal. He,

therefore, called them cowardly and impotent, and was, in return for

these insults, cursed and degraded by them to be a Chandala. While he

was in this wretched condition, Viśvāmitra, whose family Triśaṅku had in

times of famine laid under deep obligations, undertook to celebrate the

sacrifice, and invited all the gods to be present. They, however, declined;

whereupon the enraged Viśvāmitra by his own power lifted up Triśaṅku to

the skies with his cherished mortal body. He began to soar higher and

higher till his head struck against the vault of the heaven, when he was

hurled down headforemost by Indra and the other gods. The mighty

Viśvāmitra, however, arrested him in his downward course, saying ‘Stay

Triśaṅku’, and the unfortunate monarch remained suspended with his

head towards the earth as a constellation in the southern hemisphere.

Hence the well-known proverb; triśaṁkurivāṁtarā tiṣṭha S. 2]. —2. the

Chātaka bird. —3. a cat. —4. a grass-hopper. —5. a fire-fly. -jaḥ an epithet

of Hariśchandra. -yājin m. an epithet of Viśvāmitra. —śata a. three

hundred. (—taṁ) 1. one hundred and three. —2. three hundred. —śaraṇaḥ

a Buddha. —śālaṁ a house with three halls or chambers. —śikhaṁ 1. a

trident. —2. a crown or crest (with three points). —śiras m. 1. N. of a

demon killed by Rāma. —2. an epithet of Kubera. —3. fever. —śīrṣaḥ Śiva.

—śīrṣakaṁ, —śūlaṁ a trident. -aṁkaḥ, -dhārin m. an epithet of Śiva. —

śūlin m. an epithet of Śiva. —śṛṁgaḥ 1. the Trikuṭa mountain. —2. a

triangle. —śokaḥ the soul. —ṣaṣṭiḥ f. sixty-three. —saṁdhyaṁ, —saṁdhyī

the three periods of the day, i. e. dawn, noon, and sunset. —saṁdhyaṁ

ind. at the time of the three Sandhyās. —saptata a. seventy-third. —

saptatiḥ f. seventy-three. —saptan, —sapta a. pl. three times 7, i. e. 21.

—sama a. (in geom.) having three equal sides, equilateral. —sāmyaṁ an

equilibrium of the three (qualities). —sthalī the three sacred places, kāśī,

prayāga, and gayā. —srotas f. an epithet of the Ganges; trisrotasaṁ

vahati yo gaganapratiṣṭhāṁ S. 7. 6; R. 10. 63; Ku. 7. 15. —sītya, —halya

a. ploughed thrice (as a field). —hāyaṇa a. three years old.

त्व — tva Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tva n. the state of being the place or abode of.

tva mfn. («tvad»). one, several

tva mfn. «tva-tva», one-the other

tva mfn. «tvad», partly

tva mfn. «tvadtvad», partly-partly

tva base of the 2nd personal pron.: nom. «tvam» acc. «tvām» instr.

«tvayā» ([ and «tvā» comp. see «tvā-datta, -dāta, -vṛdha» &c.]) dat.

«tubhyam» ([& «-bhya» abl. «tvat» or «tvad» ([ and «tvat-tas» &c.]) gen.

«tava» loc. «tve» ([; cf. g. «cādi»]), «tvayi» ([ &c.]); enclitic forms are

acc. «tvā» ([ gen. dat. «te» ([ &c.; = [characters] ]); ([cf. Lat. ‘tu’ &c.])

tva mfn. thy, your, ii, 20, 2.

त्वर् — tvar Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899tvar cl.1. «tvarate» (ep. also «-ti»; pf. «tatvare» ; aor. 2. pl. «atvaridhvam,

-riḍhvam, -riddhvam» ; Subj. 2. sg. «tvariṣṭhās» to hurry, make haste,

move with speed &c.: Caus. «tvarayati» (Impv. «-raya»; aor. «atatvarat»

to cause to hasten, quicken, urge forward (with acc. dat. or inf.) &c.;

«tvār-«, to convert quickly into the state («bhāva» dat.) of ; cf. «tur».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

tvar 1 A. (tvarata, tvarita tūrṇa) To hurry, make haste, move with speed,

do anything quickly; bhavānsuhṛdarthe tvaratāṁ M. 2; nānunetumabalāḥ

sa tatvare R. 19. 38. —Caus. (tvarayati)

(1) To cause to hasten, expedite, urge forward, accelerate;

tvarayorvaśīṁ V. 2; Ku. 4. 36.

(2) To call quickly away; Māl. 5. 25.

दक्ष् — dakṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dakṣ cl.1.P. (Impv. 2. pl. «dakṣatā») to act to the satisfaction of (dat. ; ā.

«dakṣate» (p. «dakṣamāṇa»; pf. «dadakṣe») to be able or strong, 16, 6 if.

; to grow, increase ; to act quickly ; to go, xix, 8; to hurt Caus.

«dakṣayati» (aor. «adadakṣa»), to make able or strong

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dakṣ

(1) A. (dakṣate)

(1) To grow, increase.

(2) To do, go or act quickly.

(3) To hurt, kill.

(4) To act conformably to another (Paras.).

(5) To be competent or able.

(6) To go, move.

दघ् — dagh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dagh cl.5. (Pot. «-ghnuyāt»; Prec. 3. sg. «-ghyās»; aor. Subj, 1 pl. «-

ghma») with «paścā», or «-cāt», to fall short of (cf. «a-pascā-daghvan») ;

with «adhas», to reach below the regular height ; to strike ; to protect (cf.

«daṅgh») cl.4. «daghyati», to go ; to flow ; cf. «ati-, ā-; pradaghas»;

[characters].

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dagh I. 5 P. (daghnoti)

(1) To kill, hurt.

(2) To go, leap.

(3) To protect. —II. 4 P. (daghyati) Ved.

(1) To go, flow.

(2) To reach, attain.

(3) To go away.

दद् — dad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dad cl.1. «-dati» see «dā» mfn. ifc. see «āyurdad».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dad 1 A. (dadate) To give, offer, present.

दभ् — dabh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dabh or #dambh cl.1. (Subj. «dabhat» and «-bhāti» ; pl. «-bhanti», vii, «-

bhan», if., x and ; Pot. «-bheyam» and 5. «dabhnoti» («to go» ; Impv. «-

nuhi» ; cf. «ā-«, -Pass. «dabhyate» ; pf. «dadābha», v, 32, 7; «-dambha» [

1-2, 6 ; pl. «debhur» [ 6-4, 120 4 ; also «dadambhur» and 2.sg. «debhitha»

or «dadambhitha» ; aor. pl. «dadabhanta» ; «adambhiṣur» to hurt, injure,

destroy ; to deceive, abandon f. viii: Caus. (Subj. and p. «damebhayat»;

2. sg. «-yas, -ya») to destroy ; «dambhayati» or «dābh-«, to impel ;

«dambkayate», to accumulate, xxx, 4: Desid. «dipsati» (Subj. [ iv, 36, 1 f.

] and p. «dipsat») to intend to injure or destroy ; «dhips-, dhīps-,

didambhiṣati»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dabh , daṁbh I. 1. 5. P. (dabhati or dabhnoti, dabdha; desid. dhipsati,

dhīpsati, didaṁbhiṣati)

(1) To injure, hurt.

(2) To deceive, cheat.

(3) To go. —II. 10 U. (daṁbhayati-te) To impel, propel, drive onward.

दम् — dam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dam cl.4. «dāmyati» ( 7-3, 74; ind. p. «dāntvā» and «damitvā», 2, 56; aor.

Pass. «adami», 3, 34 ; P. «-mit» to be tamed or tranquillised (Impv.

«dāmyata»); to tame, subdue, conquer (ind. p. «damitvā») cl.9.irreg. (?

Subj. 2. sg. «danas») id. Caus. «damayati» (p. «-mayat»; ā. to subdue,

overpower ; Desid. see «dān»; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘domare’ &c.])

dam a house (gen. pl. «damām»); «patir dan» (gen. sg.) = «dam-patis»,

99, 6; 105, 2; i, 149, 1; 153, 4; «pati dan» = «dam-patī», 120, 6; «śiśur

dan» «a child of the house», x, 61, 20; ([cf. [characters] &c.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dam 4 P. (dāmyati, damita, dāṁta)

(1) To be tamed.

(2) To be calm or tranquil; Ms. 4. 35, 6. 8, 7. 141.

(3) To tame, subdue, conquer, restrain; yamo dāmyati rākṣasān Bk.

18. 20; damitvāpyarisaṁghātān 9. 42, 19; 15. 37.

(4) To pacify. —Caus. (damayati te)

(1) To tame.

(2) To subdue, conquer, overpower.

(3) To afflict, crush down; atibhāreṇa damayati Pt. 4.

दह् — dah Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dah cl.1. P»dahati» (ep. āso ā.; p. «dahati» impf. «adahat»; aor. «adhāk»

«-kṣam» ; 3. pl «-kskur» ; Subj. «dhāk» ; 2. sg. «dhakṣi», iv, 4, 4; p.

«dhakṣat» [also nom. m.], vi, 3, 4 x, 91, 7 «dahṣat», i, 130, 8; fut.

«dhakṣyati» [ 7-2, 10 6] [Pot. «dhakṣyet», i, 8383] &c.; «dahiṣy-«, i, 2120

; inf. «dagdhum») to burn, consume by fire, scorch roast &c.; to cauterise

; to consume, destroy completely &c.; to torment, torture, pain, distress,

disturb, grieve &c.: Pass. «dahyate» («-ti» if., xiif.); to be burnt, burn, be

in flames &c.; to be consumed by fire or destroyed ; to be inflamed (a

wound) ; to be consumed by internal heat or grief, suffer pain, be

distressed or vexed &c.; Caus. «dāhayati» to burn or be burned &c.; to

cause to be cooked 15523 (aor. pl. «adīdahan»): Desid. «didhakṣati» (cf.

«-kṣā, -kṣu») to be about to burn or consume or destroy i-iv (p. «-

kṣamāṇa»): Desid. Caus. (p. «-kṣayat») to cause any one to make efforts

to burn Intens. «dandahīti, -hyate» ( 3-1, 24; 7-4, 86) to burn or destroy

completely 8726 (Impv. «-dagdhi») ; ā. to be burnt completely 7040

([cf. Lith. ‘degu’, I am hot»; Goth. ‘dag-s’; Old Germ. ‘tah-t’, «a wick»]).

dah mfn. «burning» see «uśa-«.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dah 1 P. (dahati, dadāha, adhākṣati, dhakṣyati, dagdhuṁ, dagdha, desid.

didhakṣati)

(1) To burn, scorch (fig. also); dagdhuṁ viśvaṁ dahanakiraṇairnoditā

dvādaśārkāḥ Ve. 3. 6, 5. 20; sapadi madanānalo dahati mama mānasaṁ

dehi mukhakamalamadhupānaṁ Gīt. 10; S. 3. 17.

(2) To consume, destroy completely.

(3) To pain, torment, afflict, distress, grieve;

ityamātmakṛtamapratihataṁ cāpalaṁ dahati S. 5; tatsaviṣamiva śalyaṁ

dahati māṁ 6. 8; etattu māṁ dahati yada gṛhamasmadīyaṁ

kṣīṇāryamityatithayaḥ pasvirjayaṁti Mk. 1. 12, R. 8. 86, U. 4. 14.

(4) To cauterize (in medicine). —WITH nis 1. to burn, consume. —2. to

torment, distress, pain. —pari to burn, scorch; diśi diśi paridagdhā

bhūmayaḥ pāvakena Rs. 1. 24; Bg. 1. 30. —pra 1. to burn. —2. to burn

completely. —3. to pain, torment. —4. to trouble, tease. —saṁ to burn;

abhijanaḥ saṁdahyatāṁ vahninā Bh. 2. 39.

दा — dā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dā f. id.

dā f. heat, pain

dā cl.3. «dadāti» (pl. «-dati» &c.; ā. «datte» ; 1. sg. «dadmi» if.; Impv.

«dadātu» pl. «-dahu»; 2. sg. «daddhi» f. iv, vi, viii, x; «dehi» [ 6-4, 119] f.

viii, x f. &c.; «nigaḍāni» to put on or apply fetters «pāvakam», to set on

fire; «agnīn» to consume by fire ; «śāram», to move a chess-man ;

«argalam», to draw a bolt, bar ; «jānu», to kneel upon (gen.) iii f.;

«padam», to tread upon [loc.] ; to direct the steps 74; «viṣam», to poison

acc.!); «garam» id. gen.); — ā. to carry, hold, keep, preserve ; to show

(aor. «adadiṣṭa; aded-» fr. «diś» Caus. «dāpayati» ( vii, 3, 36; aor.

«adīdapat», 4, 1 and 58 to cause to give or be given, cause to bestow or

present or give up, oblige to pay, make restore &c.; to demand from

(abl.) ; to cause to utter or speak 15782 «ghoṣaṇām», to cause to be

made known lxiv, 86; to cause to place or advance, xii, 160; to cause to

perform, v, 112 to cause to be put on (loc.) Desid. «ditsati» ( 7-4, 54 and

58; p. «didāsat» ; «ditsat», ii, vii-ix ; Pot. «-tseyam» ; pf. 2. sg. «didāsitha»

; cf. to wish to give, be ready to bestow &c.; to wish to give in marriage

&c.: Intens. «dedīyate» ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘do’; &c.])

dā m. a giver (dat. «de»); vi, 16, 26 (nom. «dās»)

dā ifc. «giving, granting» see «an-aśva-, a-bhikṣa-, aśva-, ātma-«, &c. «-

dā»

dā m. «an-āśīr-«.

dā For «do», to cut q.v.

dā cl.4.P. «dyati» (cf. «ā-» 4. «dā»), to bind, only in «dīṣva» ([cf.

[characters] ]).

dā For «de» q.v.

dā f. ( «de»), protection, defence

dā For «dai» q.v.

dā f. ( «das») cleansing, purifying

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dā I. 1 P. (yacchati, datta] To give, grant. —WITH prati to exchange;

tilebhyaḥ prati yacchati māṣān Sk. —II. 2. P. (dāti,) To cut; dadāti

draviṇaṁ bhūri dāti dāridryamarthināṁ K. R. —III. 4. P. (dāyati) To bind

(?). —IV. 3 U. (dadāti, datte; dadau-dade, adāt-adita, dāsyati-te, dātuṁ,

datta; but with ā the p. p. is ātta; with upa, upātta; with ni, nidatta or

nītta, and with pra, pradatta or pratta)

(1) To give, grant, bestow, offer, yield, impart, present (usually with

acc. of the thing and dat., sometimes gen. or loc. also, of the person);

avakāśaṁ kilodanvān rāmāyābhyarthito dadau R. 4. 58; secanaghaṭaiḥ

bālapādapabhyeḥ payo dātumita evābhivartate S. 1; Ms. 3. 31, 9. 271;

kathamasya stanaṁ dāsye Hariv.

(2) To pay (as debt, fine &c.).

(3) To hand or deliver over.

(4) To restore, return.

(5) To give up, sacrifice, surrender; prāṇām dā to sacrifice one’s life;

so ātmānaṁ dā to sacrifice oneself.

(6) To put, place, apply, plant; karṇe karaṁ dadāti &c.

(7) To give in marriage; yasmai dadyāt pitā tvenāṁ Ms. 5. 151; Y. 2.

146, 3. 24.

(8) To allow, permit (usually with inf.); bāṣpastu na dadātyenāṁ

draṣṭuṁ citragatāmapi S. 6. 21. (The meanings of this root may be

variously modified or extended according to the noun with which it is

connected; mano dā to think, direct the mind to anything; nītau mano

dīyate Mu. 2. 5; avakāśaṁ dā to give place to, make room; (see

avakāśa); karṇaṁ dā to give ear to or listen; darśanaṁ dā to show

oneself to, grant audience to; śabdaṁ dā to make a noise; tālaṁ dā to

clap the hands; ātmānaṁ khedāya dā to expose oneself to trouble; ātape

dā to expose to the sun’s heat; ājñāṁ, nideśaṁ dā to issue orders,

command; āśiṣaṁ dā to pronounce a blessing; cakṣuḥ, dṛṣṭiṁ dā to cast

a glance, see; vācaṁ dā to address a speech to; prativacaḥ, —vacanaṁ

or pratyuttaraṁ dā to give reply; śokaṁ dā to cause grief; śrāddhaṁ dā

to perform a Śrāddha; mārgaṁ dā to make way for, allow to pass, stand

out of the way; varaṁ dā to grant a boon; saṁgrāmaṁ dā to fight;

argalaṁ dā to bolt, fasten or secure with a latch; nigaḍaṁ dā to put in

chains, fetter; saṁketaṁ dā to make an appointment; śāpaṁ dā to

curse; vṛttiṁ dā to enclose, fence in; agniṁ, pāvakaṁ dā to set on fire,

&c. &c. —Caus. (dāpayati-te) To cause to give, grant, &c. —Desid.

(ditsati-te) To wish to give, &c.

(1) Protection, defence.

(2) Cleaning, purifying.

दिव् — div Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899div cl.1.P. «-devati» cl.10. P. «-deyavati», to cause to lament, to pain, vex;

to ask, beg; to go; ā. «-te», to suffer pain

div cl.4. «dīvyati, -te» &c. (perf. «dideva» ; fut. «deviṣyati»; cond,

«adeviṣyat» ; aor. «adevīt» ; &c.; infin. «devitum» &c.; ind. p. «devitvā» ;

«-dīvya» to cast, throw, esp. dice i.e. play, gamble («akṣais» ; «akṣān» ,

with (instr. , for (instr., ii, 2061 &c.; acc. ; dat. ; gen. [«śatasya»] ; to lay

a wager, bet with («sārdham»), upon (dat.) ; to play, sport, joke, trifle

with (acc. ; to have free scope, spread, increase ( ii, 193 B. «vardhati»);

to shine, be bright [Zd. ‘div’; (?) Lit. «dyvas»] ; to praise, rejoice, be

drunk or mad; to sleep; to wish for; to go Caus. «devayati», to cause to

play () or to sport Desid. «dideviṣati» and «dudyūṣati» Caus. of Desid.

«dudyūṣayati», to incite to play Intens. «dedivīti, dedyeti, dedeti» &c.

div (nom. «dyaus»; voc. «dyaus» [ vi, 51, 5 ; acc. «dyām» «divam»; instr.

«divā» or «dīvā» [see below]; dat. «dive» [«dyave» ; abl. gen. «divas»

[rarely «dyos» e.g.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

div f. [dīvyatyatra div-bā -ādhāre ḍivi Tv.] (Nom. sing. dyauḥ)

(1) The heaven; R. 3. 4, 12; Me. 30.

(2) The sky.

(3) A day.

(4) Light, brilliance.

(5) Fire, glow of fire. N. B. The compounds with div as first member

are mostly irregular; e. g. divaspatiḥ an epithet of Indra; anatikramaṇīyā

divaspaterājñā S. 6. divaspṛthivyau heaven and earth. divijaḥ, diviṣṭhaḥ,

divisthaḥ, divisa (ṣa) d m., divokas m., divaukas, —saḥ ‘inhabitant of the

heaven’, a god; S. 7; R. 3. 19, 47; diviṣadravṛṁdaiḥ Gīt. 7. divaspṛś m.

the Supreme Being. divispṛś a. reaching or pervading the sky. divodbhavā

cardamoms. divolkā a meteor. divaukas m. 1. a god. —2. the Chātaka

bird. —3. a deer. —4. a bee. —5. an elephant.

दिश् — diś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899diś cl.3.P. «dideṣṭi» (Imper. «dideṣṭu» ; cl.6. «diśati, -te» [later the only

Pres. stem]; pf. «dideśa, didiśe»; fut. «dekṣyati, -te» [«deṣṭā» ; aor.

«adikṣat» &c.; «adikṣi, adiṣṭa» ; inf. «deṣṭum» etc.; «diśe» to point out,

show, exhibit ; to produce, bring forward (as a witness in a court of

justice) ; to promote, effect, accomplish ; to assign, grant, bestow upon

(dat. ; gen. ; loc. ; to pay (tribute) 16061; to order, command, bid (inf.)

Pass. «diśyate» &c.: Caus. «deśayati, -te»; aor. «adīdiśat», to show, point

out, assign ; to direct, order, command ; teach, communicate, tell, inform

confess Desid. «didikṣati, -te», to wish to show &c.: Intens. «dediṣṭe», 3.

pl. «-śate», (p. f. pl. «-śatīs») to show, exhibit, manifest ; to order,

command Pass. «dediśyate», to show or approve one’s self. ‘dis’; Gk.

[greek]; Lat. ‘dico’, ‘in-drcare’ &c.; Goth. ‘teihan’; O. E. ‘teon’ (fr.

‘tihan’).]

diś f. quarter or region pointed at, direction, cardinal point &c. (four in

number, viz. «prācī», east; «dakṣiṇā», south; «pratici», west; and «udīcī»,

north , «dhruvā» , «ūrdhvā» , «vy-adhvā» i.e. the 4 cardinal and the 4

intermediate quarters, S. E., S. W. N. W., and N. E. [cf. «upa-«]; and

even a 9th, and 10th, «tiryak» or «adhas» and «ūrdhvam» ; «diśām pati»

[cf. «dik-pati» below] = Soma , or = Rudra

f. quarter, region, direction, place, part (pl., rarely eg. the whole world

e.g. «diśi, diśi», in all directions, everywhere ; «digbhyas», from every

quarter ; «diśo diśas», hither and thither ; «diśo’valokya», looking into the

quarter of the sky i.e. into the air «diso ‘ntāt», from the extremities of the

world

f. country, esp. foreign country, abroad (cf. «dig-āgata» and «-lābha»,

below)

f. space (beside «kāla»)

f. the numeral 10 (cf. above )

f. a hint, reference, instance, example ; precept, order, manner ([cf.

[characters] O. H.G. ‘zeiga’ (see also «diśā»)])

f. mark of a bite

f. N. of a river

diś a vulgar form for «dṛś», to see 13

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

diś 6 U. (diśati-te, diṣṭa; desid. didikṣati-te)

(1) To point out, show, exhibit, produce (as a witness); sākṣiṇaḥ

saṁti metyuktvā diśetyukto diśenna yaḥ Ms. 8. 57, 52, 53.

(2) To assign, allot; iṣṭāṁ gatiṁ tasya surā diśāṁti Mb.

(3) To give, grant, bestow upon, deliver or make over to;

bāṇamatrabhavate nijaṁ diśan Ki. 13. 68; R. 5. 30, 11, 2, 16. 72.

(4) To pay (as tribute).

(5) To consent to; R. 11. 49.

(6) To direct, order, command.

(7) To allow, permit; smartuṁ diśaṁti na divaḥ surasuṁdarībhyaḥ Ki.

5. 28. —Caus. (deśayati-te)

(1) To show, point out, allot, assign.

(2) To teach, communicate, tell, inform.

(3) To direct, order.

(4) To confer, bestow.

diś f. [diśati dadātpavakāśaṁ diś-kvip] (Nom. sing. dik-g)

(1) A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the

sky; diśaḥ prasedurmaruto vavuḥ sukhāḥ R. 3. 14; diśi diśi kirati

sajalakaṇajālaṁ Gīt. 4.

(2)

(a) The mere direction of a thing, hint, indication (of the general

lines); iti dik (often used by commentators &c.); itthaṁ laukikaśabdānāṁ

diṅmātramiha darśitaṁ Sk.

(b) (Hence) Mode, manner, method; muneḥ pāṭhoktadiśā S. D.;

digiyaṁ sūtrakṛtā pradarśitā; dāsīsabhaṁ nṛpasabhaṁ rakṣaḥsabhamimā

diśaḥ Ak.

(3) Region, space, place in general.

(4) A foreign or distant region.

(5) A point of view, manner of considering a subject.

(6) A precept, order.

(7) The number ‘ten’.

(8) A side or party.

(9) The mark of a bite. (N. B. In comp. diś becomes dig before words

beginning with vowels and soft consonants, and dik before words

beginning with hard consonants; e. g. digaṁbara, diggaja, dikpatha,

dikkarin, &c.)

— Comp.

—aṁtaḥ end of the direction or horizon, remote distance, remote

place; Bv. 1. 2; Māl. 2. 9; R. 3. 4, 5. 67, 16. 87; nānādigaṁtāgatā rājānaḥ

&c.

—aṁtaraṁ 1. another direction. —2. the intermediate space,

atmosphere, space. —3. a distant quarter, another or foreign country.

—aṁbara a. having only the directions for his clothing, stark naked,

unclothed; digaṁbaratvena niveditaṁ vasu Ku. 5. 72. (

—raḥ) 1. a naked mendicant (of the Jaina or Buddha sect.). —2. a

mendicant, an ascetic. —3. an epithet of (

(1)) Śiva; (

(2)) Skanda. —4. darkness. (—rī) an epithet of Durgā. —aṁbarakaḥ a

naked mendicant (of the Jaina sect). —īśaḥ —īśvaraḥ the regent of a

quarer; Ku. 5. 53; see aṣṭadikpāla. —kanyā, —kāṁtā, —kāminī a region of

the sky (considered as a virgin). —karaḥ 1. a youth, youthful man. —2. an

epithet of Śiva. —karikā, —karī a young girl or woman. —karin, —gajaḥ, —

daṁtin, —vāraṇaḥ m. one of the eight elephants said to guard and preside

over the eight cardinal points; (see aṣṭadiggaja); digdaṁtiśeśāḥ

kakubhaṣcakāra Vikr. 7. 1. —grahaṇaṁ observation of the quarters of the

compass. —cakraṁ 1. the horizon. —2. the whole world. —jayaḥ, —vijayaḥ

‘conquest of the directions,’ the conquest of various countries in all

directions, conquest of the world; sa digvijayamavyājavīraḥ smara

ivākarot Vikr. 4. 1. —taṭaṁ the horizon. —darśanaṁ 1. showing merely the

direction, pointing out only the general mode or manner. —2. a general

outline or survey. —3. a compass. —dāhaḥ preternatural redness of the

horizon. —nāgaḥ 1. an elephant of the quarter of the compass; see

diggaja. —2. N. of a poet said to be a contemporary of Kālidāsa. (This

interpretation is based on Mallinātha’s gloss on Me. 14 which is, however,

very doubtful). —patiḥ, —pālaḥ the regent or guardian of a quarter; (for

the names of the several regents, see aṣṭadikpāla; cf. Ms. 5. 96; 7. 303.

also). —pathaḥ the surrounding region. —bhāgaḥ a point of the compass,

direction. —maṁḍalaṁ = dikcakraṁ q. v. —mātraṁ the mere direction or

indication. —mukhaṁ any quarter or part of the sky; harati me

harivāhanadiṅmukhaṁ V. 3. 6; Amaru. 5. —mohaḥ mistaking the way or

direction. —vastra a. stark naked, unclothed. (—straḥ) 1. a Jain or

Buddhist mendicant of the digaṁvara class. —2. an epithet of Śiva. —

vibhāvita a. renowned or celebrated in all quarters.

दी — dī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dī (cf. «ḍi») cl.4.P. ā. «dīyati, -te», to soar, fly Intens. inf. «dedīyitavai», to

fly away «ḍī»; Gk. [greek]. ]

dī («dīdī» or «dīdi»). cl.3.P. 3. pl. «dīdyati» (Impv. «dīdihi» and «didīhi» ;

impf. «adīdet» ; pf. «dīdāya» or () «dīdaya; dīdetha, didiyus» ; Subj.

«dīdayati, -yat» ; «dīdayat» ; «dīdāyat» ; «dīdayante» ; Prec. «dīdyāsam» ;

p. Pres. P. «dīdiat» ā. «dīdiāna», p. pf. «dīvas») to shine, be bright; to

shine forth, excel, please, be admired ; bestow upon (loc. or dat.) by

shining

dī cl.4.ā. «dīyate», to decay, perish ( xxvi, 25; «didīye; dāsyate, dātā;

adāsta» Caus. «dāpayati» Desid. «didiṣate»and»didāsate»

dī f. decay, ruin.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dī I. 4 A. (dīyate, dīna)

(1) To perish, die.

(2) To waste, decay, diminish —II. 4 P. (dīyati) (Ved). soar, fly. —III. 3

P. Ved.

(1) To shine.

(2) To please, be admired, appear good.

दुध् — dudh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dudh cl.1.P. «dodhati» (Nigh. ii, 12), to be angry, hurt, injure; Pres. p.

«dodhat», impetuous, wild, fierce

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dudh 1 P. (dodhati) Ved.

(1) To kill, hurt, injure.

(2) To drive forward, propel.

दुह् — duh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899duh cl.1.P. «dohati», to pain

duh mfn. (nom. «dhuk») milking

mfn. yielding, granting (cf. «kāma-, go-» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

duh I. 2 U. (dogdhi, dugdhe, dudoha-duduhe, adhukṣat-ta or adugdha,

dhokṣyati-te, dogdhuṁ, dugdha)

(1) To milk or squeeze out, extract (with two acc.); bhāsvaṁti ratnāni

mahauṣadhīśca pṛthūpadiṣṭāṁ duduhurdharitrīṁ Ku. 1. 2; yaḥ payo

dogdhi pāṣāṇaṁ sa rāmāddhūtimāptuyāt Bk. 8. 82; payo ghaṭodhnīrapi gā

duhaṁti 12. 73; R. 5. 33.

(2) To draw anything out of another (with two acc.);

prāṇānduhannivātmānaṁ śokaṁ cittamavārudhat Bk. 6. 9.

(3) To drain a thing of its contents, to make profit out of; dudoha gāṁ

sa yajñāya śasyāya maghavā divaṁ R. 1. 26.

(4) To yield or grant (any desired object); kāmāndugdhe

viprakarṣatyalakṣmīṁ U. 5. 31.

(5) To enjoy. —Caus. (dohayati-te) To cause to milk. —Desid.

(dudhukṣati-te) To wish to milk; rājan dudhukṣasi yadi kṣitidhenumetāṁ

Bh. 2. 46. —II. 1 P. (dohati) To hurt, pain, distress.

दृंह् — dṛṁh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dṛṁh or #dṛh cl.1.P. «dṛṁhati», to make firm, fix, strengthen &c. (p.

«dṛṁhantam» ; ā. «-te», to be firm or strong &c. (trans. = P. only in

«dṛṁhethe» «dṛṁhāmahai» ; cl.4. P. ā. only Impf. «dṛhya» and «-hyasva»,

be strong ; cl.1. «darhati», to grow ; pf. «dadarha» or «dadṛṁha»; p. ā.

«dādṛhāṇa», fixing, holding ; fixed, firm, i, 85, 10; aor. «adadṛhanta», they

were fixed or firm, x, 82, 1: Caus. P. ā. «dṛṁhayati, -te», to make firm, fix,

establish

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dṛṁh I. 1 P. (dṛṁhati, dṛṁhita)

(1) To make firm, strengthen.

(2) To make fast, fasten.

(3) To fortify. —II.

(1) A. (dṛṁhate)

(1) To be firm.

(2) To grow or increase.

द्यु — dyu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dyu (nom. «dyaus»; voc. «dyaus» [ vi, 51, 5 ; acc. «dyām» «divam»; instr.

«divā» or «dīvā» [see below]; dat. «dive» [«dyave» ; abl. gen. «divas»

[rarely «dyos» e.g. ; loc. «divi, dyavi»; du. «dyāvā» s.v. [«dyavī» as voc.

only iv, 56, 5]; pl. nom. «dyāas» [«divas» only ix, 118, 11]; acc. «dyūn»

[rare, «divas, divas» e.g. i, 194, 2; iv, 3, 8]; instr. «dyubhis»; native

grammarians give as stems «div» and «dyo»; the latter is declined through

all cases like «go», but really does not occur except in forms mentioned

above and in «dyo-salila» «div» and «dyu» regularly alternate before vow.

and cons.) m. (rarely f.) in Ved. f. in later Skr. heaven, the sky (regarded

in Ved. as rising in three tiers [«avama, madhyama, uttama» or «tṛtīya»

(«dyauṣ» «pitā», while the earth is the mother [cf. «dyāvā-pṛthivī»], and

Ushas the daughter), rarely as a goddess, daughter of Prajā-pati ; m.

(rarely n.) day (esp. in pl. and in such forms as «divā»), by day (cf. s.v.);

«dyavi-dyavi», daily, every day; «anu dyūn», day by day, daily; «dyubhis»

and «upa dyubhis», by day or in the course of days, a long time ; m.

brightness, sheen, glow (only «dyubhis») ; fire (nom. «dyus») «dyu»; Gk.

[greek] &c. = ‘dyaus’, ‘divas’; Lat. ‘Jou’, ‘Ju’ in ‘Ju-piter’, ‘Jovis’, ‘Jovi’ &c.

= ‘dyavas’, ‘dyavi’; O.E. ‘Tiw’; O.H.G. ‘ZIu’ O.N. ‘Tyr’.]

dyu cl.2.P. «dyauti» ( xxiv, 31; pf. «dudyāva», 3 pl. «dudyuvur») to go

against, attack, assail

dyu for 3. «div» as inflected stem and in comp. before consonants.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dyu 2 P. (dyauti) To advance towards, encounter, attack, assail; Bk. 6.

118, 14. 101.

dyu n.

(1) A day.

(2) The sky.

(3) Brightness.

(4) Heaven.

(5) Sharpness; cf. adyu. —m. Fire. (dyu is a substitute for div f. before

terminations beginning with consonants and in compounds).

— Comp.

—gaḥ a bird.

—caraḥ 1. a planet. —2. a bird.

—jayaḥ attainment or gaining of heaven.

—dalaḥ noon.

—dhuniḥ f.,

—nadī the heavenly Ganges.

—nivāsaḥ a deity, god; śokāgninā’gād dyunivāsabhūyaṁ Bk. 3. 21.

—nivāsin m. 1. a deity. —2. a virtuous man.

—patiḥ 1. the sun. —2. an epithet of Indra.

—maṇiḥ the sun.

—yoṣit f. an apsaras.

—lokaḥ heaven.

—ṣad, —sad m. 1. a god, deity; Śi. 1. 43. —2. a planet.

—sarit f. the Ganges.

द्युत् — dyut Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dyut mfn. advancing against, (ifc.)

dyut cl.1.ā. «dyotate» (also «-ti») &c. (pf. «didyute», p. «-tāna» [cf. ,

«didyota» ; «-dyutur». ; aor. «adyutat» and «adidyutat» ; «adyaut» ,

«adyotiṣṭa» , P. «dyutat» ā. «-tāna» or «dyutāna» ; fut. «dyotiṣyati» ; ind.

p. «dyutitvā» or «dyot-» ; «-dyutya» to shine, be bright or brilliant: Caus.

«dyotayati»(«-te», Bhsṭṭ.) to make bright, illuminate, irradiate ; to cause

to appear, make clear or manifest, express, mean Desid. «dedyutiṣati» or

«didyot-» Intens. «davidyot», 3. pl. «-dyutati» ; «dedyutyate» , to shine,

glitter, be bright or brilliant

dyut f. shining, splendour, ray of light (cf. «danta-«).

dyut Caus. «dyotayati», to break, tear open (cf. «abhivi-, ā-«).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dyut

(1) A. (dyetate, dyutita or dyotita; desid. didyutiṣate, didyotiṣate) To

shine, be bright or brilliant, didyute ca yathā raviḥ Bk. 14. 104; 6. 26, 7.

107; 8. 89. —Caus. (dyotayati-te)

(1) To illuminate, irradiate; Bk. 8. 46; Ku. 6. 4.

(2) To make clear, explain, elucidate.

(3) To express, mean. —WITH abhi (Caus.) to illuminate; R. 6. 36. —vi

to shine, be bright; vyadyotiṣṭa sabhāvedyāmasau naraśikhitrayī Śi. 2. 3;

1. 20.

dyut m. A ray of light.

द्रु — dru Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dru cl.5.P. «druṇoti», to hurt, injure (pf. «dudrāva» ; to repent; to go (cf.

1. «drū»).

dru 1. P. (; ep. also ā.) «dravati, -te» &c. &c. (pf. «dudrāva» ; «-drotha,

-druma» ; «-druvur» &c.; aor. «adudruvat» ; «-drot» Subj. «dudravat» ; fut.

«droṣyati» ; inf. «-drotum» ; ind. p. «druṭvā» and «-drutya» to run, hasten,

flee &c.; to run up to (acc.), attack, assault ; to become fluid, dissolve,

melt Caus. «drāvayati» (ep. also «-te; dravayate» see under «drava») to

cause to run, make flow ; to make fluid, melt, vi, 4, 3; to drive away, put

to flight (Pass. «drāvyate», vii, 3515) Desid. «dudrūṣati» Gr.: Desid. of

Caus» «dudrāvayiṣati» or «dud-» Intens. «dodrūyate» or «dodroti» Gr.

(«dodrāva» ([Cf.2. «drā» and «dram»; Zd. ‘dru’, ‘drvant’.])

dru mfn. running, going (cf. «mita-, raghu-, śatā».)

dru f. going, motion

dru mn. (= 3. «dāru») wood or any wooden implement (as a cup, an oar

&c.)

dru m. a tree or branch (cf. «indra-» «su-, harid-, hari-«).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dru I. 1 P. (dravati, druta; desid. drudrūṣati)

(1) To run, flow, run away, retreat, fly (often with acc.); yathā

nadīnāṁ bahavoṁbu’vegāḥ samudramevābhimukhaṁ dravaṁti Bg. 11.

28; rakṣāṁsi bhītāni diśāṁ dravaṁti 36; drutaṁ dravata kauravāḥ Mb.

(2) To rush, attack, assault quickly; Bk. 9. 95.

(3) To become fluid, dissolve, melt, ooze (fig. also); dravati ca

himaraśmāvudrate caṁdrakāṁtaḥ Māl. 1. 24; 8. 12; U. 6. 12; Pt. 4. 33;

dravati hṛdayametat Ve. 5. 21; Śi. 9. 9; Bk. 2. 12.

(4) To go, move. —Caus. drāvayati-te)

(1) To cause to run away, put to flight.

(2) To melt, fuse. —II. 5 P. (druṇoti)

(1) To hurt, injure; taṁ dudrāvādriṇā kapiḥ Bk. 14. 81, 85.

(2) To go.

(3) To repent.

dru m. n. [dravatyūrdhvaṁ dru-bā—ḍu]

(1) Wood.

(2) Any instrument made of wood. —m.

(1) A tree; Ms. 7. 131.

(2) A branch. —f. Motion.

— Comp.

—kilimaṁ the Devadāru tree.

—ghaṇaḥ 1. a mallet, wooden mace. —2. an iron weapon made like

a carpenter’s hammer. —3. an axe, a hatchet. —4. an epithet of Brahmā.

—ghnī a hatchet.

—nakhaḥ a thorn.

—nasa (ṇasa) a. largenosed.

—na (ṇa) haḥ a scabbard; see druṇa-ha also.

—padaṁ Ved. a pillar (in general).

—padī a splay-footed female.

—sallakaḥ a kind of tree (piyāla).

द्विष् — dviṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dviṣ in comp. for «dvis» below.

dviṣ cl.2.P. ā. «dveṣṭi, dviṣṭe» (ep. also «dviṣati, -te»; Subj. «dveṣat» ;

impf. «advet», 3. pl. «adviṣur» and «adviṣan» pf. «didveṣa» ; aor. «dvikṣat,

-ṣata» (3. sg.) ; fut. «dvekṣyati, dveṣā» inf. «dveṣṭum» ; «dveṣṭos» to

hate, show hatred against (acc.; rarely dat. or gen.), be hostile or

unfriendly &c.; to be a rival or a match for Pass. «dviṣyate»; aor.

«adveṣi» Gr.: Caus. «dveṣayati» Desid. «didvikṣati, -te» Gr.; Intens.

«dedviṣyate, dedveṣṭi» or «dedviṣīti» Gr. ([Cf.Zd. ‘dbish’; Gk. [greek];

Germ. ‘Zwist’.])

dviṣ (nom. «dviṭ»), hostility, hatred, dislike; (also m.) foe, enemy &c.;

mfn. hostile, hating, disliking (ifc.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dviṣ 2. U. (dveṣṭi, dviṣṭe; dviṣṭa) To hate, dislike, be hostile towards; na

dvekṣi yajjanamatastvamajātaśatruḥ Ve. 3. 13; Bg. 2. 57, 18. 10; Bk. 17.

61; 18. 9; ramyaṁ dveṣṭi S. 6. 4. (Prepositions like pra, vi and saṁ are

prefixed to this root without any change of meaning.)

dviṣ a. Hostile, hating, inimical. —m. An enemy;

raṁbhrānbeṣaṇadakṣāṇāṁ dviṣāmāmiṣatāṁ yayau R. 12. 11; 3. 45; Pt. 1.

70. —f. Ved. Hostility.

— Comp.

—sevā treachery.

धन् — dhan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dhan cl.1.P. «dhanati», to sound (cf. «dhaṇ» and «dhvan»).

dhan cl.3.P. «dadhanti». ( 6-1, 192) to cause to run or move quickly (p.

«dadhanat, dadhanvas»; Pot. «dadhanyur» ; to bear fruit Caus.

«dhanayati, -te», to cause to move or run; to move or run (cf. «dhanv»

and «dhaniṣṭha»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dhan I. 1 P. (dhanati) To sound, —II. 3 P. (dadhaṁti) Ved. To bear fruit.

धा — dhā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dhā cl.3.P. ā. «dadhāti, dhatte» &c. &c. (P. du. «dadhvas, dhatthas,

dhattas» [ 8-2, 38]; pl. «dadhmasi» or «-mas, dhattha, dādhati»; impf.

«adadhāt» pl. «-dhur», 2. pl. «adhatta» or «adadhāta» ; Subj. «dadhat» or

«-dhāt» [ 7-3, 70 , «-dhas, -dhatas, -dhan»; Pot. «dadhyāt»; Impv.

«dādhātu» pl. «-dhatu»; 2. sg. «dhehi» [fr. «dhaddhi»; cf. «dhattāt» ; 2. pl.

«dhatta», i, 64, 15, «dhattana», i, 20, 7, «dadhāta», vii, 32, 13, or «-tana»,

x, 36, 13 [cf. ; p. «dadhat, -ti» m. pl. «-tas»; ā. 1. sg. «dadhe» [at once 3.

sg. = «dhatte» and = pf. ā.], 2. sg. «dhatse», viii, 85, 5 or «dhatse» du.

«dadhāthe, -dhāte»; 2. pl. «-dhidhve» [cf. pf.]; 3. pl. «dadhate» ; impf.

«adhatta, -tthās»; Subj. «dadhase», viii, 32, 6 [ 3-4, 96 ; Pot. «dadhīta»

«dadhīta», v, 66, 1; Impv. 2. sg. «dhatsva», x, 87, 2 or «dadhiṣva», iii, 40, 5

&c.; 2. pl. «dhaddhvam» [ 8-2, 38 or «dadhidhvam» «dadhatām» ; p.

«dadhāna»); rarely cl.1. P. ā. «dadhati, -te» ; only thrice cl.2. P. «dhāti» ;

and once cl.4. ā. Pot. «dhāyeta» (pf.P. «dadhau, -dhātha, -dhatur, -dhimā,

-dhur» &c.; ā. «dadhe» [cf. pr.], «dadhiṣe» or «dhiṣe» du. «dadhāthe, —

dhāte», 2. pl. «dadhidhve» [cf. pr.]; 3. pl. «dadhire, dadhre», x, 82, 5; 6, or

«dhire», i, 166, 10 &c.; p. «dadhāna» [cf. pr.]; aor. P. «adhāt, dhāt, dhās;

adhur, dhur» &c.; Pot. «dheyām, -yur; dhetana» ; 2. sg. «dhāyīs» ; Impv.

«dhātu» [cf. 6-i, 8 3 ; 2. pl. «dhāta» or «-tana», 3. pl. «dhāntu» ; ā.

«adhita, -thās, adhītām, adhīmahi, dhīmahi, dhimahe, dhāmahe» ; 3. sg.

«ahita, hita» ; Subj. «dhethe» , «dhaithe», vi, 67, 7; Impv. «dhiṣvā», ii, 11,

18, &c.; P. «adhat» ; «dhat» ; P. «dhāsur» Subj. «-sathas» and «-satha» ; ā.

«adhiṣi, -ṣata» ; Pot. «dhiṣīya» [P. vii, 4, 45]; «dheṣīya» ; fut. «dhāsyati, —

te» or «dhātā» &c.; inf. «dhātum» &c.; Ved. also «-tave, -tavai, -tos;

dhiyadhyai» ; Class. also «-dhitum»; ind. P. «dhitvā» ; «hitvā» [ 7-4, 42],

«-dhāya»and»-dhām» Pass. «dhīyate» &c. [ 6-4, 66], p. «dhīyamāna» ;

aor. «adhāyi, dhāyi» [ 7-3, 33 ; Prec. «dhāsīṣṭa» or «dhāyiṣīṣṭa» [vi, 4,

62]) to put, place, set, lay in or on (loc.) &c. &c. (with «daṇḍam», to

inflict punishment on [with loc. gen. ; with «tat-padavyām padam», to

put one’s foot in another’s footstep i.e. imitate, equal ii. 64); to take or

bring or help to (loc. or dat.; with «āre», to remove) ; (ā.) to direct or fix

the mind or attention («cintām, manas, matim, samādhim» &c.) upon,

think of (loc. or dat.), fix or resolve upon (loc. dat. acc. with «prati» or a

sentence closed with «iti») ; to destine for, bestow on, present or impart

to (loc. dat. or gen.) &c. (Pass. to be given or granted, fall to one’s

[dat.] lot or share ; to appoint, establish, constitute ; to render (with

double acc.) iii. 82; to make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect,

perform, execute &c. (aor. with «pūrayām, mantrayām, varayām» &c. =

«pūrayām» &c. «cakāra»); to seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support,

wear, put on (clothes) &c.; (ā.) to accept, obtain, conceive (esp. in the

womb), get, take (with «okas» or «canas», to take pleasure or delight in

[loc. or dat.]) ; to assume, have, possess, show, exhibit, incur, undergo

Caus. «-dhāpayati» (see «antar-dhā, śrad-dhā» &c.): Desid. «dhitsati, -te»

( 7-4, 54), to wish to put in or lay on (loc.) (Class. Pass. «dhitsyate;

dhitsya» see s.v.); «didhiṣati, -te», to wish to give or present ; (ā.) to

wish to gain, strive after (p. «didhiṣāṇa», x, 114, 1) with «avadyam», to

bid defiance (cf. «didhiṣāyya, didhiṣu»): Intens. «dedhīyate» ‘da’,

‘dadaiti’; Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘dedu’, ‘deti’; Slav. ‘dedja’, ‘diti’; Old Sax.

‘duan’, ‘don’, Angl. Sax. ‘don’, Engl. ‘do’; Germ. ‘tuan’; ‘tuon’, ‘thun’.]

dhā mfn. putting, placing, bestowing, holding, having, causing &c. (ifc.;

cf. 2. «dha»)

dhā m. placer, bestower, holder, supporter &c.

dhā m. N. of Brahmā or Bṛihas-pati

dhā f. see 2. «dha»

dhā instr. (= nom.) perhaps in the suffix «dhā» (which forms adverbs

from numerals e.g. «eka-dhā, dvi-dhā» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dhā 3 U. (dadhāti, dhatte, dadhau-dadhe, adhāt-adhita, dhāsyati-te,

dhātuṁ, hita; pass. dhīyate; caus. dhāpayati-te; desid. dhitsati-te)

(1) To put, place, set, lay, put in, lay on or upon; vijñātadoṣeṣu

dadhāti daṁḍaṁ Mb.; niḥśaṁkaṁ dhīyate (v. l. for dīyate) lokaiḥ paśya

bhasmacaye padaṁ H. 2. 173.

(2) To fix upon, direct (the mind or thoughts &c.) towards (with dat.

or loc.); dhatte cakṣurmukulini raṇatkokile bālacūte Māl. 3. 12; dadhuḥ

kumārānugame manāṁsi Bk. 3. 11, 2. 7; Ms. 12. 23.

(3) To bestow anything upon one, grant, give, confer, present; (with

dat., gen., or loc.); dhuryāṁ lakṣmīmatha mayi bhṛśaṁ dhehi deva

prasīda Mal. 1. 3; yadyasya so’dadhātsarge tattasya svayamāviśat Ms. 1.

29.

(4) To hold, contain; tānapi dadhāsi mātaḥ Bv. 1. 68; S. 4. 3.

(5) To seize, take hold of (as in the hand); Bk. 1. 26, 4. 26; Ki. 13. 54.

(6) To wear, put on, bear; gurūṇi vāsāṁsi vihāya tūrṇaṁ tanūni …

dhatte janaḥ kāmamadālasāṁgaḥ Rs. 6. 13, 16; dhatte bharaṁ

kusumapatraphalāvalīnāṁ Bv. 1. 94; dadhato maṁgalakṣaumai R. 12. 8,

9. 40; Bk. 17. 54.

(7) To assume, take, have, show, exhibit, possess; (usually Atm.);

kācaḥ kāṁcanasaṁsargāddhatte mārakatīṁ dyutiṁ H. Pr. 41; śirasi

masīpaṭalaṁ dadhāti dīpaḥ Bv. 1. 74; R. 2. 7; Amaru. 23. 67; Me. 36; Bh.

3. 46; R. 3. 1; Bk. 2. 1; 4. 16, 18; Śi. 9. 3, 10. 86; Ki. 5. 5.

(8) To hold up, sustain, bear up; gāmadhāsyatkathaṁ nāgo

mṛṇālamṛdubhiḥ phaṇaiḥ Ku. 6. 68.

(9) To support, maintain saṁpadvinimayenobhau

dadhaturbhuvanadvayaṁ R. 1. 26. (10) To cause, create, produce,

generate, make; mugdhā kuḍmalitānanena dadhatī vāyuṁ sthitā tatra sā

Amaru. 70.

(11) To suffer, undergo, incur; Śi. 9. 2, 32, 66.

(12) To perform, do

(13) Ved. To bring, convey.

(14) To appoint, fix. [The meanings of this root, like those of dā, are

variously modified according to the word with which it is connected; e. g.

manaḥ, matiṁ, dhiyaṁ, &c. dhā to fix the mind or thoughts upon, resolve

upon; padaṁ dhā to set foot on, to enter; karṇe karaṁ dhā to place the

hand on the ear &c.]. —WITH api (the a being sometimes dropped) 1.

(a) to close, shut; dhvanati madhupasamūhe śravaṇamapidadhāti

Gīt. 5; so karṇau-nayane-pidadhāti.

(b) to cover, hide, conceal; prāyo mūrkhaḥ paribhavavidhau

nābhimānaṁ pidhatte S. Til. 17 v. l. prabhāvapihitā V. 4. 2; Śi. 9. 76; Bk.

7. 69. —2. to hinder, obstruct, bar; bhujaṁgapihitadvāṁra

pātālamadhitiṣṭhati R. 1. 80. (The following verse illustrates the use of

dhā with some prepositions: adhita kāpi mukhe salilaṁ sakhī pyadhita

kāpi sarojadalaiḥ stanau . vyadhita kāpi hṛdi vyajanānilaṁ nyadhita kāpi

himaṁ sutanostanau N. 4. 111; or, better still, the following verse of

Jagannātha: nidhānaṁ dharmāṇāṁ kimapi ca vidhānaṁ navamudāṁ

pradhānaṁ tīrthānāmamalaparidhānaṁ trijagataḥ . samādhānaṁ

buddheratha khalu tirodhānamadhiyāṁ śriyāmādhānaṁ naḥ pariharatu

tāpaṁ tava vapuḥ .. G. L. 18).

धि — dhi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dhi cl.6.P. «dhiyati» («didhāya, dheṣyati» &c.) to hold ( xxviii, 113). Prob.

abstracted fr. 1. «dhā», of which it is the weak form.

dhi m. receptacle (only ifc.; cf. «ambu-, iṣu-» &c.)

dhi or #dhinv cl.5.P. «dhinoti» (aor. «adhinvīt» ; pf. «didhinva»; fut.

«dhinviṣyati, dhinvitā» Gr.) to nourish, satiate, satisfy ; to delight, please

dhi = «adhi»2 (e.g. in «dhi-ṣṭhita» [ for «adhi-ṣṭhita» q.v.; cf. «pi» = «api,

va» = «ava»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dhi I. 6 P. (dhiyati) To hold, have, possess. —WITH saṁ to make peace,

treat with; cf. saṁdhā. —II. or dhinv 5 P. (dhinoti) To please, delight;

satisfy; paśyaṁtī cātmarūpaṁ tadapi vilulitasragdhareyaṁ dhinoti Gīt. 12;

dhinoti nāsmāñjalajena pūjā tvayānvahaṁ tanvi vitanyamānā N. 8. 97; U.

5. 27; Ki. 1. 22.

धू — dhū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dhū cl.5.P. ā. «dhūnoti, -nute» ; «dhunoti, -nute» &c. &c.; cl.6. P. ( xxvii,

9) «dhuvati» (cf. «ni-«; Pot. «dhūvet» ; cl.9. P. ā. (xxxi, 17) Pot. «dhunīyāt»

; p. ā. «dhunāna» ; cl.1. P. (xxxiv, 29) «dhavati»; cl.2. ā., 3. pl. «dhuvate»

(«dhunvate»?) ; p. «dhuvāna» (pf. «dudhāva» , «-dhuve» ; «dudhuvīta» and

«dūdhot» aor. «adhūṣṭa», 3. pl. «-ṣata» ; «adhoṣṭa, adhaviṣṭa; adhauṣīt,

adhāvīt» Gr.; fut. «dhaviṣyati, -te» &c.; «dhoṣyati, -te, dhotā» & «dhavitā»

Gr.; ind. p. «dhūtvā» , «-dhūya» &c.; inf. «dhavitum» Gr.) to shake,

agitate, cause to tremble &c. &c.; to shake down from (e.g. fruits [acc.]

from a tree [acc.]) ; (oftener ā.) to shake off, remove, liberate one’s self

from (acc.) &c.; to fan, kindle (a fire) &c.; to treat roughly, hurt, injure,

destroy ; to strive against, resist Pass. «dhūyate» &c. (p. «dhūyat»

Caus. «dhāvayati» (Dhāt.xxxiv, 29) and «dhūnayati» (see «dhūna»): Desid.

«dudhūṣati, -te» Gr.; Intens. «dodhavīti» (p. «dodhuvat davidhvat» ;

«dodhūyate», p. «-yamāna»and»-yat» ; so shake or move violently (trans.

and intr.); to shake off or down; to fan or kindle. [Cf. «dhav» and «dhāv»;

Gk. [greek]. ]

dhū f. shaking, agitating

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dhū 6 P., 1. 5. 9. 10. U. (dhuvati, dhavati-te, dhunoti, dhūnute, dhūnāti,

dhunīte, dhūnayatite, dhūtadhūna)

(1) To shake, agitate, cause to move or tremble; dhunvaṁti

pakṣapavanairna nabho balākāḥ Rs. 3. 12; dhunvan kalpadrumakisalayāni

Me. 62; Ku. 7. 49; R. 4. 67; Bk. 5. 101, 9. 7; 10. 22.

(2) To shake off, remove, throw off; srajamapi śirasyaṁdhaḥ kṣiptāṁ

dhunotyahiśaṁkayā S. 7. 24.

(3) To blow away, destroy.

(4) To kindle, excite, fan (as fire); vāyunā dhūyamāno hi vanaṁ dahati

pāvakaḥ Mb.; pavanadhūtaḥ … agniḥ Rs. 1. 26.

(5) To treat roughly, hurt, injure; mā na dhāvīrariṁ raṇe Bk. 9. 50; 15.

61.

(6) To shake off from oneself, free oneself from; (sevakāḥ) ārohaṁti

śanaiḥ paścāddhunvaṁtamapi pārthivaṁ Pt. 1. 36.

(7) To strive against, resist, oppose. (The following stanza from

Kavirahasya illustrates the root in its different conjugations: —dhūnoti

caṁpakavanāni dhunotyaśokaṁ cūtaṁ dhunāti dhuvati sphuṭitātimuktaṁ

. vāyurvidhūnayati caṁpakapuṣpareṇūn yatkānane dhavati

caṁdanamaṁjarīśca ..).

ध्रज् — dhraj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dhraj «dhraṇj» or «dhrāj» cl.1.P. (Nigh. ii, 14 «dhrajati» («dhraṇjati» or

«dhṛṇjati» Gr.; p. ā. «dhrājamāna» ; aor. Pot. ā. «dhrājiṣīya» to move, go,

glide, fly, sweep on. (Cf. «dhṛj» and «dhrij».)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

dhraj , dhraṁj 1 P. (dhrajati &c.) To go, move.

न — na Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899na «no, it is not so»

na not-but

na the dental nasal (found at the beginning of words and before or after

dental consonants as well as between vowels; subject to conversion into

[characters]

na ind. not, no, nor, neither («nā», x, 34, 8) &c. &c. (as well in simple

negation as in wishing, requesting and commanding, except in prohibition

before an Impv. or an augmentless aor. [cf. a. «mā»]; in successive

sentences or clauses either simply repeated e.g. ; or strengthened by

another particle, esp. at the second place or further on in the sentence

e.g. by «u» [cf. «no»], «uta, api, cāpi, vā, vāpi» or «atha vā» ; it may even

be replaced by «ca, vā, api ca, api vā», &c. alone, as ; often joined with

other particles, beside those mentioned above esp. with a following «tu,

tv eva, tv eva tu, ced» q.v., «khalu» q.v., «ha» [cf. g. «cādi» and ; before

round or collective numbers and after any numeral in the instr. or abl. it

expresses deficiency e.g. «ekayā na viṁśati», not 20 by 1 i.e. 19 ;

«paṇcabhir na catvāri śatāni», 395 ; with another «na» or an «a» priv. it

generally forms a strong affirmation [cf. e.g. «neyaṁ na vakṣyati», she

will most certainly declare ; «nādaṇḍyo ‘sti», he must certainly be

punished ; it may also, like «a», form compounds [cf. below]); that not,

lest, for fear lest (with Pot.) ; like, as, as it were (only in Veda and later

artificial language, e.g. «gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piba», drink like [lit. «not» i.e.

«although not being»] a thirsty deer; in this sense it does not coalesce

metrically with a following vowel). [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘ne-‘; Angl. Sax.

‘ne’, «not»; Eng. ‘no’, &c.] -2.

na () mfn. thin, spare; vacant, empty; identical; unvexed, unbroken; m.

band, fetter; jewel, pearl; war; gift; welfare; N. of Buddha; N. of Gaṇeśa;

= «prastuta»; = «dviraṇḍa» (?); («ā») f. the navel; a musical instrument;

knowledge.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

na a.

(1) Thin, spare.

(2) Vacant, empty.

(3) Same, identical.

(4) Unwearied.

(5) Praised.

(6) Undivided. —naḥ

(1) A pearl.

(2) N. of Gaṇeśa.

(3) Wealth, prosperity.

(4) A band, tie.

(5) War.

(6) N. of Buddha.

(7) A gift. —ind.

(a) A particle of negation equivalent to ‘not,’ ‘no,’ ‘nor,’ ‘neither’,

and used in wishing, requesting, or commanding, but not in prohibition

before the imperative mood.

(b) Used with the potential mood na may sometimes have the

force of ‘lest,’ ‘for fear lest,’ ‘that not;’ kṣatriyairdhāryate śastraṁ

nārtaśabdo bhavediti Rām.

(c) In agrumentative writings na often comes after iti cet and

means ‘not so.’

(d) When a negative has to be repeated in successive clauses of

the same sentence or in different sentences, na may be simply repeated

or may be used with particles like uta, ca, api, cāpi, vā &c.;

nādhīyītāśvamārūḍho na vṛkṣaṁ na ca hastinaṁ . na nāvaṁ na kharaṁ

noṣṭraṁ neriṇattho na yānagaḥ .. Ms. 4. 120; praviśaṁtaṁ na māṁ

kaścidapaśyannāpyavārayat Mb.; Ms. 2. 195; 3. 8, 9; 4. 15; S. 6. 17.

Sometimes na may not be expressed in the second and other clauses, but

represented only by ca, vā, apivā; saṁpadi yasya na harṣovipadi viṣādo

raṇe ca dhīratvaṁ H. 1. 33.

(e) na is frequently joined with a second na or any other negative

particle to intensify or emphasize an assertion; pratyuvāca tamṛṣirna

tattvatastvāṁ na vedmi puruṣaṁ purātanaṁ R. 11. 85; na ca na paricito

na cāpyagamyaḥ M. 1. 11; na punaralaṁkāraśriyaṁ na puṣyati S. 1;

nādaṁḍyo nāma rājño’sti Ms. 8. 335; Me. 63, 106; nāsau na kāmyo na ca

veda samyag draṣṭuṁ na sā R. 6. 30; Śi. 1. 55; Ve. 2. 10.

(f) In a few cases na is retained at the beginning of a negative

Tatpurusha compound; as nāka, nāsatya, nakula; see P. VI. 3. 75.

(g) na is often joined with other particles; naca, navā, naiva natu,

naced, nakhalu &c. &c.

(h) It is also used, especially in early Vedic literature, in the sense

of ‘like,’ ‘as,’ ‘as it were’; gāvo na gavyūtīranu; Śi. 20. 4. v. l.

— Comp.

—asatyau (m. du.) Aśvins, the twin physicians of the gods.

—eka a. ‘not one’, more than one, several, various. (

—kaḥ) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ātman a. of a manifold or diverse

nature. (—m.) N. of the Supreme Being. -cara a. ‘not living alone’,

gregarious, living in society. -jaḥ the Supreme Being. -dhā ind. in many

ways, diversely. -bheda, -rūpa a. various, multiform. -śas ind. repeatedly,

often.

—kiṁcana a. very poor, beggarly.

नभ् — nabh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nabh cl.1.ā. «nabhate», to burst be torn or rent asunder ; impf. P.

«nabhas», to break or destroy (?), i, 174, 8 (cf. ; cl.4.9. P. «nabhyati,

nabhnāti» ( xxvi, 130, xxxi, 48), to hurt, injure (pf. ā. «nebhe» Caus.

«nabhayati», to cause to burst, tear open

nabh f. or m. injury () or injurer acc. pl. «nabhas»; but cf. 1. «nabh»

above ).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nabh

(1) A. (nabhate)

(1) To hurt, injure; sugrīvaḥ praghasaṁ nebhe Bk. 14. 33.

(2) To be torn or rent, to burst.

nabh f. Ved. Hurt, injury.

नम् — nam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nam cl.1.P. «namati» ( xxiii, 12), «-te» (mostly intrans.; cf. ; pr. p. ā.

«namāna» ; pf. P. «nānāma» &c.; 2. sg. «nemitha», or «nanantha» ; Subj.

«nanamas» ; 3. pl. «nemur» ; ā. «neme» ; 3. pl. «-nanamire» ; aor. P.

«anān» ; «anaṁsīt» ; ā. «anaṁsta» Gr.; 3. pl. «anaṁsata» ; Subj. «naṁsai,

naṁsante» ; fut. «naṁsyati» ; «namiṣyati» ; «nantā» ; inf. «-namam, —

name» ; «nantum, namitum» ; ind. p. «natvā» ; «-natya» ; «-namya» to

bend or bow (either trans. or oftener intr ) to bow to, subject or submit,

one’s self (with gen. dat. or acc.) &c. &c.; (with «hiruk») to turn away,

keep aside ; to turn towards i.e. to aim at (gen.) with (instr.) ; to yield or

give way, keep quiet or be silent ; (in gram.) to change a dental letter

into a cerebral Pass. «namyate», to be bent or bowed; yield or submit to

Caus. «namayati» &c. &c. («nāmayati» &c.; «nāmyati» [!] ; aor.

«anīnamat» ; Pass. «nāmyate, -ti» &c.) to cause to bow or sink, incline

&c. &c.; (with «cāpam») to bend a bow &c.; to turn away or ward off ; to

aim at (gen.), ix, 97, 15; (in gram.) to change a dental letter into a

cerebral Desid. «ninaṁsati», Gṛ.: Intens. «nannamīti» ; «nannamyate» (3.

sg. «namnate» impf. «anamnata», p. «namamāna» to bow or submit one’s

self to (dat.). ‘nam’, ‘nemaiti’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nemus’; Goth., Old Sax.,

Angl. Sax. ‘niman’; HGerm. ‘neman’, ‘nemen’, ‘nehmen’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nam 1 P., sometimes A. (namati-te, nanāma, anaṁsīt, naṁsyati, nata;

caus. namayati-te or nāmayati-te, but with a preposition namayati only;

desid. ninaṁsati)

(1) To bow to, make obeisance to, salute (as a mark of respect) (with

acc. or dat.); iyaṁ namati vaḥ sarvān trilocanavadhūriti Ku. 6. 89; Bg. 11.

37; Bk. 9. 51, 10. 31; 12. 39; Śi. 4. 57.

(2) To submit or subject oneself, bow down; aśaktaḥ saṁdhimān

namet Kam. 8. 55.

(3) To bend, sink; go down; anaṁsīdbhūrbhareṇāsya Bk. 15. 25.

nemuḥ sarvadiśaḥ K. 55; unnamati namati varṣati … meghaḥ Mk. 5. 26.

(4) To stoop, be inclined.

(5) To be bent or curved.

(6) To sound.

(7) To change a dental to a lingual letter. —Caus.

(1) To bend, make curved.

(2) To bend (as a bow); S. 2. 3.

(3) To cause to sink.

(4) To prevent, ward off.

नमस् — namas Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899namas n. bow, obeisance, reverential salutation, adoration (by gesture

or word; often with dat. e.g. «rāmāya namaḥ», salutation or glory to

Rāma, often ind. [g. «svar-ādi»]; «namas-kṛ», to utter a salutation, do

homage; ind. p. «-mas-kṛtya» [ &c.] or «-mas-kṛtvā» [; «namas-kṛta»,

worshipped, adored) &c. &c.

n. food

n. a thunderbolt, ii, 20

n. gift, donation

namas m. (?) an inarticulate cry

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

namas ind.

(1) A bow, salutation, obeisance, adoration; (this word is, by itself,

invariably used with dat.; tasmai vadānyagurave tarave namo’stu Bv. 1.

94; namastrimūrtaye tubhyaṁ Ku. 2. 4; but with kṛ, generally with acc.;

munitrayaṁ namaskṛtya Sk.; but sometimes with dat. also; namaskurmo

nṛsiṁhāya ibid. The word has the sense of a noun, but is treated as an

indeclinable.)

(2) Ved. Food.

(3) A thunderbolt.

(4) A gift, present.

(5) A sacrifice.

— Comp.

—kāraḥ, —kṛtiḥ f.

—karaṇaṁ bowing, respectful or reverential salutation, respectful

obeisance (made by uttering the word namas). —kṛta a. 1. bowed down

to, saluted. —2. revered, adored, worshipped.

—guruḥ 1. a spiritual teacher. —2. a Brāhmaṇa.

—vākaṁ ind. uttering the word namas, i. e. making a low

obeisance; idaṁ kavibhyaḥ pūrvebhyo namovākaṁ praśāsmahe U. 1. 1.

—vṛdh m. a sacrifice.

नश् — naś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899naś or #noṁś cl.1.P. ā. «naśati, -te» (aor. «ānat, -naṭ» «-anaṣṭām, -nak»

[in «pra-ṇak»] Impv. «-nakṣi»; ā. 1. sg. «naṁśi» Prec. «naśīmahi»; inf. «-

naśe»), to reach, attain, meet with, find «aś» and «nakṣ»; Lat. ‘nac-tus’

‘sum’; Lith. ‘neszti’; Slav. ‘nesti’; Goth. ‘ganahs’; Germ. ‘genug’; Angl. Sax

‘genah’; Eng. ‘enough’.]

naś cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 85) «naśyati» (rarely «-te» and 1. P. «naśati, -te»; pf.

«nanāśa», 3. pl. «neśur»; aor. «anaśat» &c.; «aneśat, neśat» [cf. on ; fut.

«naśiṣyati» ; «naṅkṣyati, -te» [cond. «anaṅkṣyata»] ; «naśitā» ; «naṁṣṭā» ;

«naṅgdhā» ; inf. «naśitum, naṁṣum» Gr.; ind. p. «naśitvā, naṣṭva,

naṁṣṭvā» to be lost, perish, disappear, be gone, run away &c. &c.; to

come to nothing, be frustrated or unsuccessful &c.: Caus. «nāśayati», ep.

also «-te» (aor. «-anīnaśat»; dat. inf. «-nāśayadhyai» to cause to be lost

or disappear, drive away, expel, remove, destroy, efface &c. &c.; to lose

(also from memory), give up ; to violate, deflower (a girl) ; to extinguish

(a fire) ; to disappear (in «mā» «nīnaśah» and «-naśuḥ») Desid.

«ninaśiṣati» or «ninaṅkṣati» (cf. «ninaṅkṣu»); Desid. of Caus.

«nināśayiṣati», to wish to destroy Intens. «nānaśyate» or «nānaṁṣṭi» Gr.

([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nex’, ‘nocere’]).

naś mfn. perishing (in «jīva-» q.v.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

naś I. 4 P. (naśpati, nanāśa, anaśat, naṁkṣyati, naśiṣyati naṣṭa; caus.

nāśayati; desid. ninaṁkṣati, ninaśiṣati)

(1) To be lost, to disappear, vanish, become invisible; dhruvāṇi tasya

naśyaṁti H. 1; tathā sīmā na naśyati Ms. 8. 247; Y. 2. 58;

kṣaṇanaṣṭadṛṣṭatimiraṁ Mk. 5. 24.

(2) To be destroyed, to perish, die, be ruined; jīvanāśaṁ nanāśa ca

Bk. 14. 31; Ms. 8. 166, 7. 40; Mu. 6. 8.

(3) To run away, fly away, escape; naśyaṁti vṛṁdāni dadarśa

kavīṁdraḥ Bk. 10. 12; neśuścitrā niśācarāḥ 14. 112; Ratn. 2. 3.

(4) To be frustrated, become unsuccess ful. —Caus.

(1) To cause to disappear.

(2) To destroy, remove, efface, drive away, cause to fly away.

(3) To violate, (as a virgin).

(4) To cause to be lost, lose.

(5) To forget.

(6) To extinguish, put out (as fire). —II. 1 U. (naśati-te) Ved.

(1) To reach, attain.

(2) To meet with, find.

naś f., naśaḥ, —naśanaṁ Destruction, perishing, loss, disappearing.

नस् — nas Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nas encl. form for acc. gen. dat. pl. of the Ist pers. pron. ( 7-l, i, 21), us,

of us, to us; in Veda changeable into «ṇas» (4, 27; 28). [Cf. Zd. ‘na’, our;

Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nos-ter’; Old Lat. dat. ‘nis’.]

nas cl.1.ā. ( xvi, 26) «nasate» (aor. Pot. «nasīmahi» ; pf «nese»; fut.

«nasitā» Gr.) to approach, resort to, join, copulate (esp. as husband and

wife) ; to be crooked or fraudulent (‘o’) [characters] ‘va-‘ (‘o’),

[characters]; Goth. ‘ga-nizan’, ‘nas-jan’; Angl. S. ‘genesan’; HGerm.

‘ginesan’, ‘genesen’.]

nas or #nās f. (the strong stem occurs only in du. «nāsā» , the weak

stem only in «nasā, nasi, nasos» [cf. comp.) the nose «nāsā, nāsikā»;

Lat. ‘nas-turciunm’, ‘nares’; Lith. ‘nosis’; Slav. ‘nosu’; Germ. ‘Nase’; Angl.

Sax. ‘nosu’; Eng. ‘nose’, ‘nostril’ = ‘nose-thrill’, ‘nose-hole’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nas 1 A. (nasate) Ved. 1 To approach, go towards.

(2) To copulate.

(3) To be crooked or curved, to bend.

nas f. The nose(a word optionally substituted for nāsikā after acc. dual).

— Comp.

—kṣudra a. smallnosed.

निक्ष् — nikṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nikṣ cl.1.P. «nikṣati», to pierce ; to kiss (cf. «niṁs»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nikṣ 1 P. (nikṣati) Ved.

(1) To pierce.

(2) To kiss.

निज् — nij Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nij cl.2.ā. «niṅkte» ; /cl. 3. P. ā. «nenekti, nenikte» (Intens.?; cf. below)

pres. stem only 2 pl. Impv. «ninikta» «nijāna» , «nije» = «ninije» ; pf.

«nineja, ninije» Gr.; fut, «nekṣyati, nektā» ; aor. «anijam, jan» ; «anaikṣīt,

nikṣi» ; ind. p. «niktvā» ; «-nijya» ; dat. inf. «-nije». , to wash, cleanse,

purify (ā. one’s self) &c.; to nourish Pass. «nijyate», to be washed &c.

Caus. «nejayati» ; aor. «anīnijat» Gr.: Desid. «ninikṣati» Gr.: Inteus.

«nenekti, nenikte» (cf. above; Pot. «neniyāt» ; «nenijīsti, nenijyate» Gr.),

to wash (one’s self). [Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Angl. Sax. ‘nicor’;

Germ. ‘Nix’, ‘Nixe’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nij 3 U. (nenekti, nenikte, praṇenekti, nikta)

(1) To wash, cleanse, purify; sasnuḥ payaḥ papuranenijuraṁbarāṇi Śi.

5. 28.

(2) To wash or clean oneself, to be purified (A.).

(3) To nourish. WITH nis to wash, clean, purify; R. 17. 22; Y. 1. 191;

Ms. 5. 127.

नी — nī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nī for «nis» (q.v.) before r.

nī (for 1. see p.543, col.3) cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii. 5) «nayati» «-te» (pf. P.

«nināya», 2. sg. «ninetha» pl. «nīnima» ; Subj. «ninīthas» Pot. «ninīyāt» ;

Impv. «ninetu» ; ā. «ninye» &c.; «-nayām āsa» ; «-nayāṁ cakre» ; aor. P.

3. du. «anītām» Subj. «neṣi, nethā» ; «anaiṣīt» Subj. «neṣati, -ṣat», 3. pl. ā.

«aneṣata» ; «anayīt» ; fut. «neṣyati» ; «-te» ; «nayiṣyati, -te» ; «nitā,

nayitā» ; ind. p. «nītvā» ; «nayitvā» ; «nīya» &c.; inf. «neṣaṇi» ; «netavai, —

tos»and»nayitum» ; «netum» &c. &c.), to lead, guide, conduct, direct,

govern (also with «agram» and gen.; cf. «agra-ṇī») &c. &c.; to lead &c.

towards or to (acc. with or without «prati» dat., loc. or «artham» ifc.) ; to

lead or keep away, exclude from (abl.) ; (ā.) to carry off for one’s self (as

a victor, owner &c.) ; (ā., rarely P.) to lead home i.e. marry ; to bring into

any state or condition (with acc. e.g. with «vaśam», to bring into

subjection, subdue [ā. ; P. ; with «śūdra-tām», to reduce to a śūdra ; with

«sākṣyam» [ā.], to admit as a witness, viii, 197; with «vyāghra-tām», to

change into a tiger ; with «vikrayam», to sell ; with «paritoṣam», to satisfy

; with «duḥkham», to pain ; rarely, with loc. e.g. «duhitṛ-tve», to make a

person one’s daughter ; or with an adv. in «-sāt» e.g. «bhasmasāt» to

reduce to ashes ; to draw (a line &c.) ; to pass or spend (time) &c.;

(with «daṇḍam») to bear the rod i.e. inflict punishment (with

«vyavahāram») to conduct a process ; (with «kriyām») to conduct a

ceremony, preside over a religious act ; to trace, track, find out,

ascertain, settle, decide (with «anyathā», «wrongly») &c.; (ā.) to be

foremost or chief Caus. «nāyayati, -te», to cause to lead &c.; to cause to

be led by (instr.) (cf. 5 Desid. «ninīṣati, te» ( xix, 50, 5, w. r.

«nineṣati»), to wish to lead or bring or carry to or into (acc. or dat.) &c.;

to wish to carry away ; to wish to spend or pass (time) ; to wish to

exclude from (abl.) ; to wish to find out or ascertain, investigate Intens.

«nenīyate» to lead as a captive, have in one’s power, rule, govern

nī mfn. leading, guiding, a leader or guide (mostly ifc., cf. «agra-ṇī,

agreṇī»; but also alone cf. vi, 4, 77; 82 &c.)

nī P. «ny-eti» (3. pl. «ni-yanti»; p. «-yat»; impf. «ny-āyan» ind. p. «nītya»),

to go into (cf. «nyāya»), enter, come or fall into, incur (acc.) ; to under go

the nature of i.e. to be changed into («-bhāvam»)

nī in comp.= 1. «ni» (p. 538, col.3).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nī 1 U. (nayati-te, nināya ninye, anaiṣīta-aneṣṭa, neṣyati-te, netuṁ, nīta)

(One of the roots that govern two accusatives, see examples below)

(1) To carry, lead, bring, convey, take, conduct; ajāṁ grāmaṁ nayati

Sk; naya māṁ navena vasatiṁ payomucā V. 4. 43.

(2) To guide, direct, govern; M. 1. 2.

(3) To lead away to, carry or bring away; sītā laṁkāṁ nītā surāriṇā

Bk. 6. 49; R. 12. 103; Ms. 6. 88.

(4) To carry off; Śānti. 3. 5.

(5) To carry off for oneself (Atm).

(6) To spend, or pass (as time); yenāmaṁdamaraṁde daladaraviṁde

dinānyanāyiṣata Bv. 1. 10; nītvā māsān katicit Me. 2; saṁviṣṭaḥ

kuśaśayane niśāṁ nināya R. 1. 95.

(6) To bring or reduce any person to any state or condition; tamapi

taralatāmanayadanaṁgaḥ K. 143; nītastvayā paṁcatāṁ Ratn. 3. 3; R. 8.

19. (In this sense the root is used with substantives much in the same

way as kṛ q. v.; e. g. duḥkhaṁ nī to reduce to misery; vaśaṁ nī to reduce

to subjection, win over; astaṁ nī to cause to set; vināśaṁ nī to destroy;

paritoṣaṁ nī to gratify, please; śūdratāṁ-dāsatvaṁ &c. nī to reduce to

the state of a Sūdra, slave &c.; sākṣyaṁ nī to admit as a witness;

daṁḍaṁ nī to inflict punishment upon, to punish; punaruktatāṁ nī to

render superfluous; vikrayaṁ nī to sell; bhasmatāṁ-bhasmasāt-nī to

reduce to ashes &c. &c.).

(8) To ascertain, investigate, inquire into, settle, decide; chalaṁ

nirasya bhūtena vyavahārānnayennṛpaḥ Y. 2. 19; evaṁ śāstreṣu bhinneṣu

bahudhā nīyate kriyā Mb.

(9) To trace, track, find out; etairligairnayet sīmāṁ Ms. 8. 252, 256;

yathā nayatyasṛkpātairmṛgasya mṛgayuḥ padaṁ 8. 44; Y. 2. 151. (10) To

marry.

(11) To exclude from.

(12) (Atm.) To instruct, give instruction in; śāstre nayate Sk. —Caus.

(nāyayati-te) To cause to lead, carry &c. (with instr. of agent); tena māṁ

sarastīramanāyayat K. 38. —Desid. (ninīṣati-te) To wish to carry &c.

nī m. (Used at the end of comp.) A leader, guide; as in grāmaṇī, senānī,

agraṇī.

नु — nu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nu (in also «nū»; esp. at the beginning of a verse, where often = «nu» +

«u»), ind. now, still, just, at once; so now, now then ; indeed, certainly,

surely &c. &c.; cf. (often connected with other particles, esp. with

negatives e.g. «nahi nu», «by no means», «nakir nu», no one or nothing at

all», «mā nu», «in order that surely not»; often also «gha nu, ha nu, in nu,

nu kam» &c. [«nū cit», either «for ever, evermore; at once, forthwith» or,

«never, never more»; so also «nū» alone ; with relat. = -cunque or —

soever; sometimes it lays stress upon a preceding word, esp. an interr.

pronoun or particle, and is then often connected with «khalu» &c. &c.; it

is also employed in questions, esp. in sentences of two or more clauses

[cf. where «nu» is either always repeated [ vi, 9] or omitted in the first

place [ib. i, 8] or in the second place and further replaced by «svid, yadi

vā» &c., and strengthened by «vā, atha vā» &c.) [Cf. 1. «nava, nūtana,

nūnam»; Zd. ‘nu’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nun-c’; Germ. ‘nu’, ‘nun’; Angl.Sax.

‘nu’, ‘nu’; Eng. ‘now’.]

nu m. a weapon

m. time

nu cl.1.ā. «navate» («nauti» with «apa»), to go Caus. «nāvayati», to move

from the place, remove

nu or #nū cl.2.6. P. (Dhāt. xxiv, 26; xxviii, 104) «nauti, nuvati», (pres.

also «navate, -ti» &c.; p. P. «nuvat, navat» ā. «navamāna» ; pf. «nunāva» ;

aor. «anūnot, anūṣi, -ṣata, anaviṣṭa» ; «anauṣit, anāvit, anuvīt» Gr.; fut.

«naviṣyati, nuv-; navitā, nuv-» ; ind. p. «-nutya, -nāvam» ; inf. «lavitum»

v.l. «nuv-» , to sound, shout, exult; praise, commend &c. &c.: Pass.

«nūyate» &c.: Caus. «nāvayati» aor. «anūnavat» Gr.: Desid. «nunūṣati» ;

Desid. of Caus. «nunāvayiṣati» Intens. «nonavīti, nonumas» (impf.

«anonavur» Subj. «navīnot»; pf. «nonāva, nonuvur» ; «nonūyate, nonoti»

Gr.), to sound loudly, roar, thunder

nu m. praise, eulogium

nu Caus. «nāvayati», to cause to be drawn into the nose (cf. 3 «nava»).

nu (ifc.) = «nau», a ship

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

nu ind.

(1) A particle having an interrogative force and implying some ‘doubt’,

or ‘uncertainty’; svapno nu māyā nu matibhramo nu S. 6. 9;

astaśailagahanaṁ nu vivasvānāviveśa jaladhiṁ nu mahīṁ nu Ki. 9. 7; 5.

1; 8 53, 9. 15, 54; 13. 4; Ku. 1. 46; Śi. 10. 14; S. 2. 9.

(2) It is very often compounded with the interrogative pronoun and its

derivatives in the sense of ‘possibly’, ‘indeed’; kiṁ

nvetatsyātkimanyadito’thavā Māl. 1. 17; kathaṁnu guṇavadviṁdeyaṁ

kalatraṁ Dk; see kiṁnu also.

(3) Ved. Now, even now.

(4) Now therefore, now then, therefore.

(5) Like, as.

(6) Quickly.

(7) From this time forward.

nu 2 P. (nauti, praṇauti; nuta; caus. nāvayati; desid. nunūṣati)

(1) To praise, extol, commend; sarasvatī tanmithunaṁ nunāva Ku. 7.

90; Bk. 14. 112; see nū.

(2) To roar, cry.

(3) To sound, shout. II. 1 A. (navate) To go.

नुद् — nud Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nud cl.6.P. ā. ( xxviii, 2; 132) «nudati, -te» (pf. «nunoda» ; «nunude», 3.

pl. «-dre» &c.; aor. P. «anautsīt» Gr.; ā. «anutthās» ; «nudiṣṭhās» ; Prec.

«-nudyāt» ; fut. «-notsyati» ; «-te» &c.; «nottā» Gr.; ind. p. «-nudya» ; inf.

«-nude» ; «-nudas» ; «-nodam» , to push, thrust, impel, move, remove &c.

&c.: Caus. «nodayati» (Pass. «nodyate»), to push on, urge, incite &c.:

Intens. «nonudyate», to push or drive away repeatedly

nud mfn. pushing, impelling, driving away, removing (ifc. or with acc.)

पच् — pac Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pac or #paṇc cl.1.P. ā. «pacati, -te», or «paṇcati, -te», to spread out,

make clear or evident Caus. «-paṇcayati» (xxxii, 108) see «pra-paṇcaya».

pac cl.1.P.ā. ( xxiii, 27) «pacati, -te» (cl. 4. ā. «pacyate» cf. below; p.

«pacāna» [cf. «kim-pacāna»]; pf. «papāca» [2. sg. «papaktha» or «pecitha»

, «pecur; pece, pecire» [«apeciran», i ; «peciran» on ; aor. «pakṣat» ;

«apākṣīt, apakta» Gr.; Prec. «pacyāt» ; fut. «pakṣyati, -te» or «paktā» ; ind.

p. «paktvā» ; inf. «paktave» ; «paktum, pāṇ» viii, 2, 30 , to cook, bake,

roast, boil (ā. also «for one’s self») &c. &c.; (with double acc.) to cook

anything out of (e.g. «tandulān odanam pacati», «e cooks porridge out of

rice-grains») ; to bake or burn (bricks) ; to digest ; to ripen, mature, bring

to perfection or completion &c. &c.; (with double acc.) to develop or

change into (e.g. «puṇyāpuṇyaṁ sukhāsukham», «merit and demerit into

weal or woe») ; (intrans.) to become ripe or mature Pass. «pacyate» («-

ti» ; aor. «apāci» Gr.), to be cooked or burnt or melted or digested or

ripened or developed &c. &c.; to be tormented ; also intrans. =

«pacyate» (cf. above ), to become ripe or mature, to develop or ripen

(with acc. of the fruit that is borne or ripens ; cf. 14 ; «lokaḥ

pacyamānaḥ», «the developing world» Caus. «pācayati, -te» (aor.

«apīpacat» Gr.; Pass. «pācyate», p. «-cyamāna» ; to cause to cook or be

cooked (ā. «for one’s self»), to have cooked or to cook &c. (cf. ; to cause

to ripen ; to bring to completion or to an end, cure, heal Desid.

«pipakṣati» Gr.: Intens. «pāpacīti» Gr.; «pāpacyate», to be much cooked,

to cook very much or burn excessively, to be much afflicted Desid. of

intens. «pāpacishati, -te» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat.

‘coquo’; Slav. ‘peka’, ‘pesti’.])

pac mfn. (ifc.; nom. «-pak» cooking, baking.

pac in comp. for 3. «pad».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pac I. 1 U. (pacati-te, papāca-pece, apākṣīt-apakta, pakṣyati-te, paktuṁ,

pakva)

(1) To cook, roast, dress (as food &c.) (said to govern two

accusatives; as taṁḍulānodanaṁ pacati, but this use is very rare in

classical Sanskrit); yaḥ pacatyātmakāraṇāt Ms. 3. 118; śūle

matsyānivāpakṣyan durbalān balavattarāḥ 7. 20; Bh. 1. 85.

(2) To bake, burn (as bricks); see pakva.

(3) To digest (as food); pacāmyanna caturvidhaṁ Bg. 15. 14.

(4) To ripen, mature.

(5) To bring to perfection, develop (as understanding.).

(6) To melt (as metals).

(7) To cook (for oneself) (Atm.). —Pass. (pacyate)

(1) To be cooked.

(2) To become ripe, matured or developed, ripen; (fig.) to bear fruit,

attain perfection or fulfilment; R. 11. 50.

(3) To be inflamed. —Caus.

(1) (pācayati-te) To cause to be cooked, to have cooked or dressed

(food &c.)

(2) To cause to ripen or develop, bring to maturity, perfection, or

completion.

(3) To cure, heal. —Desid. (pipakṣati) To wish to cook &c. —WITH pari

to ripen, mature, develop. —vi 1. to mature, develop, ripen, bear fruit; R.

17. 53. —2. to digest. —3. to cook thoroughly. —II.

(1) A. (pacate) To make clear or evident; see (paṁcate) also. —Caus.

(1) To explain fully, dilate upon, amplify.

(2) To spread.

pac a. (At the end of comp.) Cooking, baking &c.

पत् — pat Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pat cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 50) «patyate», to be master, reign, rule, govern,

control, own, possess, dispose of (acc. or instr.) ; to partake of, share in

(loc.) ; to be fit or serve for (dat.) Nom. of «pati»; cf. Lat. ‘potiri’.]

pat cl.1.P. ( xx, 15) «patati» (ep. also «-te»; pf. «papāta, paptima,

petatur, paptur; paptivas» ; «papatyāt» ; aor. «apaptat» ; Pass. «apāti» ;

fut. «patiṣ-yati» ; «-te, patitā» ; Cond. «apatiṣyat» ; inf. «patitum» &c. &c.;

ind. p. «patitvā» ; «-patya» or «-pātam» , to fly, soar, rush on &c. &c.; to

fall down or off, alight, descend (with acc. or loc.), fall or sink (with or

without «adhas» or «narake», «to go down to hell»; with «caraṇau» or «-

ṇayoḥ», «to fall at a person’s feet») &c.; to fall (in a moral sense), lose

caste or rank or position &c.; to light or fall upon, fall to a person’s share

(loc.) &c.; to fall or get into or among (loc.) ; to occur, come to pass,

happen Caus. «patayati», to fly or move rapidly along ; to speed (trans.;

cf. «patayat»); «-te», to drive away or throw down (?) ; «pātayati» (ep.

also «-te»; aor. «apīpatat» ; Pass. «pātyate» &c.), to let fly or cause to

fall, to fling, hurl, throw &c. &c.; to lay low, bring down (lit. and fig.),

overthrow, ruin, destroy &c. to throw upon or in, lay on (loc.) ; (with or

scil. «ātmānam») to throw one’s self ; to cut off (a head) ; to knock out

(teeth) ; to pour out or shed (water, tears) ; to kindle (fire) ; to cast

(dice) ; to turn, direct, fix (eyes) ; to impose or inflict (punishment) ; to

set in motion, set on foot ; to seduce to, betray into (loc.) ; (with

«dvedhā») to divide in two ; to subtract ; (ā.) to rush on, hasten Desid.

«pipatiṣati» ( and «pitsati» ( 7-4, 54), to be about to fly or fall: Intens.

«panīpatyate» or «-pātīti» ‘pat’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘peto’.]

pat mfn. flying, falling (ifc.; cf. «akṣi-pat»).

pat in comp. for 3. «pad».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pat I. 1 P. (patati, patita)

(1) To fall, fall down, come down, descend, drop down, alight;

avāṅmukhasyopari puṣpavṛṣṭiḥ papāta vidyādharahastamuktā R. 2. 60;

vṛṣṭirbhavane cāsya petuṣī 10. 77; (reṇuḥ) patati pariṇatāruṇaprakāśaḥ

śalabhasamūha ivāśramadrumeṣu S. 1. 32; Me. 105; Bk. 7. 9, 21. 6.

(2) To fly, move through the air, soar; haṁtuṁ kalahakāro’sau

śabdakāraḥ papāta khaṁ Bk. 5. 100; see patat below.

(3) To set, sink (below the horizon); soyaṁ caṁdraḥ patati

gaganādalpaśeṣairmayūkhai S. 4 v. 1; patatpataṁgapratimastaponidhiḥ

Śi. 1. 12.

(4) To cast oneself at, throw oneself down; mayi te pādapatite

kiṁkaratvamupāgate Pt. 4. 7; so caraṇapatitaṁ Me. 105.

(5) To fall (in a moral sense), lose one’s caste, forfeit one’s rank or

position, fall off: paradharmeṇa jīvan hi sadyaḥ patati jātita; Ms. 10. 97,

3. 16, 5. 19, 9. 200; Y. 1. 38.

(6) To come down (as from heaven); pataṁti pitaro hyeṣāṁ

luptapiṁḍodakakriyāḥ Bg. 1. 42.

(7) To fall, be reduced to wretchedness or misery; prāyaḥ

kaṁdukapātenotpatatyāryaḥ patannapi Bh. 2. 123.

(8) To go down into hell, go to perdition; Ms. 11. 37; Bg. 16. 16.

(9) To fall, occur, come to pass, take place; lakṣmīryatra pataṁti

tatra vivṛtadvārā iva vyāpadaḥ Subhāṣ. (10) To be directed to, light or fall

upon (with loc.); prasādasaumyāni satāṁ suhṛjjane pataṁti cakṣūṁṣi na

dāruṇāḥ śarāḥ S. 6. 28.

(11) To fall to one’s lot or share.

(12) To be in, fall in or into. —Caus. (pātayati-te, patayati rarely).

(1) To cause to fall down, descend or sink &c.; nipataṁtī

patimapyapātayat R. 8. 38. 9. 61, 11. 76.

(2) To let fall, throw or drop down, fell down (as trees &c.).

(3) To ruin, overthrow; S. 5. 21.

(4) To shed (as tears).

(5) To cast, direct (as the sight).

(6) To dash or strike out.

(7) To throw or put in, cause to enter.

(8) To bring to ruin or misfortune.

(9) To depreciate, lower the value of anything; arghataḥ pātitāḥ Bh. 2.

15. (10) (In Arith.) To subtract, deduct.

(11) To set in motion, set on foot. —Desid. (pipatiṣati or pitsati) To

wish to fall. —II. 4 A. (patyate) Ved.

(1) To be master of.

(2) To rule, control.

(3) To possess.

(4) To be fit for, serve for (with dat.) —III. 10 U. (patayati-te)

(1) To go, move.

(2) To be master of (intransitive).

पद् — pad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pad cl.1.P. «padati» v.l. for «bad», to stand fast or fixed

pad cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 60) «padyate» («-ti» ; Pot. «padyām» ; Impv. «patsva» ;

pf. «papāda» ; «pede» ; aor. «apadmahi, -dran» [Subj. «padāti» ; «apatsi,

patthās» ; Prec. «padīṣṭa» ; fut. «patsyati» ; «-te» ; «pattā» Gr.; inf.

«pattave» ; «-tos, -tum» ; «-padas» ; ind. p. «-padya» ; «-pādam» , to fall,

fall down or out, perish ; to go, resort or apply to, participate in (acc.),

keep, observe Caus. «pādayati, -te», to cause to fall (Pass. «pādyate» ;

Desid. «pipādayiṣati» &c.); «padayate», to go Desid. «pitsate» Intens.

«panīpadyate» ; «panīpadīti»

pad m. (in strong cases «pād»; ifc. f. «pad» or «padī») a foot («padā,

padbhyām» and «-bhis», also «on foot» &c. &c.; ifc. also «sticking to the

feet of»; cf. «śrī-viṣṇu-padī»)

m. a step

m. a fourth part, a quarter ; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘pes’, ‘ped-is’; Goth.

‘fotus’; Angl. Sax. ‘fot’; Eng. ‘foot’; Germ. ‘Fuss’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pad I. 10 A. (padayate) To go or move. —II. 4 A. (padyate, panna; caus.

pādayati-te; desid. pitsate)

(1) To go, move.

(2) To go to, approach (with acc.).

(3) To attain, obtain, gain; jyotiṣāmādhipatyaṁ ca prabhāvaṁ

cāpyapadyata Mb. —4. To observe, practice; svadharmaṁ padyamānāste

Mb.

(5) Ved. To fall down with fatigue.

(6) Ved. To perish.

(7) To fall out. —III. 1 P. (padati) To stand fast or fixed.

pad m. [pad-kvip] (This word has no forms for the first five inflections; it

is optionally substituted for pada after acc. dual)

(1) A foot.

(2) A quarter, a fourth part (as of a stanza).

— Comp.

—kāṣin a. 1. rubbing or scratching the feet. —2. going on foot,

pedestrian. (—m.) a footman.

—gaḥ, (padgaḥ) a footsoldier.

—jaḥ (jjaḥ) 1. a footman. —2. a Śūdra; cf. padbhyāṁ śūdro

ajāyata. —naddhā, —nadhrī a shoe, boot.

—niṣkaḥ ene quarter of a Nishka.

—rathaḥ (padrathaḥ) a foot-soldier, footman.

—śabdaḥ noise of footsteps.

—hatiḥ, —tī f. (paddhatiḥ, tī) 1. a way, path, road, course (fig.

also); iyaṁ hi raghusiṁhānāṁ vīracāritrapaddhatiḥ U. 5. 22; R. 3. 46; 6.

55; 11. 87; kaviprathamapaddhatiṁ 15. 33 ‘the first way shown to poets’.

—2. a line, row, range. —3. a surname, title or epithet, a word denoting

caste or profession in compounds which are used as proper names; e. g.

gupta, dāsa datta &c. —4. N. of a class of writings.

—himaṁ (paddhimaṁ) coldness of the feet.

पर — para Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899para mf («ā») n. (1. «pṛ»; abl. sg. m. n. «parasmāt, -rāt»; loc. «parasmin,

-re»; nom. pl. m. «pare, -rās, -rāsas»; cf. far, distant, remote (in space),

opposite, ulterior, farther than, beyond, on the other or farther side of,

extreme

mf («ā») n. previous (in time), former

mf («ā») n. ancient, past

mf («ā») n. later, future, next

mf («ā») n. following, succeeding, subsequent

mf («ā») n. final, last

mf («ā») n. exceeding (in number or degree), more than

mf («ā») n. better or worse than, superior or inferior to, best or worst,

highest, supreme, chief (in the compar. meanings [where also «-tara»],

with abl., rarely gen. or ifc.; exceptionally «paraṁ śatam», more than a

hundred lit. «an excessive hundred, a hundred with a surplus» ; «parāḥ

koṭayaḥ» &c. &c.

mf («ā») n. strange, foreign, alien, adverse, hostile

mf («ā») n. other than, different from (abl.)

mf («ā») n. left, remaining

mf («ā») n. concerned or anxious for (loc.)

para m. another (different from one’s self), a foreigner, enemy, foe,

adversary &c. &c.

para m. a following letter or sound (only ifc. mfn. e.g. «ta-para», having

«t» as the following letter, followed by «t»)

para m. (scil. «graha») a subsidiary Soma-graha

para m. N. of a king of Kosala with the patr. āṭṇāra

para m. of another king

para m. of a son of Samara

para m. (sc. «prāsāda») of the palace of Mitravindā

para m. or n. the Supreme or Absolute Being, the Universal Soul

para mf («ā») n. («ā») f. a foreign country, abroad (?)

para m. a species of plant

para m. N. of a sound in the first of its 4 stages

para m. a partic. measure of time

para m. N. of a river (v.l. «pārā, veṇā, veṇṇā»)

para m. of a goddess (cf. s.v.) n. remotest distance

para m. highest point or degree

para m. final beatitude (also «-taram» and «parāt para-taram»)

para m. the number 10, 000, 000, 000 (as the full age of Brahmā)

para m. N. of partic. Sāmans

para m. any chief matter or paramount object (ifc. [f. «ā»] having as the

chief object, given up to, occupied with, engrossed in, intent upon,

resting on, consisting of, serving for, synonymous with &c. &c.)

para m. the wider or mare extended or remoter meaning of a word

para m. (in logic) genus

para m. existence (regarded as the common property of all things)

para mf («ā») n. («am») ind. afterwards, later

para m. (with abl.) beyond, after (e.g. «paraṁ vijṇānāt», beyond human

knowledge; «astam-ayāt p-«, after sunset; «mattaḥ p-«, after me; «ataḥ

p-» or «param ataḥ», after this, farther on, hereafter, next; «itaḥ p-«,

henceforward, from now; «tataḥ p-» or «tataś ca p-«, after that,

thereupon; «nāsmāt p-» [for «māsmāt p-«], no more of this, enough) &c.

para m. in a high degree, excessively, greatly, completely

para m. rather, most willingly, by all means

para m. I will, so be it

para m. at the most, at the utmost, merely, no more than, nothing but

para m. but, however, otherwise («paraṁ tu» or «paraṁ kiṁ tu» id.; «yadi

p-«, if at all, perhaps, at any rate; «na-p-«, not-but; «na paraṁ-api», not

only-but also; «paraṁ na-api na», not only not-but not even; «na paraṁ-

yāvat», not only-but even)

para mf («ā») n. («pareṇa») ind. farther, beyond, past (with acc.) &c. &c.

para m. thereupon, afterwards, later than, after (with abl.or gen.). &c.

para mf («ā») n. («pare») ind. later, farther, in future, afterwards ‘para’;

Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘peren-die’; Goth. ‘fairra’; Germ. ‘fern’; Eng. ‘far’ and

‘fore’.]

para in comp. for «-ras».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

para a. [pṝ-bhāve ap, kartari ac-vā] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in

nom. and voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative

position)

(1) Other, different, another; see para m. also.

(2) Distant, removed, remote.

(3) Beyond, further, on the other side of; mlecchadeśastataḥ paraḥ

Ms. 2. 23, 7. 158.

(4) Subsequent, following, next to, future, after, (usually with abl.);

bālyātparāmiva darśā madano’dhyuvāsa R. 5. 63; Ku. 1. 31.

(5) Higher, superior; sikatātvādapi parāṁ prapede paramāṇutāṁ R.

15. 22; iṁdriyāṇi parāṇyāhuriṁdriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ . manasastu

parā buddhiryo buddheḥ paratastu saḥ .. Bg. 3. 42.

(9) Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best,

principal, na tvayā draṣṭhavyānāṁ paraṁ dṛṣṭaṁ S. 2; Ki. 5. 18; parato’pi

paraḥ Ku. 2. 14 ‘higher than the highest’; 6. 19; S. 7. 27.

(7) Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.)

(8) Alien, estranged, stranger.

(9) Hostile, inimical, adverse. (10) Exceeding, having a surplus or

remainder, left over; as in paraṁ śataṁ ‘exceeding or more than a

hundred.’

(11) Final, last.

(12) (At the end of comp) Having anything as the highest object,

absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or

occupied in; paricaryāparaḥ R. 1. 91; so dhyānapara, śokapara,

daivapara, ciṁtāpara &c. —raḥ

(1) Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense;

yataḥ pareṣāṁ guṇagrahītāsi Bv. 1. 9; Śi. 20. 74; see eka, anya also.

(2) A foe, an enemy, adversary; uttiṣṭhamānastu paro nopekṣyaḥ

pathyamicchatā Śi. 2. 10; Pt. 2. 158; R. 3. 21. —raṁ

(1) The highest point or pitch, culminating point.

(2) The Supreme spirit.

(3) Final beatitude.

(4) The secondary meaning of a word.

(4) (In logic.) One of the two kinds of sāmānya or generality of

notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. pṛthvī

is para with respect to a ghaṭa). Note—The acc., instr. and loc. singulars

of para are used adverbially; e. g.

(a) paraṁ 1. beyond, over, out of (with abl.); vartmanaḥ paraṁ R.

1. 17. —2after (with abl.); asmātparaṁ S. 6. 24; R. 1. 66; 3. 39; Me. 100;

bhāgyāyattamataḥ paraṁ S. 4. 16; tataḥ paraṁ &c. —3. thereupon,

thereafter. —4. but, however. 5. otherwise. —6. in a high degree,

excessively, very much, completely, quite; paraṁ duḥkhito’smi &c.

(7) most willingly. —8. only. —9. at the utmost.

(b) pareṇa 1. farther, beyond, more than; kiṁ vā mṛtyoḥ pareṇa

vidhāsyati Māl. 2. 2. —2. afterwards; mayi tu kṛtanidhāne kiṁ vidadhyāḥ

pareṇa Mv. 2. 49. —3. after (with abl.) stanyatyāgātpareṇa U. 2, 7.

(c) pare 1. afterwards, thereupon; atha tena daśāhataḥ pare R. 8.

73. —2. in future.

— Comp.

—aṁgaṁ the hinder part of the body.

—aṁgadaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—adanaṁ a horse found in the country of Persia or Arabia.

—adhikāracarcā officiousness, meddlesomeness.

—adhīna a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; Ms. 10.

54, 83.

—aṁtaḥ final death. (

—tāḥ) (m. pl.) N. of a people.

—aṁtakaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—anna a. living or subsisting on another’s food. (

—nnaṁ) the food of another; paragṛhalalitāḥ parānnapuṣṭāḥ Mk. 4.

28. -paripuṣṭatā being fed with the food of others; Y. 3. 241. -bhojin a.

subsisting on the food of others; H. 1. 139.

—apara a. 1. far and near, remote and proximate. —2. prior and

posterior. —3. before and beyond, earlier and later. —4. higher and lower,

best and worst. (

—raḥ) a Guru of an intermediate class. (

—raṁ) (in logic) a property intermediate between the greatest and

smallest numbers, a species (as existing between the genus and

individual); e. g. pṛthvī which is para with respect to a ghaṭa is apara

with respect to dravya; dravyatvādikajātistu parāparatayocyate Bhaṣa P.

8.

—amṛtaṁ rain.

—ayaṇa (ayana) a. 1. attached or devoted to, adhering to. —2.

depending on, subject to. —3. intent on, solely devoted to or absorbed in

(at the end of comp.); prabhurdhanaparāyaṇaḥ Bh. 2. 56; so moha- Ku. 4.

1; agnihotra- &c. —4. connected with —5. leading or conducive to. (

—ṇaṁ) 1. the principal or highest object, chief aim, best or last

resort. —2. essence, sum. —3. Ved. going away, departure, exit. —4. firm

devotion.

—artha a. 1. having another aim or meaning. —2. intended or

designed for another, done for another. (

—rthaḥ) 1. the highest interest or advantage. —2. the interest of

another (opp. svārtha); svārtho yasya parārtha eva sa pumānekaḥ

satāmagraṇīḥ Subhāṣ.; R. 1. 29. —3. the chief or highest meaning. —4.

the highest object (i. e. sexual intercourse). (

—rthaṁ —rthe) ind. for the sake of another.

—ardhaṁ 1. the other part (opp. pūrvārdha); the latter half;

dinasya pūrvārdhaparārdhabhinnā chāyeva maitrī khalasajjanānāṁ Bh. 2.

60. —2. a particular high number; i. e. 100,000,000,000,000,000;

ekatvādiparārdhaparyaṁtā saṁkhyā T. S.

—ardhya a. 1. being on the farther side or half. —2. most distant in

number; hemaṁto vasaṁtātparārdhyaḥ Śat. Br. —3. most excellent, best,

most exalted, highly esteemed, highest, supreme; R. 3. 27, 8. 27, 10. 64;

16. 39; Śi. 8. 45. —4. most costly; Śi. 4. 11. —5. most beautiful or lovely,

finest; R. 6. 4; Śi. 3. 58. (

—rdhyaṁ) 1. a maximum. —2. an infinite number.

—avara a. 1. far and near. —2. earlier and later. —3. prior and

posterior or subsequent. —4. higher and lower. —5. traditional; Ms. 1.

105. —6. all-including. (

—rā) descendants. (

—raṁ) 1. cause and effect. —2. the whole extent of an idea. —3.

the universe. —4. totality. -dṛś a. knowing both the past and the future.

—ahaḥ the next day.

—ahṇaḥ the afternoon, the latter part of the day.

—āgamaḥ attack of an enemy.

—ācita a. fostered or brought up by another. (

—taḥ) a slave.

—ātman m. the Supreme spirit.

—āyatta a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; parāyattaḥ

prīteḥ kathamiva rasaṁ vettu puruṣaḥ Mu. 3. 4.

—āyus m. an epithet of Brahman.

—āviddhaḥ 1. an epithet of Kubera. —2. of Viṣṇu.

—āśraya a. dependent upon another. (

—yaḥ) 1. dependence upon another. —2. the retreat of enemies. (

—yā) a plant growing on another tree.

—āsaṁgaḥ dependence upon another.

—āskaṁdin m. a thief, robber.

—itara a. 1. other than inimical, i. e. friendly, kind. —2. one’s own;

Ki. 1. 14.

—īśaḥ 1. an epithet of Brahman. —2. of Viṣṇu.

—iṣṭiḥ N. of Brahman.

—utkarṣaḥ another’s prosperity.

—upakāraḥ doing good to others, benevolence, beneficence,

charity; paropakāraḥ puṇyāya pāpāya parapīḍanaṁ. —upakārin a.

benevolent, kind to others.

—upajāpaḥ causing dissension among enemies.

—upadeśaḥ advising others; paropadeśe pāṁḍityam. —uparuddha

a. besieged by an enemy.

—ūḍhā another’s wife.

—edhita a. fostered or brouht up gby another. (

—taḥ) 1. a servant. —2. the (Indian) cuckoo.

—kalatraṁ another’s wife. -abhigamanaṁ adultery; H. 1. 135.

—kāryaṁ another’s business or work. -nirataḥ 1. a benevolent

man. —2. a slave, servant.

—krāṁtiḥ f. inclination of the ecliptic.

—kṣetraṁ 1. another’s body. —2. another’s field; Ms. 9. 49. —3.

another’s wife; Ms. 3. 175.

—gāmin a. 1. being with another. —2. relating to another. —3.

beneficial to another.

—guṇa a. beneficial to another.

—graṁthiḥ joint (as of a finger).

—glāniḥ f. subjugation of an enemy; ātmodayaḥ paraglānirdvayaṁ

nītiritīyatī Śi. 2. 30.

—cakraṁ 1. the army of an enemy. —2. invasion by an enemy, one

of the six ītis, q. v. —3. a hostile prince.

—chaṁda a. dependent. (

—daḥ) 1. the will of another. —2. dependence. -anuvartanaṁ

following the will of another.

—chidraṁ a weak or vulnerable point of another, a defect in

another.

—ja a. stranger

—janaḥ a stranger (opp. svajana). —jāta a. 1. born of another. —2.

dependent on another for livelihood. (

—taḥ) a servant.

—jita a. 1. conquered by another. —2. maintained by another. (

—taḥ) the (Indian) cuckoo.

—taṁtra a. dependent on another, dependent, subservient.

—dārāḥ (m. pl.) another’s wife.

—dārin m. an adulterer.

—duḥkhaṁ the sorrow or grief of another; viralaḥ

paraduḥkhaduḥkhito janaḥ; mahadapi paraduḥkhaṁ śītalaṁ samyagāhuḥ

V. 4. 13.

—devatā the Supreme being.

—deśaḥ a foreign country.

—deśin m. a foreigner.

—drohin, —dveṣin a. hating others, hostile, inimical.

—dhanaṁ another’s property.

—dharmaḥ 1. the religion of another; svadharme nidhanaṁ śreyaḥ

paradharmo bhayāvahaḥ Bg. 3. 35. —2. another’s duty or business. —3.

the duties of another caste; Ms. 10. 97.

—dhyānaṁ absolute meditation or contemplation.

—nipātaḥ the irregular posteriority of a word in a compound; i. e.

bhūtapūrvaḥ where the sense is pūrvaṁ bhūtaḥ; so rājadaṁtaḥ,

agnyāhitaḥ &c.

—pakṣaḥ the side or party of an enemy.

—padaṁ 1. the highest position, eminence. —2. final beatitude.

—pākarata a. one who depends upon others for his sustenance but

performs the usual ceremonies before cooking; paṁcayajñān svayaṁ

kṛtvā parānnamupajīvati . satataṁ prātarutthāya parapākaratastu saḥ …

—piṁḍaḥ another’s food, food given by another. -ad a. one who eats

another’s food or one who feeds at the cost of another. (—m.) a servant.

-rata a. feeding upon another’s food.

—puraṁjayaḥ a conqueror, hero.

—puruṣaḥ 1. another man, a stranger. —2. the Supreme spirit,

Viṣṇu.

(3) The husband of another woman. —puṣṭa a. fed or nourished by

another. (—ṣṭaḥ) the (Indian) cuckoo. -mahotsavaḥ the mango tree. —

puṣṭā 1. the (Indian) cuckoo. —2. a parasitical plant. —3. a harlot,

postitute. —pūrvā a woman who has had a former husband. —preṣyaḥ a

servant, menial slave. —brahman n. the Supreme spirit. —bhāgaḥ 1.

another’s share. —2. superior merit. —3. good fortune, prosperity. —4.

(a) excellence, superiority, supremacy; duradhigamaḥ parabhāgo

yāvatpuruṣeṇa pauruṣaṁ na kṛtaṁ Pt. 1. 330; 5. 34.

(b) excess, abundance, height; sthalakamalagaṁjanaṁ mama

hṛdayaraṁjanaṁ janitaratiraṁgaparabhāgaṁ Gīt. 10; ābhāti

labdhaparabhāgatayādharoṣṭhe R. 5. 70; Ku. 7. 17; Ki. 5. 30, 8. 42; Śi. 7.

33, 8. 51; 10. 86, 12. 15. —5. the last part, remainder. —bhāṣā a foreign

tongue. —bhukta a. enjoyed or used by another. —bhūta a. following,

subsequent (as words). —bhṛt m. a crow (said to nourish the cuckoo). —

bhṛta a. nourished by another. —bhṛtaḥ, —tā the (Indian) cuckoo; (so

called because she is nourished by another, i. e. by a crow); S. 5. 22; Ku.

6. 2; R. 9. 43; S. 4. 9. —mataṁ 1. another’s opinion. —2. different opinion

or doctrine. —marmajña a. knowing the secrets of another. —mṛtyuḥ a

crow. —ramaṇaḥ a married woman’s gallant or paramour; Pt. 1. 180. —

lokaḥ the next (or future) world; Ku. 4. 10. -gamaḥ, -yānaṁ death. -vidhiḥ

funeral rites; Ku. 4. 38. —vaśa, —vaśya a. subject to another, dependent.

—vācyaṁ a fault or a defect. —vāṇiḥ 1. a judge. —2. a year. —3. N. of the

peacock of Kārtikeya. —vādaḥ 1. rumour, report. —2. objection,

controversy. —vādin m. a disputant, controversialist. —veśman n. the

abode of the supreme being. —vrataḥ an epithet of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. —śvas

ind. the dayafter tomorrow. —saṁgata a. 1. associated with another. —2.

fighting with another. —saṁjñakaḥ the soul. —savarṇa a. homogeneous

with a following letter (in gram.). —sāt ind. into the hands of another. —

kṛtā a woman given in marriage. —sevā service of another. —strī

another’s wife. —svaṁ another’s property; R. 1. 27; Ms. 7. 123. -haraṇaṁ

seizing another’s property. —han a. killing enemies. —hita a. 1.

benevolent. —2. profitable to another. (—taṁ) the welfare of another.

पर्ष् — parṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899parṣ (cf. «pṛṣ») cl.1.ā. «parṣate», to grow wet (v.l. «varṣ» and «sparṣ»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

parṣ 1 A. (parṣate)

(1) To become wet or moist.

(2) Ved. To accept.

पशु — paśu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899paśu ind. see, behold!

paśu m. (instr. «paśunā» or «-śva»; dat. «paśve» or «paśave»; gen.

«paśvas» or «-śos»; du. «paśvā»; acc. pl. «paśvas» or «-śūn») cattle, kine

(orig. «any tethered animal»; singly or collect. «a herd»), a domestic or

sacrificial animal (as opp. to «mṛga», «wild animal»; 5 kinds are

enumerated, «men, kine, horses, goats and sheep» [ xi, 2, 9 &c.], to

which are sometimes added mules arid asses [ vi, 155 &c.] or camels and

dogs [ iii, 10, 6 &c. &c.

paśu m. (instr. «paśunā» or «-śva»; dat. «paśve» or «paśave»; gen.

«paśvas» or «-śos»; du. «paśvā»; acc. pl. «paśvas» or «-śūn») cattle, kine

(orig. «any tethered animal»; singly or collect. «a herd»), a domestic or

sacrificial animal (as opp. to «mṛga», «wild animal»; 5 kinds are

enumerated, «men, kine, horses, goats and sheep» [ xi, 2, 9 &c.], to

which are sometimes added mules arid asses [ vi, 155 &c.] or camels and

dogs [ iii, 10, 6 &c. &c.

m. any animal or brute or beast (also applied contemptuously to a

man; cf. «nara-p-» and «nṛ-p-«)

m. a mere animal in sacred things i.e. an uninitiated person

m. an animal sacrifice

m. flesh

m. a goat

m. a subordinate deity and one of śiva’s followers

paśu m. (with Māheśvaras and Pāśupatas) the individual soul as distinct

from the divine Soul of the universe 89

m. Ficus Glomerata

paśu m. (pl.) N. of a people (v.l. «patti»)

paśu n. cattle (only as acc. before «manyate» [ xxiii, 30] and

«manyamāna» [ iii, 53, 23]; and pl. «paśūni» ([Cf. Zd. ‘pasu’; Lit. ‘pecu’;

Old Pruss. ‘pecku’; Goth. ‘faihu’; Germ. ‘fihu’, ‘vihe’, ‘Vieh’; Angl. Sax.

‘feoh’; Eng. ‘fee’.])

पा — pā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pā f. guarding, protecting

pā f. = «pūta» and «pūritaka».

pā cl.1.P. ( xxii, 27) «pibati» (Ved. and ep. also ā. «-te»; rarely «pipati, —

te» cl.2. «pāti, pāthas, pānti» ; p. ā. «papāna» , «pipāna» (pf. P. «papau»,

2. sg. «papātha» ; «papitha» ; «papīyāt» ; p. «papivas» ; ā. «pape, papire» ;

p. «papāna» ; aor. or impf. «apāt» [cf. pl. «apuḥ» [?] ; «-pāsta» Prec. 3.

sg. «peyās» ; fut. «pāsyati, -te» &c.; «pātā» Gr.; ind. p. «pītvā» &c. &c.,

«-tvī» ; «-pāya» &c. &c.; «pītyā» ; «pāyam» ; inf. «pibadhyai» ; «pātum»

&c.; «pātave» ; «pātavaī» , to drink, quaff, suck, sip, swallow (with acc.,

rarely gen.) &c. &c.; (met.) to imbibe, draw in, appropriate, enjoy, feast

upon (with the eyes, ears &c.) &c.; to drink up, exhaust, absorb ; to

drink intoxicating liquors Pass. «pīyate» &c. &c.: Caus. «pāyayati, -te»

(pf. «pāyayām āsā» ; aor. «apīpyat» ; ind. p. «pāyayitvā» ; inf.

«pāyayitavai» , to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)

&c. &c.: Desid. «pipāsati» ( also «pipīṣati»), to wish to drink, thirst Desid.

of Caus. «pipāyayiṣati», to wish or intend to give to drink Intens.

«pepīyate» (p. «-yamāna» also with pass meaning), to drink greedily or

repeatedly [characters] -[characters] -[characters]; Aeol. [characters]

-[characters] = [characters]; Lat. ‘pa-tus’, ‘potum’, ‘bibo’ for ‘pi-bo’; Slav.

‘pi-ja’, ‘pi-ti’]

pā mfn. drinking, quaffing &c. (cf. «agre-, ṛtu-, madhu-, soma-» &c. )

pā cl.2.P. (Dhāt. xxiv, 48) «pāti» (Impv. «pāhi»; pr. p. P. «pāt» ā. «pāna» ;

pf. «papau» Gr.; aor. «apāsīt» Subj. «pāsati» ; fut. «pāsyati, pātā» Gr.;

Prec. «pāyāt» ; inf. «pātum» , to watch, keep, preserve; to protect from,

defend against (abl.) &c. &c.; to protect (a country) i.e. rule, govern ; to

observe, notice, attend to, follow Caus. «pālayati» see «pāl»: Desid.

«pīpāsati» Gr.: Intens. «pāpāyate, pāpeti, pāpāti» ‘pa’, ‘paiti’; Gk. [greek]

&c.; Lat. ‘pa-sco’, ‘pa-bulum’; Lith. ‘pe-mu-‘]

pā mfn. keeping, protecting, guarding &c. (ef. «apāna-, ritā-, go-, tanū-»

&c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pā I. 1 P. (pibati, pīta; pass. pīyate)

(1) To drink, quaff; piba stanyaṁ pota Bv. 1. 60; duḥśāsanasya

rudhiraṁ na pibāmyurastaḥ Ve. 1. 15; R. 3. 54; Ku. 3. 36; Māl. 8. 5; Bk.

14. 92; 15. 6.

(2) To kiss; pibatyasau pāyayate ca siṁdhūḥ R. 13. 9, S. 1. 24.

(3) To drink in, inhale; R. 7. 63.

(4) To drink in (with the eyes or ears), feast on, look at or listen to

intently; samaduḥkhaḥ pīyate nayanābhyāṁ V. 1; nivātapadmastimitena

cakṣuṣā nṛpasya kāṁtaṁ pibataḥ sutānanaṁ R. 3. 17; 2. 19, 73; 11. 36;

13. 30; Me. 16; Ku. 7. 64.

(5) To absorb, drink or swallow up; (bāṇaiḥ) āyurdehātigaiḥ pītaṁ

rudhiraṁ tu patatrimiḥ R. 12. 48.

(6) To drink intoxicating liquors. —Caus. (pāyayati-te)

(1) To cause to drink, give to drink; R. 13. 9; Bk. 8. 41, 62.

(2) To water. —Desid. (pipāsati) To wish to drink &c.; hālāhalaṁ

khalu pipāsati kautukena Bv. 1. 95. —II. 2 P. (pāti, pāta)

(1) To protect, guard, keep, defend, preserve; (oft. with abl.);

paryāptosi prajāḥ pātuṁ R. 10. 25; pātu tvā … … bhūteśasya

bhujaṁgavallivalayasraṅnaddhajūṭā jaṭāḥ Mal. 1. 2; jīvan punaḥ

śaśvadupaplavebhyaḥ prajāḥ prajānātha piteva pāsi R. 2. 48.

(2) To rule, govern; pātu pṛthvīṁ … bhūpāḥ Mk. 10. 60.

(3) To beware of.

(4) Ved. To observe, notice.

(5) To keep, observe, tend, take notice of. —Caus. (pālayati-te)

(1) To protect, guard, keep, preserve; kathaṁ duṣṭhuḥ svayaṁ

dharme prajāstvaṁ pālayiṣyasi Bk. 6. 132; Ms. 9. 108; R. 9. 2.

(2) To rule, govern; tāṁ purīṁ pālayāmāsa Rām.

(3) To observe, keep, adhere to, fulfil (as a vow or promise);

pālitasaṁgarāya R. 13. 65.

(4) To bring up, nourish, maintain.

(5) To wait for; atropaviśya muhūrtamāryaḥ pālayatu kṛṣṇāgamanaṁ

Ve. 1.

pā a. (At the end of comp.)

(1) Drinking, quaffing; as in somapāḥ, agrepāḥ &c.

(2) Protecting, guarding, keeping; gopā.

पिश् — piś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899piś («piṁś») cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 143) «piṁśati», Ved. also ā. «-te» (pf. «pipeśa,

pipiśe» «-śre» ; aor. p. «piśāna» ; «apeśīt» Gr.; fut. «peśiṣyati, peśitā» Gr.),

to hew out, carve, prepare (esp. meat), make ready, adorn (A. also

«one’s self»); to form, fashion, mould Pass. «piśyate» Caus. «peśayate»

aor. «apīpiśat» Gr.: Desid. «pipiśiṣati» or «pipeśiṣati» Intens. see «pepiśat,

śāna». ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Slav. ‘pisati’; Angl. Sax. ‘fah’.])

piś f. ornament, decoration (cf. «viśva-, śukra-, su-«.).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

piś 6 U. (piṁśati-te) To shape, fashion, form.

(2) To be organised.

(3) To light, irradiate.

(4) To be reduced to one’s constituent parts

(5) Ved. To adorn, decorate,

(6) To make ready, prepare.

पी — pī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pī (connected with 1 «pā» to which belong pass. «pīyate», pp. «pīta,

pītvā» &c.) cl.4.ā. «pīyate», to drink

pī or #pi (connected with «pyai»), cl.1.ā. «payate» (cl.2.ā. pr.p. «piyāna»

cl.3.P. Impv. «pīpihī»; impf. «apīpet, apīpayat»; Subj. «pipyatam, -tām;

pīpayat» ā. «-yanta», p. ā. «pāpyāna»; pf. P. «pīpāya». 2. sg. «pīpetha», 3.

pl. «pipyur»; p. ā. «pīpyāna»), to swell, overflow, be exuberant, abound,

increase, grow; (trans.) to fatten, cause to swell or be exuberant, surfeit

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pī 4 A. (pīyate) To drink; tava vadanabhavāmṛtaṁ nipīya Mk. 10. 13; N. 1.

1.

पू — pū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pū cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxj, 12) «punāti, punīte» (3. pl. ā. «punate» , «punate» ; 2.

sg. Impv. P. «punīhi» &c., «punāhi» ; ci. 1. ā. (xxii 70) «pavate» (of P. only

Impv. «-pava» gen. pl. «pavatām» ; p. ā. «punāna» below, «pavamāna»

see p.610, col.3; 1. sg. ā. «punīṣe» ; pf. «pupuvuh. -ve» ; «apupot» ; aor.

«apāviṣuḥ» Subj. «apaviṣṭa» ; fut. «paviṣyati, pavitā» Gr.; ind., p. «pūtvā» ;

«pūtvī» ; «pavitvā» Gr.; «-pūya» and «-pāvam» &c.; inf. «pavitum» , to

make clean or clear or pure or bright, cleanse, purify, purge, clarify,

illustrate, illume (with «saktum», «to cleanse from chaff, winnow»; with

«kratum» or «manīṣām», «to enlighten the understanding»; with

«hiraṇyam», «to wash gold») &c. &c.; (met.) to sift, discriminate, discern;

to think of or out, invent, compose (as a hymn) ; (ā. «pavate») to purify

one’s self. be or become clear or bright; (esp.) to flow off clearly (said of

the Soma) ; to expiate, atone for ; to pass so as to purify; to purify in

passing or pervading, ventilate &c. (cf. «pav»): Pass. «pūyate», to be

cleaned or washed or purified; to be freed or delivered from (abl.) &c.:

Caus. «pavayati» or «pāvayati» (ep. also «-te»; aor. «apīpavat» Gr.; Pass.

«pāvyate» , to cleanse, purify «pipāvayiṣati» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Umbr.

‘pir’; Germ. ‘Feuer’; Eng. ‘fire’.])

pū mfn. cleansing, purifying (ifc.; cf. «annauda-, ghṛta-» &c.)

pū mfn. (1. «pā») drinking (see «agre-pū»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

pū 1. 4. A., 9 U. (pavate, pūyate, punāti, punīte, pūta; caus. pāvayati;

desid. pupūṣati, pipaviṣate)

(1) To make pure, cleanse, purify (lit. and fig.); avaśyapāvyaṁ pavase

Bk. 6. 64; 3. 18; puṇyāśramadarśanena tāvadātmānaṁ punīmahe S. 1;

Ms. 1. 105; 2. 62; Y. 1. 58; R. 1. 53; Bg. 10. 31.

(2) To refine.

(3) To clean from chaff, winnow.

(4) To expiate, atone for.

(5) To discern, discriminate.

(6) To think out, devise, invent.

(7) To become clear or pure (Atm.).

pū a. (At the end of comp.) Purifying, cleansing, refining; as in khalapū

&c.

पृण् — pṛṇ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pṛṇ cl.6.P. «pṛṇati» (p. «pṛṇat», Ved. Inf. «pṛṇadhyai») see «pṝ».
प्रति — prati Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899prati ind. (as a prefix to roots and their derivative nouns and other

nouns, sometimes «pratī»; for 2. see p, 664) towards, near to; against, in

opposition to; back, again, in return; down upon, upon, on; before nouns

it expresses also likeness or comparison (cf. «prati-candra»); or it forms

Avyayibhāvas of different kinds (cf. «prati-kṣaṇam, prati-graham, praty-

agni» &c.; rarely ifc. e.g. «sūpaprati», a little broth ; or as a prep. with

usually preceding acc., in the sense of towards, against, to, upon, in the

direction of (e.g. «śabdam p-«, in the direction of the sound ; «agnim pr-«,

against the fire ; also «praty-agni» ind. ; «ripum pr-«, against the enemy ;

«ātmānam pr-«, to one’s self ; opposite, before, in the presence of (e.g.

«rodasī pr-«, before heaven and earth ; in comparison, on a par with, in

proportion to (e.g. «indram pr-«, in comparison with little ; «sahasrāṇi

pr-«, on a par with i.e. equivalent to thousands ; also with abl. or «-tas»;

cf. ; in the vicinity of, near, beside, at, on (e.g. «yūpam pr-«, near the

sacrificial post ; «gaṅgām pr-«, at or on the Ganges ; «etat pr-«, at this

point ; «āyodhanam pr-«, on the field of battle ; at the time of, about,

through, for (e.g. «phālgunam pr-«, about the month Phālguna ; «ciram

pr-«, for a long time ; «bhṛśam pr-«, often, repeatedly ; or used

distributively (cf. to express at every, in or on every, severally (e.g.

«yajṇam pr-«, at every sacrifice ; «yajṇaṁ yajṇam pr-» ; «varṣam pr-«,

every year, annually ; in this sense often comp.; cf. above ); in favour of,

for ( 1-4, 90; e.g. «pāṇḍavān pr-«, in favour of the Pāṇḍavas. ; on account

of, with regard to, concerning ( e.g. «sīmām pr-«, concerning a boundary ;

«gautamam pr-«, with regard to Ganges ; conformably or according to

(e.g. «mām pr-«, according to me, i.e. in my opinion ; cf. «mām praty

araṇyavat pratibhāti», «it seems to me like a forest» ; «na bubhukṣitam

prati bhāti kiṁ cit», «to a hungry man nothing is of any account» on ; as,

for (after a verb meaning, «to regard or consider»; cf. ; or as prep. with

abl. in return or as compensation for, instead or in the place of ( 1-4, 92 ;

with abl. or «-tas» see above; with abl. or gen. (?) to express, «about»,

«at the time of» (only «prati vastoḥ», «at daybreak» ; as prep. with gen. =

with reference to ‘paiti’; Gk. [greek]. ]

prati in comp. with nouns not immediately connected with roots.

prati m. N. of a son of Kuśa

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

prati ind.

(1) As a prefix to verbs it means

(a) towards, in the direction of;

(b) back, in return, again;

(c) in opposition to, against, counter;

(d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this preposition).

(2) As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means

(a) likeness, resemblance, equality;

(b) opposite, of the opposite side; pratibala Ve. 3. 5 ‘the opposing

force’; so pratidvipāḥ Mu. 2. 13;

(c) rivalry; as in praticaṁdraḥ ‘a rival moon’; pratipuruṣaḥ &c.

(3) As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means

(a) towards, in the direction of, to; tau daṁpatī svāṁ prati

rājadhānīṁ prasthāpayāmāsa vaśī vasiṣṭhaḥ R. 2. 70; 1. 75; pratyanilaṁ

viceruḥ Ku. 3. 31; vṛkṣaṁ prati vidyotate vidyut Sk.;

(b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; tadā yāyādripuṁ

prati Ms. 7. 171; pradudruvustaṁ prati rākṣaseṁdraṁ Rām.; yayāvajaḥ

pratyarisainyameva R. 7. 55;

(c) in comparison with, on a par with, in proportion to, a match

for; tvaṁ sahasrāṇi prati Rv. 2. 1. 8;

(d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; samāsedustato gaṁgāṁ

śṛṁgaverapuraṁ prati Rām.; gaṁgāṁ prati;

(e) at the time, about, during; ādityasyodayaṁ prati Mb.;

phālgunaṁ vātha caitraṁ vā māsau prati Ms. 7. 182;

(f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; yadatra māṁ prati

syāt Sk.; haraṁ prati halāhalaṁ (abhavat) Vop.;

(g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a distributive sense);

varṣaṁ prati, prativarṣaṁ; yajñaṁ prati Y. 1. 110; vṛkṣaṁ vṛkṣaṁ prati

siṁcati Sk.;

(h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding,

concerning, about, as to; na hi me saṁśītirasyā divyatāṁ prati K. 132;

caṁdroparāgaṁ prati tu kenāpi vipralabdhāsi Mu. 1; dharmaṁ prati S. 5.

18; maṁdautsukyosmi nagaragamanaṁ prati S. 1; Ku. 6. 27; 7. 83;

tvayaikamīśaṁ prati sādhu bhāṣitaṁ 5. 81; Y. 1. 218; R. 6. 12; 10. 29;

12. 51;

(i) according to, in conformity with; māṁ prati in my opinion;

(j) before, in the presence of;

(k) for, on account of.

(4) As a separable preposition (with abl.) it means either

(a) a representative of, in place of, instead of; pradyumnaḥ

kṛṣṇātprati Sk., saṁ grāme yo dārāyaṇataḥ prati Bk. 8. 89; or

(b) in exchange or return for; tilebhyaḥ prati yacchati māṣān Sk.;

bhakteḥ pratyamṛtaṁ śaṁbhoḥ Vop.

(5) As the first member of Avyayībhāva compounds it usually means

(a) in or at every; as pratisaṁvatsaraṁ ‘every year’; pratikṣaṇaṁ,

pratyahaṁ &c.;

(b) towards, in the direction of; pratyagni śalabhā ḍayaṁte.

(6) prati is sometimes used as the last member of Avyayī. comp. in

the sense of ‘a little’; sūpaprati, śākaprati. (Note. In the compounds given

below all words the second members of which are words not immediately

connected with verbs, are included; other words will be found in their

proper places)

— Comp.

—akṣaraṁ ind. in every syllable or letter;

pratyakṣaraśleṣamayaprabaṁdha Vās.

—āgni ind. towards the fire.

—aṁgaṁ 1. a secondary or minor limb (of the body), as the nose.

—2. a division, chapter, section. —3. every limb. —4. a weapon. (

—gaṁ) ind. 1. on or at every limb of the body; as in

pratyaṁgamāliṁgitaḥ Gīt. 1. —2. for every subdivision.

(3) in each case (in grammar). —anaṁtara a. 1. being in immediate

neighbourhood. —2. standing nearest (as an heir). —3. immediately

following, closely connected with; jīvet kṣatriyadharmeṇa sa hyasya

(brāhmaṇasya) pratyanaṁ taraḥ Ms. 10. 82; 8. 185. (—raṁ) ind. 1.

immediately after. —2. next in succession. —anilaṁ ind. towards or

against the wind. —anīka a. 1. hostile, opposed, inimical. —2. resisting,

opposing. (—kaḥ) an enemy. (—kaṁ) 1. hostility, enmity, hostile attitude

or position; na śaktāḥ pratyanīkeṣu sthātuṁ mama surāsurāḥ Rām. —2. a

hostile army; yasya śūrā maheṣbāsāḥ pratyanīkagatā raṇe Mb.;

ye’vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ Bg. 11. 32 (pra- may have here sense 1

also). —3. (in Rhet.) a figure of speech in which one tries to injure a

person or thing connected with an enemy, who himself cannot be injured;

pratipakṣamaśaktena pratikartu tiraskriyā . yā tadīyasya tatstutyai

pratyanīkaṁ taducyate K. P. 10. —anumānaṁ an opposite conclusion. —

aṁta a. contiguous, lying close to, adjacent, bordering. (—taḥ) 1. a

border, frontier; R. 4. 26. —2. a bordering country; especially, a country

occupied by barbarians or Mlechchhas. -deśaḥ a bordering country. —

parvataḥ an adjacent hill; pādāḥ pratyaṁtaparvatāḥ Ak. —apakāraḥ

retaliation, injury in return; śāmyet pratyapakāreṇa nopakāreṇa durjanaḥ

Ku. 2. 40. —abdaṁ ind. every year. —amitra a. hostile. (—traḥ) an enemy.

(—traṁ) ind. towards an enemy. —arkaḥ a mock sun. —avayavaṁ ind. 1.

in every limb. —2. in every particular, in detail. —avara a. 1. lower, less

honoured. —2. very low or degrading, very insignificant. —aśman m. red

chalk. —ahaṁ ind. every day, daily; day by day; giriśamupacacāra

pratyahaṁ sā sukeśī Ku. 1. 60. —ākāraḥ a scabbard, sheath. —āghātaḥ 1.

a counter-stroke. —2. reaction. —ācāraḥ suitable conduct or behaviour.

—ātmaṁ ind. singly, severally. —ātmaka a. belonging to oneself. —

ātmyaṁ similarity with oneself. —ādityaḥ a mock sun. —āraṁbhaḥ 1.

recommencement, second beginning. —2. prohibition. —āśā 1. hope,

expectation; Māl. 9. 8. —2. trust, confidence. —uttaraṁ a reply, rejoinder.

—ulūkaḥ 1. a crow. —2. a bird resembling an owl. —ṝcaṁ ind. in each Rik.

—eka a. each, each one, every single one. (—kaṁ) ind. 1. one by one, one

at a time, severally; singly, in every one, to every one; oft. with the force

of an adjective; viveśa daṁḍakāraṇyaṁ pratyekaṁ ca satāṁ manaḥ R.

12. 9 ‘entered the mind of every good man’; 12. 3; 7. 34; Ku. 2. 31. —

kaṁcukaḥ an adversary. —kaṁṭhaṁ ind. 1. severally, one by one. —2.

near the throat. —kaśa a. not obeying the whip. —kāyaḥ 1. an effigy,

image, picture, likeness. —2. an adversary; Ki. 13. 28. —3. a target, butt,

mark. —kitavaḥ an opponent in a game. —kuṁjaraḥ a hostile elephant. —

kūpaḥ a moat, ditch. —kūla a. 1. unfavourable, adverse, contrary, hostile,

opposite, pratikūlatāmupagate hi vidhau viphalatvameti bahusādhanatā

Śi. 9. 6; Ku. 3. 24. —2. harsh, discordant, unpleasant, disagreeable;

apyannapuṣṭā pratikūlaśabdā Ku. 1. 45. —3. inauspicious. —4.

contradictory. —5. reverse, inverted. —6. perverse, cross, peevish,

stubborn. -ācaraṇaṁ -ācaritaṁ any offensive or hostile action or conduct;

R. 8. 81. -uktaṁ -ktiḥ f. a contradiction. -kārin, -kṛta, -cārin, —vṛṁtti a.

opposing. -darśana a. having an inauspicious or ungracious appearance.

-pravartin, -vartin a. acting adversely, taking an adverse course. -bhāṣin

a. opposing, contradicting. -vacanaṁ disagreeable or unpleasant speech.

-vādaḥ contradiction. (pratikūlatā, -tvaṁ adverseness, opposition,

hostility. pratikūlayati ‘to oppose’). —kūlaṁ ind. 1. adversely, contrarily.

—2. inversely, in inverted order. —kṣaṇaṁ ind. at every moment or

instant; constantly; Ku. 3. 56. —gajaḥ a hostile elephant —gātraṁ ind. in

very limb. —giriḥ 1. an opposite mountain. —2. an inferior mountain. —

gṛhaṁ, -gehaṁ ind. in every house. —grāmaṁ ind. in every village. —

caṁdraḥ a mock moon. —caraṇaṁ ind. 1. in every (Vedic) school or

branch. —2. at every foot-step. —chāyā 1. a reflected image, reflection,

shadow. —2. an image, picture. —jaṁghā the forepart of the leg. —jihvā,

-jihvikā the soft palate. —taṁtraṁ ind. according to each Tantra or

opinion. —taṁtrasiddhāṁtaḥ a conclusion adopted by one of the

disputants only; (vādiprativādyekataramātrābhyupagataḥ). —iyahaṁ ind.

for three days at a time. —daṁḍa a. Ved. disobedient. —dinaṁ ind. every

day; Me. 58. —diśaṁ ind. in every direction, all round, everywhere. —

deśaṁ ind. in every country. —dehaṁ ind. in every body. —daivataṁ ind.

for every deity. —dvaṁdvaḥ 1. an antagonist, opponent, adversary, rival.

—2. an enemy. (—dvaṁ) opposition, hostility. —dvaṁdbin a. 1. hostile,

inimical. —2. adverse (pratikūla); Ki. 16. 29. —3. rivalling, vying with; S. 4.

4. (—m.) an opponent, adversary, rival; R. 7. 37.; 15. 25. —dvāraṁ ind. at

every gate. —dhuraḥ a horse harnessed by the side of another. —naptṛ m.

a great-grandson. —nava a. 1. new, young, fresh. —2. newly blown or

budded; Me. 36. —nāḍī a branchvein. —nāyakaḥ the adversary of the hero

of any poetic composition; as rāvaṇa in the Rāmāyaṇa, śiśupāla in Magha

Kāvya &c. —pakṣa a. like, similar. (—kṣaḥ) 1. the opposite side, party or

faction, hostility. —2. an adversary, enemy, foe, rival; pratipakṣakāminī ‘a

rival wife’; Bv. 2. 64; Vikr. 1. 70, 73; pratipakṣamaśaktena pratikartuṁ K.

P. 10; often used in comp. in the sense of ‘equal’ or ‘similar’. —3. a

defendant or respondent (in law). -tā 1. hostility, opposition. —2.

obstacle. —pakṣita a. 1. containing a contradiction. —2. nullified by a

contradictory premiss; (as a hetu in nyāya); cf. satpratipakṣa. —pakṣin m.

an opponent, adversary. —pathaṁ ind. along the road, towards the way;

pratipathagatirāsīdvegadīrghīkṛtāṁgaḥ Ku. 3. 76. —padaṁ ind. 1. at every

stop. —2. at every place, everywhere. —3. expressly. —4. in every word.

—pāṇaḥ 1. a stake. —2. a counter-pledge. —3. a counter-stake. —pādaṁ

ind. in each quarter. —pātraṁ ind. with regard to each part, of each

character; pratipātramādhīyatāṁ yatnaḥ S. 1 ‘let care be taken of each

character’. —pādapaṁ ind. in every tree. —pāpa a. returning sin for sin,

requiting evil for evil. —pu(pū)ruṣaḥ 1. a like or similar man. —2. a

substitute, deputy. —3. a companion. —4. the effigy of a man pushed by

thieves into the interior of a house before entering it themselves (to

ascertain if any body is awake). —5. an effigy in general. (—baṁ) ind.

man by man, for each man. —pustakaṁ a copy of an original manuscript.

—pūrvāhṇaṁ ind. every forenoon. —prabhātaṁ ind. every morning. —

prākāraḥ an outer wall or rampart. —priyaṁ a kindness or service in

return; R. 5. 56. —baṁdhuḥ an equal in rank or station. —bala a. 1. able,

powerful. —2. equal in strength, equally matched or powerful. (—laṁ) 1. a

hostile army; astrajvālābalīḍhapratibalajaladheraṁtaraurvāyamāṇe Ve. 3.

5. —2. strength. —bāhuḥ the forepart of the arm. —biṁ(biṁ)baḥ —baṁ 1.

a reflection, reflected image; Ku. 6. 42; Śi. 9. 18. —2. an image, a picture.

—bījaṁ a rotten seed. —bhaṭa a. vying with, rivalling;

ghaṭapratibhaṭastani N. 13. 5. (—ṭaḥ) 1. a rival, an opponent. —2. a

warrior on the opposite side; saptālokyājau tvāṁ vidadhati vikalpān

pratibhaṭāḥ K. P. 10. —bhaya a. 1. fearful, formidable, terrible, frightful.

—2. dangerous; Pt. 2. 166. (—yaṁ) a danger. —maṁḍalaṁ 1. a secondary

dise (of the sun &c.). —2. an eceentric orbit. —maṁdiraṁ ind. in every

house. —mallaḥ an antagonist, a rival; N. 1. 63; pātālapratimallagalla &c.

Māl. 5. 22. —māyā a counter-spell or charm. —mārgaṁ ind. back,

backwards. —mālā capping verses (Mar. bhaṁḍī). —māsaṁ ind. every

month, monthly. —mitraṁ an enemy, adversary. —mukha a. 1. standing

before the face, facing; pratimukhāgata Ms. 8. 291. —2. near, present.

(—khaṁ) a secondary plot or incident in a drama which tends either to

hasten or retard the eatastrophe; see S. D. 334 and 351364. (—khaṁ)

ind. 1. towards. —2. in front, before. —mudrā a counter-seal. —muhūrtaṁ

ind. every moment. —mūrtiḥ f. an image, a likeness. —yūthapaḥ the

leader of a hostile herd of elephants. —rathaḥ an adversary in war (lit. in

fighting in a war-chariot); dauṣyaṁtimapratirathaṁ tanayaṁ niveśya S. 4.

19. —rājaḥ a hostile king. —rātraṁ ind. every night. —rūpa a. 1.

corresponding, similar, having a counter-part in. —2. beautiful. —3.

suitable, proper. (—paṁ) a picture, an image, a likeness. —rupaka a.

resembling, similar (at the end of comp.); ceṣṭāpratirūpikā manovṛttiḥ S.

1. (—kaṁ) 1. a picture, an image. —2. a forged edict. —3. a reflection. —

lakṣaṇaṁ a mark, sign, token. —lipiḥ f. a transcript, a written copy. —loma

a. 1. ‘against the hair or grain’, contrary to the natural order, inverted,

reverse (opp. anuloma). —2. contrary to easte (said of the issue of a

woman who is of a higher caste than her husband). —3. hostile. —4. low,

vile, base. —5. left (vāma). —6. obstinate, perverse; aparicitasvāpi

te’pratilomaḥ saṁvṛttaḥ S. 7. —7. disagreeable, unpleasant. (—maṁ) any

injurious or unpleasant act. (—maṁ) ind. ‘against the hair or grain’,

inversely, invertedly. -ja a. born in the inverse order of the eastes; i. e.

born of a mother who is of a higher caste than the father; cf. Ms. 10. 16,

25. —lomaka a. reverse, inverted. (—kaṁ) inverted order. —vatsaraṁ ind.

every year. —vanaṁ ind. in every forest. —varṇika a. similar,

corresponding. —vardhin a. being a match for. —varṣaṁ ind. every year.

—vastu n. 1. an equivalent, a counter-part. —2. anything given in return.

—3. a parallel. -upamā a figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa: —

prativastūpamā tu sā .. sāmānyasya dvirekasya yatra vākyadvaye sthitiḥ

K. P. 10; e. g. tāpena bhrājate sūryaḥ śūraścāpena rājate Chandr. 5. 48.

—bātaḥ a contrary wind. (—taṁ) ind. against the wind; cīnāṁśukamiva

ketoḥ prativātaṁ nīyamānasya S. 1. 34. —vāraṇaḥ a hostile elephant. —

vāsaraṁ ind. every day. —viṭapaṁ ind. 1. on every branch. —2. branch by

branch. —vedaṁ ind. in or for every Veda. —viṣaṁ an antidote. (—ṣā) a

birch tree. —viṣṇukaḥ a Muchakunda tree. —vīraḥ an opponent,

antagonist. —vīryaṁ being equal to or a match for. —vṛṣaḥ a hostile bull.

—velaṁ ind. at each time, on every occasion. —veśaḥ 1. a neighbouring

house, neighbourhood. —2. a neighbour. —veśin a. a neighbour. —veśman

n. a neighbour’s house. —veśyaḥ a neighbour. —vairaṁ requital of

hostilities, revenge. —śabdaḥ 1. echo, reverberation;

vasudhādharakaṁdarābhisarpī pratiśabdo’pi harerbhinatti nāgān V. 1. 16;

Ku. 6. 64; R. 2. 28. —2. a roar. —śaśin m. a mock-moon. —śākhaṁ ind. for

every branch or school (of the Veda). —śākhā a side-branch. —

saṁvatsaraṁ ind. every year. —sama a. equal to, a match for. —savya a.

in an inverted order. —sāmaṁtaḥ an enemy. —sāyaṁ ind. every evening.

—sūryaḥ, —sūryakaḥ 1. a mock-sun. —2. a lizard, chameleon; U. 2. 16. —

senā a hostile army. —sthānaṁ ind. in every place, everywhere. —srotas

ind. against the stream. —hastaḥ, —hastakaḥ a deputy, an agent,

substitute, proxy; āśritānāṁ bhṛtau svāmisevāyāṁ dharmasevane .

putrasyotpādane caiva na saṁti prati hastakāḥ H. 2. 33

प्रथ् — prath Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899prath cl.1.ā. ( xix, 3) «prathate» (rarely P. «-ti» e.g. impf. 2. du.

«aprathatam» ; Impv. «prathantu» ; pf. «paprathatuḥ» ; mostly ā. pf.

«paprathe», p. «paprathāna» ; aor. «prathiṣṭa», p. «prathāna» ; fut.

«prathiṣyate, prathitā» Gr.), to spread, extend (intrans.; P. trans. and

intrans.), become larger or wider, increase &c. &c.; to spread abroad (as

a name, rumour &c.), become known or celebrated &c.; to come to light,

appear, arise ; to occur (to the mind) Caus. «prathayati» (rarely «-te»;

aor. «apaprathat» ; Subj. «paprathat» ; «paprathanta» ; «prathayi» , to

spread, extend, increase &c. &c. («prathayati-tarām» ; ā. intr. ; to spread

abroad, proclaim, celebrate ; to unfold, disclose, reveal, show ; to extend

over i.e. shine upon, give light to (acc.)

prath or #pṛth cl.10.P. «prāthayati» or «parthayati», to throw, cast; to

extend

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

prath I. 1 A. (prathate, prathita)

(1) To increase (wealth &c.).

(2) To spread abroad (as fame, rumour &c.); tathā yaśo’sya prathate

Ms. 11. 15.

(3) To become famous or celebrated; bhatastadakhyayā tīrthaṁ

pāvanaṁ bhuvi paprathe R. 15. 101; ato’smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ

puruṣottamaḥ Bg. 15. 18; Śi. 9 16; 15. 23; Ku. 5. 7; Me. 24; R. 5. 65; 9.

76.

(4) To appear, arise, come to light; śramo nu tāsāṁ madano nu

paprathe Ki. 8. 53.

(5) To occur (to mind). —II. 10 U. (prathayati-te, prathita)

(1) To spread abroad, proclaim; sajjanā eva sādhūnāṁ prathayaṁti

guṇotkaraṁ Dri. S. 12; Bk. 17. 107.

(2) To show, manifest, display, evince, indicate; paramaṁ vapuḥ

prathayatīva jayaṁ Ki. 6. 35; 5. 3; Śi. 10. 25; Ratn. 4. 13; S. 3. 15.

(3) To increase, enlarge, enhance, augment, stretch; Bh. 2. 45.

(4) To disclose.

(5) To spread, extend

(6) To throw, cast.

प्री — prī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899prī cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 2) «prīṇāti, prīṇīte»; cl.4. ā. (xxvi, 35) «prīyate»

(rather Pass.; ep. and m.c. also «-ti» and «priyate, -ti»; pf. «pipriye», p. «-

yāṇa» Subj. «piprayat»; Impv. «piprayasva» or «-prīhi» ; aor. «apraiṣīt»

Subj. «preṣat» ; «apreṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «preṣyati, -te, pretā» P. to please,

gladden, delight gratify, cheer, comfort, soothe, propitiate &c. &c.;

(mostly ā. «prīyate») to be pleased or satisfied with, delight in, enjoy

(gen. instr. loc. or abl.) ; (ā.; ep. and m.c. also P. and «pri-«) to like, love,

be kind to (acc.) Caus. «prīṇayati» («prāpayati» , «prāyayati» , to please,

delight gratify, propitiate &c.; to refresh, comfort Desid. «piprīṣati», to

wish to please or propitiate Intens. «peprīyate, peprayīti, pepreti» Gr.

([Cf. Goth. ‘frijon’, ‘frijonds’; Germ. ‘friunt’, ‘freund’; Angl. Sax. ‘freond’;

Eng. friend; Slav. ‘prijati’; Lith. ‘pretelius’ &c.])

prī mfn. (ifc.) kind, delighted (see «adhaprī, kadha-prī, ghṛta-prī» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

prī I. 9 U. (prīṇāti, prīṇīte, prīta)

(1) To please, delight, satisfy, gladden; prīṇātiyaḥ sucaritaiḥ pitaraṁ

sa putraḥ Bh. 2. 68; sasnuḥ pitṝn pipriyurāpagāsu Bk. 3. 38; 5. 104; 7. 64.

(2) To be pleased, take delight in; kaccin manaste prīṇāti vanavāse

Mb.

(3) To act kindly towards, show kindness towards.

(4) To be cheerful or gay. —Caus. (prīṇayati-te) To please, satisfy &c.

—II. 4 A. (prīyate, strictly a passive voice of the root prī)

(1) To be satisfied or pleased, be gratified; prakāmamaprīyata

yajvanāṁ priyaḥ Śi. 17; R. 15. 30; 19. 30; Y. 1. 245.

(2) To feel affection for, love.

(3) To assent, be satisfied. —III. 1 P. To please, gratify &c.

बन्ध् — bandh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bandh cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 37) «badhnāti» (rarely ā. «badhnīte»; cl.1. P. ā.

«bandhati, -te» ; cl.4. P. «badhyati» ; Impv. «badhāna» , «bandhāna» , «-

badhnīhi» , «bandha» ; pf. P. «babandha», 3. pl. «bedhus» , «babandhus» ;

ā. «bedhe, -dhire» , «babandhe» Gr.; fut. «bhantsyati» &c., «bandhiṣyati, —

te» ; «banddhā» Gr.; aor. «abhāntsīt» Gr.; Prec. «badhyāt» ; inf.

«banddhum», or «bandhitum» , «badhe» ind. p. «baddhvā» , «-dhvāya» , «-

badhya» ; «-bandham» , to bind, tie, fix, fasten, chain, fetter &c. &c.; to

bind round, put on (ā; later also P. «on one’s self») &c.; to catch, take or

hold captive, met. = to attach to world or to sin ; to fix, direct, fasten,

rivet (eyes, ears or mind) on (loc. or inf.) ; to arrest, hold back, restrain,

suppress, stop, shut, close ; to bind a sacrificial victim, offer, sacrifice

(with dat. of the deity to whom it is presented) ; to punish, chastise ; to

join, unite, put together or produce anything in this way, e.g. fold (the

hands), clench (the fist), knit or bend (the eyebrows), arrange, assume

(a posture), set up (a limit), construct (a dam or a bridge), span, bridge

over (a river), conceive or contract (friendship or enmity), compose,

construct (a poem or verse) &c.; to form or produce in any way, cause,

effect, do, make, bear (fruit), strike (roots), take up (one’s abode) ; to

entertain, cherish, show, exhibit, betray (joy, resolution &c.) Pass.

«badhyate» («-ti» , to be bound &c. &c.; (esp.) to be bound by the fetters

of existence or evil, sin again ; to be affected by i.e. experience, suffer

(instr.) Caus. «bandhayati» (aor. «ababandhat»), to cause to bind or

catch or capture, imprison &c. &c.; to cause to be built or constructed ;

to cause to be embanked or dammed up ; to bind together (also

«bādhayati») Desid. «bibhantsati» Gr.: Intens. «bābanddhi, bābadhyate»

‘band’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘foedus’, ‘fides’; Lit. ‘bendras’; Goth. Angl. Sax.

‘bindan’; Germ. ‘binden’; Eng. ‘bind’.]

बुध् — budh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899budh cl.: P. ā. () «bodhati, -te»; cl.4.ā. (xxvi, 63) «budhyate» (ep. also P.

«-ti»; pf. P. «bubodha» ; Subj. id «bubodhati» ; ā. «bubudhe», p.

«bubudhāna» ; aor. P. Subj. «bodhiṣat» ; Impv. «bodhi» ; ā. 3 pl.

«abudhram, -ran»; p. «budhāna» Subj. «budhanta» ; «-abhutsi» ; Prec. ā.

«bhutsīṣṭa» ; fut. «bhotsyati, -te» &c.; «boddhā» Gr.; ind. p. «buddhvā» ;

«-budhya» &c.; inf. «budhe» ; «budhi» ; «boddhum» &c.), to wake, wake

up, be awake &c. &c.; to recover consciousness (after a swoon) (aor.

Pass. «abodhi»); to observe, heed, attend to (with acc. or gen.) ; to

perceive, notice, learn, understand, become or be aware of or acquainted

with &c. &c.; to think of i.e. present a person («with» instr.) ; to know to

be, recognize as (with two acc.) &c.; to deem, consider or regard as

(with two acc.) Pass. «budhyate» (aor. «abodhi»), to be awakened or

restored to consciousness; see above: Caus. «bodhayati, -te» (aor.

«abūbudhat»; Pass. «bodhyate»), to wake up, arouse, restore to life or

consciousness &c. &c.; to revive the scent (of a perfume) ; to cause (a

flower) to expand ; to cause to observe or attend, admonish, advise &c.

&c.; to make a person acquainted with, remind or inform of. impart or

communicate anything to (with two acc.) &c.: Desid. «bubhutsati, -te»

(Gr. also «bubodhiṣati, -te», and «bubudhiṣati, -te»), to wish to observe,

desire to become acquainted with Desid. of Caus. see «bibodhayiṣu» and

«bubodhayiṣu»: Intens. «bobudhīti» (Gr. also «bobudhyate, boboddhi»), to

have an insight into, understand thoroughly (with acc.) ‘bud’; Gk. [greek]

for ([characters] ) in [characters] Slav. ‘budeti’, ‘budru’; Lith. ‘budeti’,

‘budrus’; Goth. ‘biudan’; Germ. ‘biotan’, ‘bieten’; Angl. Sax ‘beodan’; Eng.

‘bid’.]

budh mfn. (nom. «bhut») awaking (cf. «uṣarbudh»)

mfn. intelligent, wise (cf. «a-budh»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

budh 1 U., 4 A. (bodhati-te, budhyate, buddha)

(1) To know, understand, comprehend; kramādamuṁ nārada

ityabodhi saḥ Śi. 1. 3; 9. 24; nābuddha kalpadrumatāṁ vihāya jātaṁ

tamātmanyasipatravṛkṣaṁ R. 14. 48; yadi budhyate hariśiśuḥ

stanaṁdhayaḥ Bv. 1. 53.

(2) To perceive, notice, recognise, mark; hiraṇmayaṁ rhaṁsamabodhi

naiṣadhaḥ N. 1. 117; api laṁdhitamadhvānaṁ bubudhe na budhopamaḥ

R. 1. 47; 12. 39.

(3) To deem, regard, cansider, esteem &c.

(4) To heed, attend to.

(5) To think, reflect.

(6) To wake up, awake, rise from sleep; dadadapi

giramaṁtarbudhyate no manuṣyaḥ Śi. 11. 4; te ca prāpurudanvaṁtaṁ

bubudhe cādipūruṣaḥ R. 10. 6.

(7) To regain consciousness, to come to one’s senses; śanairabodhi

sugrīvaḥ so’luṁcītkarṇanāsikaṁ Bk. 15. 57.

(8) To advise, admonish. —Caus. (bodhayati-te)

(1) To cause to know, make known, inform, acquaint with.

(2) To teach, communicate, impart.

(3) To advise, admonish; bodhayaṁtaṁ hitāhitaṁ Bk. 8. 82; Bg. 10. 9.

(4) To revive, restore to life, bring to senses or consciousness.

(5) To remind, put in mind of; smarṣiyati tvāṁ na sa bodhito’pi san S.

4. 1.

(6) To wake up, rouse, excite (fig.); akāle bodhito bhrātrā R. 12. 81,

5. 75.

(7) To revive the scent (of a perfume).

(8) To cause to expand, open; madhuravā madhubodhitamādhavī Śi.

6. 20; savitā bodhayati paṁkajānyeva S. 5. 28.

(9) To signify, convey, indicate. —Desid. (bubu-bo-dhiṣati-te,

bubhutsate) To wish to know &c.

बृह् — bṛh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bṛh or #vṛh , cl, 6. P. ( xxviii, 57) «brihati; vṛhati» (pf. «babarha,

vavarha»; fut. «varkṣyati, varhiṣyati; varḍhā, varhitā»; aor. «barhīt,

avṛkṣat»; ind. p. «vriḍhvā, varhitvā, vṛhya, barham, varham»; Ved. inf.

«vṛhas»: Pass. «vṛhyate»; aor. «varhi»), to tear, pluck, root up (without a

prep. only with «mūlam» Caus. «barhayati» (see «ni-bṛh»): Desid.

«vivṛkṣati, vivarhiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «varīvarḍhi, varīvṛhyate»

bṛh or #bṛṁh cl.1.P. ( xvii, 85) «bṛṁhati» (also «-te» and «bṛhati» ; pf.

«babarha» ; p. «babṛhāṇa» , to be thick, grow great or strong, increase

(the finite verb only with a prep.): Caus. «bṛṁhayati, -te» (also written

«vṛ-«), to make big or fat or strong, increase, expand, further, promote ;

«barhayati» see «sam-bṛh»: Intens. «barbṛhat, barbṛhi» see «upa-bṛh».

bṛh prayer. see «bṛhas-pati».

bṛh or #bṛṁh (also written «vṛh» or «vṛṁh»). cl.1.P. ( xvii, 85) «bṛnhati»

(or «barhati»; 3. pl. pf. ā. «babṛiṁhire» , to roar, bellow, trumpet (said of

an elephant) &c.; also cl.10.P. ( xxxiii, 95) to speak; to shine.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bṛh 1. 6. P. (barhati, bṛhati)

(1) To grow, increase, expand.

(2) To roar. WITH ud 1. to lift, raise; Ms. 1. 14; Bk. 14. 88. —ni to

destroy, remove; Śi. 1. 29.

ब्रू — brū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899brū cl.2.P. ā. ( xxiv, 35) «bravīti, brūte» (only pr. stem; the other forms

are supplied by «vac» cf. ; «brūmi» for «bravīmi» ; Subj. «bravas, -vat» ;

Impv. «brūhi», ep. also «bravīhi, bruvadhvam; brūtāt» 7-i, 35 ; impf.

«abruvam» for «abravam» ; pr.p. ā. ep. «bruvamāṇa» for «bruvāṇa»; Prec.

2. pl. «brūyāsta» w.r. for «brūyās tat»), to speak, say, tell (either intrans.;

or with acc. of pers. or thing; or with acc. of thing and acc. dat. gen. or

loc. of person = to tell or relate anything to; with two acc. also = declare

or pronounce to be, call) &c. &c.; to speak about any person or thing

(acc. with or without «prati», or «adhikṛtya») &c.; to proclaim predict ; to

answer (either intrans. with «punar» or trans. with «praśnam», «a

question») ; (with «anyathā») to speak or decide or judge wrongly ; (ā.,

rarely P.) to call or profess one’s self to be (nom., rarely with «iti») ; (ā.)

to designate for one’s self, choose ; (ā.) to be told by itself tell itself (tell

its tale) 1 ‘mru’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

brū 2 U. (bravīti, brūte or āha; this root is defective in the non-

conjugational tenses, its forms being made up from vac)

(1) To say, tell, speak (with two acc.); tāṁ … brūyā evaṁ Me. 101;

rāmaṁ yathāsthitaṁ sarvaṁ bhrātā brūte sma vihvalaḥ Bk. 6. 8; or

māṇavakaṁdharmaṁ brūte Sk.; kiṁ tvāṁ prati brūmahe Bv. 1. 46.

(2) To say or speak about, refer to (a person or thing); ahaṁ tu

śakuṁtalāmadhikṛtya brabīmi S. 2.

(3) To declare, proclaim, publish, prove, indicate; bruvata hi phaleta

sādhavo na tu kaṁṭhena nijopayogitāṁ N. 2. 48; stanayugapariṇāhaṁ

maṁḍalābhyāṁ bravīti Ratn. 2. 13.

(4) To name, call, designate; chaṁdasi dakṣā ye

kavayastanmaṇimadhyaṁ te bruvate Śrut. 15.

(5) To answer; brūhi me praśnān.

(6) To call or profess one self to be. —WITH anu to say, speak,

declare. —nis to explain, derive. —pra to say, speak, tell; Bk 8. 85. —prati

to speak in reply, answer or reply; pratyabravīccainaṁ R. 2. 42. —vi 1. to

say, speak. —2. to speak falsely or wrongly.

भज् — bhaj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhaj cl.1.P. ā. ( xxxiii, 29) «bhajati, -te» (2. sg. as Impv. «bhakṣi» ; pf. P.

«babhāja» ā. «bheje» &c.; 2. sg. «babhaktha» ; «bhejitha» ; aor. P. 2. 3.

sg. «abhāk» ; «abhākṣīt, -kṣus» ; Subj. «bhakṣat» ; ā. «abhakṣi, -kta» &c.;

Prec. ā. «bhakṣīya» ; 3. sg. «-kṣīṣṭa» ; «-kṣīta» ; fut. «bhakṣyati, -te» &c.;

«bhajiṣyati, -te» &c.; «bhaktā» Gr.; inf. «bhaktum» &c.; «bhajitum» ; ind.

p. «bhaktvā» &c., «-tvāya» ; «-bhajya» and «-bhājam» , to divide,

distribute, allot or apportion to (dat. or gen.), share with (instr.) &c. &c.;

(ā.) to grant, bestow, furnish, supply ; ā. (rarely P.) to obtain as one’s

share, receive as (two acc.), partake of, enjoy (also carnally), possess,

have (acc., Ved. also gen.) ; (ā., rarely P.) to turn or resort to, engage in,

assume (as a form), put on (garments), experience, incur, undergo, feel,

go or fall into (with acc., esp. of abstract noun e.g. «bhītim», to feel

terror; «nidrām», to fall asleep; «maunam», to become silent) &c.; to

pursue, practise, cultivate ; to fall to the lot or share of (acc.) &c.; to

declare for, prefer, choose (e.g. as a servant) ; to serve, honour, revere,

love, adore &c.: Caus. «bhājayate, -te» (aor. «abībhajuḥ» , «ababhājat»

Gr.), to divide ; to deal out, distribute ; to cause any one (acc.) to

partake of or enjoy (acc. or gen.) ; to put to flight, pursue, chase, drive

into (acc.) ; to cook, dress (food) Desid. «bibhakṣati, -te» (cf. «bhikṣ»):

Intens. «bābhajyate, bābhakti», Gṛ. [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fagus’; Goth.

Old S. ‘bok’; Germ. ‘Buch’, ‘Buchstabe’; Eng. ‘buck-‘, ‘beech’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bhaj I. 1 U. (bhajati-te but usually Atm. only; babhāja, bheje, abhākṣīt,

abhakta, bhakṣyāti-te, bhakta)

(1)

(a) To share, distribute, divide; bhajeran paitṛkaṁ rikthaṁ Ms. 9.

104; na tatputrairmajetsārdhaṁ 209, 119.

(b) To assign, allot, apportion; gāyatrīmagnaye’bhajat Ait. Br.

(2) To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; pitryaṁ vā bhajate

śīlaṁ Ms. 10. 59.

(3) To accept, receive; Māl. 5. 25.

(4)

(a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; śilātalaṁ

bheje K. 179; mātarlakṣmi bhajasva kaṁcidaparaṁ Bh. 3. 64; na

kaścidvarṇanāmapathamapakṛṣṭopi bhajate S. 5. 10; Bv. 1. 83; R. 17. 28.

(b) To practise, follow, observe; bheje dharmamanāturaḥ R. 1. 21;

Mu. 3. 10.

(5) To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; vidhurapi

bhajatetarāṁ kalaṁkaṁ Bv. 1. 74; na bhejire bhīmaviṣeṇa bhītiṁ Bh. 2.

80; vyaktiṁ bhajaṁtyāpagāḥ S. 7. 8; abhitaptamayopi mārdavaṁ bhajate

kaiva kathā śarīriṣu R. 8. 43; Māl. 3. 9; U. 1. 35.

(6) To wait or attend upon, serve; R. 2. 23; Pt. 1. 181; Mk. 1. 32.

(7) To adore, honour, worship (as a god).

(8) To choose, select, perfer, accept; saṁtaḥ

parīkṣyānyataradbhajaṁte M. 1. 2.

(9) To enjoy carnally; Pt. 4. 50. (10) To be attached or devoted to; Pt.

1. 35.

(11) To take possession of.

(12) To fall to the lot of any one.

(13) To grant, bestow.

(14) To supply, furnish (Ved.).

(15) To favour.

(16) To decide in favour of, declare for.

(17) To love, court (affection).

(18) To apply oneself to, be engaged in.

(19) To cook, dress (food). (20) To employ, engage. (The meanings

of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is

connected: —e. g. nidrāṁ bhaj to go to sleep; mūrchāṁ bhaj to swoon;

bhāvaṁ bhaj to show love for &c. &c.). —Caus.

(1) To divide.

(2) To put to flight, pursue.

(3) To cook, dress. —II. 10 U. (bhājayati-te, regarded by some as the

caus. of bhaj I)

(1) To cook.

(2) To give.

भी — bhī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhī cl.3.P. ( xxv, 2) «bibheti» (du. «bibhītas» or «bibhitas» Pot. «bibhīyāt»

or «bibhiyāt» ; Pot. 3. pl. «bibhyeyuḥ» ; impf. 3. pl. «abibhayuḥ» ; ep. also

ā. 1. sg. «bibhye» and and P. 3. sg. «bibhyati» pl. «bibhyanti»; Ved. also

cl.1. A. «bhayate», and accord, to P. «bhāyayati»; pf. «bibhāya», 3. pl.

«bibhyuḥ» &c. &c.; «bībhāya» ; «bibhayāṁ cakara» cf. ; aor. «abhaiṣīt, —

ṣma, -ṣuḥ» &c., 2. sg. «bhaiṣīs» , «bhais» &c., esp. in «mābhais», «do not

be afraid»; once for pl. = «mā bhaiṣṭa» ; «bhes» ; «bhema» ā. «bhiyāna» ,;

fut. «bhetā» Gr.; cond, «abheṣyat» ; inf. «bhiyase» ; «bhetum» &c.), to

fear, be afraid of (abl. or gen., rarely instr, or acc.) &c. &c.; to fear for,

be anxious about (abl.) Pass. «bhīyate», aor, «abhāyi» Gr.: Caus.

«bhīṣayate» ( &c.; cf. , «bhīṣayati» (; once m.c. «bhiṣ-» ; p. «bhīṣayāṇa» ;

aor. «bībhiṣaḥ» , «-ṣathāḥ» , «bhāyayati, -te» ( 1-3, 68 ; Pot. «bhāyayes»

61; v.l. «bhīṣayes»; aor «bībhayat, abībhayanta» ; ind. p. «-bhāyya» ,

«bhāpayate» ( 6-1, 56 , to terrify, put in a fright, intimidate &c. &c.:

Desid. «bibhīṣati» Gr.: Intens. «bebhīyate, bebhayīti, bebheti» «bhyas»;

Lith. ‘bijotis’; Slav. ‘bojati’; Germ. ‘biben’, ‘beben’.]

bhī f. fear, apprehension, fright, alarm, dread of (abl. loc. acc. with

«prati», or comp.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bhī 3 P. (bibheti, bibhāya-bibhayāṁcakāra, abhaiṣīt, bheṣyati, bhīta)

(1) To fear, dread, be afraid of; mṛtyorbibheṣi kiṁ ba la na sa bhītaṁ

vimuṁcati; rāvaṇādvibhyatiṁ bhṛśaṁ Bk. 8. 70; Śi. 3. 45.

(2) To be anxious or solicitous about (A.) —Caus. (bhāyayati) To

frighten (any one) with anything; kuṁcikayainaṁ bhāyayati Sk.;

(bhāpayate, bhīṣayate) to frighten, terrify, intimidate; muṁḍo bhāpayate

Sk.; stanitena bhīṣayitvā dhārāhastaiḥ parāmṛśasi Mk. 5. 28.

bhī f. Fear, dread, alarm, fright, terror; abhīḥ ‘fearless’ R. 15. 8;

vapuṣmān vītabhīrvāgmī dūto rājñaḥ praśasyate Ms. 7. 64.

भुज् — bhuj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhuj cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 124) «bhujati» (pf. «bubhoja» aor. «abhaukṣīt» fut.

«bhokṣyati» and «-ktā» Gr.; really only pr. stem aor. «-abubhojīs» and ind.

p. «-bhujya» after «nir» and, «pari»; cf. also «bhujam» in «bhujaṁ-ga» and

«bhujaṁgama»), to bend, curve; (?) to sweep (cf. 1. «bhuji») Pass.

«bhujyate», to be bent down or disheartened ‘fugio’; Goth. ‘biugan’,

‘baugjan’ (?); Germ. ‘biogan’, ‘biegen’; Angl. Sax. ‘bugan’; Eng. ‘bow’.]

bhuj see «tri-bhuj».

bhuj cl.7.P.ā. ( xxix, 17) «bhunakti, bhuṅkte» (rarely cl.6.P. ā. «bhuṇati, —

te» ; 3. pl. ā. «bhuṇjate» ; Pot. P. «bhuṇjīyāt» ; pf. ā. «bubhuje, -jmahe, —

jrire» ; 3 pl. P. «-juḥ» ; aor. «abhaukṣīt, abhnkta» Gr.; «bhojam, bhojate,

bhujema» ; «bhukṣiṣīya» ; fut. «bhokṣyati, -te» &c.; «bhoktā» ; inf.

«bhojase, bhujam, bhuje» «bhoktum» &c.; ind. p. «bhuktvā» or

«bhuṅktvā» to enjoy, use, possess, (esp.) enjoy a meal, eat, eat and

drink, consume (mostly ā.; in Ved. generally with instr., later with acc.)

&c. &c.; to enjoy (carnally) ; to make use of. utilize, exploit &c.; (with

«pṛthivīm, mahīm» &c.) to take possession of, rule, govern &c.; to suffer,

experience, undergo, be requited or rewarded for (acc.) or at the hands

of (gen.) &c. &c.; (P.) to be of use or service to (acc.) ; to pass, live

through, last (a time) ; (in astron.) to pass through, fulfil Pass.

«bhujyate» (aor. «abhoji»), to be enjoyed or eaten or possessed or made

use of &c.: Caus. «bhojayati» («te-«, m.c.; cf. ; once «bhuṇjāpayati» v.l.;

aor. «abūbhujat, -jata» Gr.), to cause to enjoy or eat, feed with (two acc.

or acc. of pers. and instr. of thing; cf. &c.; &c.; to use as food Desid.

«bubhukṣati» (once), «-te», to wish to eat, be hungry ; to wish to enjoy or

partake of (cf. «bubhukṣā, -kṣita, -kṣu»): Intens. «bobhujyate», to be

eaten frequently ; «bobhokti» and «bobhujīti», to eat or enjoy frequently

Gr. ([Cf. Lat. ‘fungor’.])

bhuj f. enjoyment, profit, advantage, possession or use of (gen.)

(«bhuje», also as infin.)

bhuj m. an enjoyer, eater (said of Agni)

bhuj m. mfn. (ifc.) enjoying (also carnally), eating, consuming, partaking

of, possessing, ruling and o. (with words meaning «earth» — «king»; cf.

«kṣitibh-» &c.)

bhuj m. enjoying the reward of. suffering for («kilbiṣa-bh-«)

bhuj m. passing, through, fulfilling («vyakta-bh-«)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bhuj I. 6 P. (bhujati, bhugna)

(1) To bend.

(2) To curve, make crooked. —II. 7 U. (bhunakti-bhuṁkte, bhukta)

(1) To eat, devour, consume (Atm.); śayananastho na bhuṁjīta Ms. 4.

74; 3. 146; Bk. 14. 92; Bg. 2. 5.

(2) To enjoy, use, possess (property, land &c.); V. 3. 1; Ms. 8. 146; Y.

2. 24.

(3) To enjoy carnally (Atm.); sadayaṁ bubhuje mahābhujaḥ R. 8. 7,

4. 7, 15. 1, 18. 4; surūpaṁ vā kurūpaṁ vā pumānityeva bhuṁjate Ms. 9.

14.

(4) To rule, govern, protect, guard (Paras.); rājyaṁ nyāsamivābhunak

R. 12. 18; ekaḥ kṛsnāṁ (dharitrīṁ) nagaraparighaprāṁśuba hurbhunakti

S. 2. 15.

(5) To suffer, endure, experionce; vṛddho naro duḥkhaśatāni bhuṁkte

Sk.

(6) To pass, live through (as time).

(7) (In astr.) To pass through, fulfil. —Pass.

(1) To be enjoyed or eaten.

(2) To be possessed.

(3) To be brought under the influence of. —Caus. (bhojayati-te) To

cause to eat, feed with. —Desid. (bubhukṣati-te) To wish to eat &c.

bhuj a.

(1) (At the end of comp.) Eating, enjoying, suffering, ruling,

governing; svadhābhuj, hutabhuj, pāpa-, kṣiti-, nahī- &c.

(2) Useful, serviceable. —f.

(1) Enjoyment.

(2) Profit, advantage.

भू — bhū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhū cl.1.P. ( i, 1) «bhavati» (rarely ā. «-te»; pf. «babhūva», 2. pers. «-

ūtha» or «-ūvitha» cf. ; «babhūyās, -yār, babhūtu» ; ā. «babhūve» or

«bubhūve» ; cf. below; aor. «abhūt, -ūvan»; Impv. «bodhi» [cf. «budh»],

«bhūtu» ; aor. or impf. «abhuvat, bhuvat, bhuvāni» ; Prec. «bhūyāsam», 2.

3. sg. «-yās» ; «bhūyāt» ; «bhūyiṣṭhās» ; «bhaviṣāt» [?] ; «abhaviṣṭa,

bhaviṣīṣta». Gr.; fut. «bhaviṣyati», ep. also «-te» and 2. pl. «-ṣyadhvam;

bhavitā» &c.; inf. «bhuve, -bhve, bhūṣaṇi» ; «bhavitum, -tos» ; ind. p.

«bhūtvā; bhūtvī» ; «-bhūya» &c.; «-bhūyam, -bhavam» , to become, be

(with nom, or adv. or indecl. words ending in «ī» or «ū» cf. «kṛṣṇī-bhū»

&c.), arise, come into being, exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen,

occur &c. &c. (often used with participles and other verbal nouns to

make periphrastical verbal forms; with a fut. p. = to be going or about to

e.g. «anuvakṣyan bhavati», he is going to recite ; the fut. of «bhū» with a

pf. p. = a fut. pf. e.g. «kṛtavān bhaviṣyasi», you will have done ; the pf. P.

«babhūva» after the syllable «ām» is put for the pf. of verbs of the 10.cl.

&c. [cf. 1. «as» and 1. «kṛ»]; the ā. appears in this meaning xiv. 46;

observe also «bhavati» with a fut. tense, it is possible that, e.g. «bhavati

bhavān yājayiṣyati», it is possible that you will cause a sacrifice to be

performed ; «bhavet», may be, granted, admitted on P. iii, 2. 114;

«bhavatu» id., well, good, enough of this ; «iticed bhavet», if this question

should be asked ; «kva tad bhavati», what is to become of this, it is quite

useless ; with «na» = to cease to exist, perish, die &c.; with «iha na», not

to be born on earth ; with «śata-dhā», to fall into a hundred pieces ; with

«dūrataḥ», to keep aloof. ; with «manasi» or «cetasi» and gen., to occur to

the mind of any one ; id. with gen. alone ; to fall to the share or become

the property of, belong to (cf. «esse alicujus»; «with gen., rarely dat. or

loc. accord. to also with «pari» or «prati» and preceding acc.) &c. &c.; to

be on the side of, assist (with gen. or «-tas») 1301 (cf. ; to serve for,

tend or conduce to (with dat. of thing) &c. &c. (with «phalāya». to bear

fruit ; to be occupied with or engaged in, devote one’s self to (with loc.) ;

to thrive or prosper in (instr.), turn out well, succeed ; to be of

consequence or useful ; (also ā. to fall, or get into, attain to, obtain ;

(with «idam») to obtain it i.e. be successful or fortunate Pass. «bhūyate»

(or «-ti» ; aor. «abhāvi») sometimes used impers. e.g. «yair bhaviṣyate»,

by whom it will be existed i.e. who will be Caus. «bhāvayati» (rarely «-

te»; aor. «abībhavat» Gr.; inf. «bhāvitum» ; Pass. «bhāvyate» &c. , to

cause to be or become, call into existence or life, originate, produce,

cause, create ; to cherish, foster, animate, enliven, refresh, encourage,

promote, further &c.; to addict or devote one’s self to, practise (acc.) ;

to subdue, control ; (also ā. to obtain ; to manifest, exhibit, show, betray

; to purify ; to present to the mind, think about, consider, know,

recognize as or take for (two acc.) &c.; to mingle, mix, saturate, soak,

perfume (cf. «bhāvita», p.755, col.1): Desid. of Caus. «bibhāvayiṣati» ( 7

-4, 80 , to wish to cause to be &c. Desid. «bubhūṣati» («-te»), to wish or

strive to become or be &c. &c.; (with «kṣipram»), to strive to be quickly

possessed ; to want to get on, strive to prosper or succeed ; to want to

have, care for, strive after, esteem, honour ; to want to take revenge

Intens, «bobhavīti, bobhavati, bobhoti, bibhūyate», to be frequently, to be

in the habit of ; to be transformed into (acc.) ; (with «tiraḥ»), to keep

anything (instr.) secret ‘bu’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fuit’, ‘fuat’ &c.; Slav. ‘byti’;

Lith. ‘buti’; Germ. ‘bim’, ‘bim’; Angl. Sax. ‘beo’; Eng. ‘be’.]

bhū mfn. becoming, being, existing, springing, arising (ifc.; cf. «akṣi-,

giri-, citta-, padmabhū» &c.)

bhū m. N. of Viṣṇu ()

bhū m. of an Ekāha

bhū f. the act of becoming or arising

bhū f. the place of being, space, world or universe (also pl.)

bhū f. the earth (as constituting one of the 3 worlds, and therefore a

symbolical N. for the number «one») &c.

bhū f. one of the three Vyāhṛitis (see «bhuvas, bhūr», pp. 760 and 763)

bhū f. earth (as a substance), ground, soil, land, lauded property

bhū f. floor, pavement

bhū f. a place, spot, piece of ground &c. &c.

bhū f. the base of any geometrical figure

bhū f. object, matter (see «vivādasaṁvāda-bhū»)

bhū f. a term for the letter «l»

bhū f. a sacrificial fire

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bhū I 1 P. (rarely A.) (bhavati, babhūva, abhūt, bhaviṣyati, bhavituṁ,

bhūta)

(1) To be, become; kathamevaṁ bhavennāma; asyāḥ kimabhavat Māl

9. 29 ‘what has become her fate,’ ‘what has become of her’; U. 3. 27;

yadbhāvi tadbhavatu U. 3 ‘come what may’; so duḥkhito bhavati, hṛṣṭo

bhavati &c.

(2) To be born or produced; yadapatyaṁ bhavedasyāṁ Ms. 9. 127;

bhāgyakrameṇa hi dhanāni bhavaṁti yāṁti Mk. 1. 13.

(3) To spring or proceed from, arise; krodhādbhavati saṁmohaḥ Bg.

2. 63, 14. 17.

(4) To happen, take place, occur; nātatāyivadhe doṣo haṁturbhavati

kaścana Ms. 8. 381; yadi saṁśayo bhavet &c.

(5) To live, exist; abhūdabhūtapūrvaḥ … rājā ciṁtāmaṇirnāma Vās.;

abhūnnṛpo vibudhasakhaḥ paraṁtapaḥ Bk. 1. 1.

(6) To be alive or living, breathe; tvamidānīṁ na bhaviṣyasi S. 6; āḥ

cārudattahataka ayaṁ na bhavasi Mk. 4; durātman prahara nanvayaṁ na

bhavasi Mal. 5 (‘thou art a dead man’, thou shalt breathe no longer); Bg.

11. 32.

(7) To remain or be in any state or condition, fare; bhavān sthale

kathaṁ bhaviṣyati Pt. 2.

(8) To stay, abide; remain, U. 3. 37.

(9) To serve, do; idaṁ pādodakaṁ bhaviṣyati S. 1. (10) To be possible

(usually with a future tense in this sense); bhavati bhavān yājayiṣyati Sk.

(11) To lead or tend to, conduce to, bring about (with dat.); vātāya

kapilā vidyut … pītā bhavati sasyāya durbhikṣāya sitā bhavet Mbh.;

sukhāya tajjanmadinaṁ babhūva Ku. 1. 23; saṁsmṛtirbhava

bhavatyabhavāya Ki. 18. 27; na tasyā rucaye babhūva R. 6. 44.

(12) To be on the side of, assist; devā arjunato’bhavan

(13) To belong or pertain to (often expressed by ‘have’); tasya ha

śataṁ jāyā babhūvuḥ Ait. Br.; Ms. 6. 39.

(14) To be engaged in, be occupied (with loc.); caraṇakṣālane kṛṣṇo

brāhmaṇānāṁ svayaṁ hyabhūt Mb.

(15) To conduct oneself, behave.

(16) Ved. To be prosperous, succeed. Used with a preceding noun or

adjective bhū serves to form verbs in the sense of ‘becoming what it

previously is not’ or ‘becoming’ in general; śvetībhū to become white;

kṛṣṇībhū to become black; payodharībhūta ‘becoming or serving the

purpose of teats’; so kṣapaṇībhū to be or become a mendicant;

praṇidhībhū to act the spy; ārdrībhū to melt; bhasmībhū to be reduced to

ashes; viṣayībhū to form the subject of; so ekamatībhū; taruṇībhū &c. &c.

Note—The senses of bhū may be variously modified according to the

adverbs with which it is connected; e. g. punarbhū to marry again; a

virbhū to appear, arise, to be evident or clear; see āvis; tirobhū to

disappear; prādurbhū to arise, be visible, appear; agrebhū to be in front,

take the lead; aṁtarbhū to be absorbed or included;

ojasyaṁtarbhavaṁtyanye K. P. 8; doṣābhū to grow evening or dusk-time;

anyathā bhū to be otherwise, be changed; na me vacanamanyathā

bhavitumarhati S. 4; puro bhū to come forward, stand forth; mithyā bhū

to turn out false; vṛthā bhū to become useless &c. &c.). —Caus.

(bhāvayati-te)

(1) To cause to be or become, call into existence, call into being.

(2) To cause, produce, effect.

(3) To manifest, display, exhibit.

(4) To foster, cherish, support, preserve, enliven; punaḥ sṛjati varṣāṇi

bhagavān bhāvayanprajāḥ Mb.; devān bhāvayatānena te devā

bhāvayaṁtu vaḥ . parasparaṁ bhāvayaṁtaḥ śreyaḥ paramavāpsyatha Bg.

3. 11; Bk. 16. 27.

(5) To think or reflect, consider, fancy, imagine.

(6) To look upon, consider or regard as; arthamanarthaṁ bhāvaya

nityaṁ Moha M. 2.

(7) To prove, substantiate, establish; Y. 2. 11.

(8) To purify.

(9) To get, obtain. (10) To mingle or mix.

(11) To change or transform into.

(12) To soak, steep.

(13) To devote or addict oneself to.

(14) To convince.

(15) To perfume, scent. —Desid. (bubhūṣati) To wish to be or become

&c. —II. 1 U. (bhavati-te) To get, obtain. —III. 10 A. (bhāvayate) To

obtain, gain. —IV. 1 U. (bhāvayati-te)

(1) To think, reflect.

(2) To mix, mingle.

(3) To be purified (connected with caus. of bhū q. v. above).

bhū a. (At the end of comp.) Being, existing, becoming, springing from,

arising or produced from, &c; cittabhū, ātmabhū, kamalabhū, manobhū

&c. —m.

(1) An epithet of Viṣṇu.

(2) The sacrificial fire.

भृ — bhṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhṛ cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii, 1) «bharati, -te»; cl.3. P. ā. (xxv, 5) «bibharti»

(«bibharti» only , «bibhṛte»; cl.2. P. «bharti» P. «bibhrat», q.v.; ā.

«bibhrāṇa» with act. meaning , «bibhramāṇa» with pass. meaning ; pf.

«jabhāra, jabharat; jabhre, ajabhartana» ; «babhāra, babhṛma» &c.; p.

«babhrāṇa» with pass. meaning ; «bibharāmbabhūva» , «-rām-āsa» ; aor.

«abhār» ; «bhartam, bhṛtam» ; «abhṛta» Gr.; «abhārṣam» Subj. «bharṣat» ;

«abhāriṣam» ; Prec. «bhriyāsam»», «-yāt» ; fut. «bhariṣyati» cond.

«abhariṣyat» ; «bhartā» ; inf. «bhartum, bhartave, bhartavai», Ved.;

«bharadhyai» ; ind. p. «-bhṛtya» &c.), to bear, carry, convey, hold («on» or

«in» loc.) &c. &c.; to wear i.e. let grow (hair, beard, nails) &c.; to

balance, hold in equipoise (as a pair of scales) ; to bear i.e. contain,

possess, have, keep (also «keep in mind») &c. &c.; to support, maintain,

cherish, foster ; to hire, pay ; to carry off or along (ā. «bharate», «for

one’s self» i.e. gain, obtain, or = ‘ferri’ «to be borne along») ; to bring,

offer, procure, grant, bestow &c. &c.; to endure, experience, suffer,

undergo ; to lift up, raise (the voice or a sound; ā. «bharate», also «to

rise, be heard») ; to fill (the stomach) ; (with «garbham») to conceive,

become pregnant (cf. under «dhṛ») ; (with «kṣitim») to take care of, rule,

govern ; (with, «ājṇām») to submit to, obey ; (with «ūrjām») to exert,

employ Pass. «bhriyate» (ep. also «-ti»; aor. «abhāri»), to be borne &c.

&c. &c.: Caus. «bhārayati» (aor. «abībharat»), to cause to bear &c.; to

engage for hire Desid. «bubhūrṣati» (, «bibhariṣati» ( 8-2, 49), to wish to

bear or support or maintain: Intens. «baribharti» (3. pl. «-bhrati» du.

«jarbhṛtaḥ»), «barībharti» (), to bear repeatedly or continually, carry hither

and thither. [Cf. Zd. ‘bar’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fero’; Slav. ‘brati’; Goth.

‘bairan’; Germ. ‘beran’, ‘ge-baren’; Eng. ‘bear’.]

bhṛ (1. see p.764, col.3), in comp. for «bhrū».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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bhṛ 1 3. U. (bharati-te; bibharti, bibhṛte, babhāra babhre,

bibharāṁcakāra-cakre, abhārṣīṁt-abhṛta, bhariṣyati-te, bhartuṁ, bhṛta;

pass. bhriyate; desid. bibhariṣati-te or bubhūrṣati-te)

(1) To fill; jaṭharaṁ ko na bibharti kevalaṁ Pt. 1. 22.

(2) To fill, pervade, fill with; abhārṣīdadhvaninā lokān Bk. 15. 24.

(3) To bear, support, uphold, bear up; dhuraṁ dharitryā

bibharāṁbabhūva R. 18. 45; kūrmo bibharti dharaṇīṁ khalu pṛṣṭhakena

Ch. P. 50; Bk. 17. 16

(3) To maintain, foster, cherish, protect, take care of, nourish;

daridrān bhara kauṁteya mā prayaccheśvare dhanaṁ H. 1. 15.

(4) To bear, have, possess; siṁdhorbabhāra salilaṁ śayanīyalakṣmīṁ

Ki. 8. 57; piśunajanaṁ khalu bibhrati kṣitīṁdrāḥ Bv. 1. 74; balitrayaṁ

cāru babhāra bālā Ku 1. 39; iṁdordainyaṁ

tvadatusaraṇakliṣṭakāṁterbibharti Me. 84; S. 2. 4.

(5) To wear; bibhrajjaṭāmaṁḍalaṁ S. 7. 11; 6. 5; vivāhakautukaṁ

lalitaṁ bibhrata eva (tasya) R. 8. 1, 10. 10; jaṭāśca bibhṛyānnityaṁ Ms.

6. 6.

(6) To feel, experience, suffer, endure (joy, sorrow &c.);

bhāvaśuddhisahitairmudaṁ jano nāṭakairiva babhāra bhojanaiḥ Śi. 14. 50;

saṁtrāsamabibhaḥ śakraḥ Bk. 17. 108; S. 7. 21.

(7) To confer, bestow, give, produce; yauvane sadalaṁkārāḥ śobhāṁ

bibhrati subhruvaḥ Subhāṣ.

(8) To keep, hold, retain (as in memory).

(9) To hire; Ms. 11. 62; Y. 3. 235. (10) To bring or carry.

(11) To take away, transport.

(12) Ved. To acquire, gain. (garbhaṁ bhṛ to become pregnant,

conceive; kṣitiṁ bhṛ to rule the earth; jaṭāṁ bhṛ to wear matted hair

&c.).

भ्राज् — bhrāj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bhrāj cl.1.ā. ( vi, 22) «bhrājate» (rarely P. «-ti»; pf. «babhrāja» ; «bhreje,

babhrājire»and»bhrejire» Gr.; aor. «abhrāṭ, abhrāji» ; «abhrājiṣṭa» Gr.;

Prec. «bhrājyāsam» ; fut. «bhrājitā» Gr.; «bhrājiṣyate» ; inf. «bhrājitum» ,

to shine, beam, sparkle, glitter &c. &c.; (with «na»), to be of no account

Caus. «bhrājayati» (aor. «ababhrājat» and «abibhrajat»), to cause to shine

or glitter, illuminate, irradiate Desid. «bibhrājiṣate» Gr.; Intens.

«bābhrājyate» or «bābhrāṣṭi» «bhṛgu»; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fulgere’, ‘flamma’

for ‘flag-ma’ &c.; Lith. ‘blizgu’; Germ. ‘bleichen’; Eng. ‘bleach’.]

bhrāj f. (nom. «bhrāL») light, lustre, splendour

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

bhrāj 1 A. (bhrājate) To shine, gleam. flash, glitter; rurujurbhrejire

pheṇurbahudhā harirākṣasāḥ Bk. 14. 78; 15. 24. —Caus. To illuminate,

irradiate. —WITH vi to shine brilliantly or intensely; bibhrājase

makaraketanamarcayantī Ratn. 1. 21.

मंह् — maṁh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899maṁh (cf. «mah») cl.1.ā. ( xvi, 33) «maṁhate» (pf., «mamaṁhe» &c.

Gr.), to give, grant, bestow (with «dānāya», «as a present») ; to increase

Caus. «maṁhayati» (cl. 10 accord. to , to give &c. ; to speak or to shine

Intens., «māmahe» &c.; see «mah».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

maṁh 1 A. (maṁhate)

(1) To grow, increase.

(2) To give, grant.

(3) To speak.

(4) To shine.

मज्ज् — majj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899majj cl.6.P. () «majjati» (Ved. «majjati», ep. also «-te»; pf. «mamajja» [2.

sg. «mamajjitha», or «mamaṅktha»] ; aor. [«mā»] «majjīs» ; «amānkṣīt» ;

Prec. «majjtāt» ; fut. «maṅkṣyati, -te» &c.; «majjiṣyati» ; «maṅktā» Gr.;

inf. «majjitum» ; «maṅktum» Gr.; ind. p. «maṅktvā» or «maktvā» ; «majjya»

, to sink (into), (acc. or loc.), go down, go to hell, perish, become ruined

&c. &c.; to sink (in water), dive, plunge or throw one’s self into (loc.),

bathe, be submerged or drowned &c.: Caus. «majjayati» (aor.

«amamajjat» Gr.), to cause to sink, submerge, drown, overwhelm,

destroy &c. &c.; to inundate ; to strike or plant into (loc.) Desid.

«mimaṅkṣati» or «mimajjiṣati» Gr. (cf. «mimaṅkṣā»): Intens. «māmajjyate,

māmaṅkti» ‘mergere’, and under ‘majjan’.]

मथ् — math Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899math or #manth (q.v.) cl.1.9. P. ( xx, 18, iii, 5 and xxxi, 40) «māthati,

manthati, mathnāti» (Ved. and ep. also ā. «mathate, manthate» and

«mathnīte»; Impv. «mathnadhvam» ; pf. «mamātha» ; 3. pl. «mamathuḥ» ;

«methuḥ, methire» ; «mamantha, -nthuḥ» ; aor. «mathīt» ; «amanthiṣṭām»

; «amathiṣata» ; fut. «mathiṣyati, -te» «manthiṣyati» &c.; «mathitā» ; inf.

«mathitum» &c.; «-tos» ; «manthitavai» ; ind. p. «mathitvā, -mathya» &c.;

«manthitvā», PIṇ. i, 2, 33; «-manthya» and «-mātham» n. &c.). to stir or

whirl round &c. &c.; (with «agnim»), to produce fire by rapidly whirling

round or rotating a dry stick («araṇi») in another dry stick prepared to

receive it ; (with «araṇim»), to rotate the stick for producing fire ; (with

«ūrum, hastam» &c.), to use friction upon any part of the body with the

object of producing offspring from it ; to churn (milk into butter), produce

by churning &c. &c. (also with two acc. e.g. «sudhāṁ» «kṣīra-nidhim

mathnāti», «e churns nectar out of the ocean of milk» on ; to mix, mingle

; to stir up, shake, agitate, trouble disturb, afflict, distress, hurt, destroy

&c. &c.: Pass. «mathyate» (ep. also «-ti»), to be stirred up or churned &c.

&c. &c.: Caus. «manthayati» (), «māthayati» (), to cause to be stirred up

or churned &c.: Desid. «mimathiṣati, mimanthiṣati» Gr.: Intens.

«māmathyate, māmantti» &c. ‘mentha’, ‘menta’; Lit. ‘menture’; Germ.

‘minza’, ‘Minze’; Angl. Sax. ‘minte’; Eng. ‘mint’.]

math (ifc.) destroying, a destroyer (cf. «madhumath»); m. see «mathin».

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math See maṁth.

मद् — mad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mad base of the first pers. pron. in the sg. number (esp. in comp.)

mad (cf. «mand») cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 99) «mādyati» (ep. also «-te»; Ved. also I.

P. ā. «mādyati» «-te»; 3. P. «mamatti, -ttu, mamadat, amamaduḥ»; Ved.

Impv. «matsi, -sva»; pf. «mamāda»; aor. «amādiṣuḥ, amatsuḥ, amatta»;

Subj. «matsati, -sat»; fut. «maditā, madiṣyati» Gr.; Ved. inf. «maditos»), to

rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in (instr. gen. loc., rarely acc.), be

drunk (also fig.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to enjoy heavenly bliss (said of

gods and deceased ancestors) ; to boil bubble (as water) ; to gladden,

exhilarate, intoxicate, animate, inspire Caus. «mādayati, -te» ( xxxiii, 31,

xix, 54; aor. «amīmadat» or «amamadat»; Ved. inf. «madayadhyai»), to

gladden, delight, satisfy, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspire &c. &c.;

(ā.) to be glad, rejoice, be pleased or happy or at ease ; (ā.) to enjoy

heavenly bliss Desid. «mimadiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «māmadyate, māmatti»

([Perhaps orig. «to be moist»; cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘madere’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mad A form of the first personal pronoun in the singular number used

chiefly at the beginning of comps.; as madarthe ‘for me’, ‘for my sake’;

macciṁta ‘thinking of me’; madvacanaṁ, matsaṁdeśaḥ matpriyaṁ &c.

&c.

mad I. 4 P. (mādyati, matta)

(1) To be drunk or intoxicated; vīkṣya madyamitarā tu mamāda Śi. 10.

27.

(2) To be mad.

(3) To revel or delight in.

(4) To be glad or rejoiced.

(5) Ved. To satisfy, delight, gladden.

(6) To enjoy supreme felicity. —Caus. (mādayati)

(1) To intoxicate; inebriate, madden

(2) (madayati) To exhilarate, gladden. delight; māyūrī madayati

mārjanāmanaṁsi M. 1. 21; prakṛtimadhurāḥ saṁtyevānye mano mada

yaṁti ye Mal. 1. 36, Śi. 13. 38, Ki. 5. 26.

(3) To inflame with passion; Māl. 3. 6.

(4) (Atm.) To be glad, rejoice, be pleased. —II. 10 A. (mādayate) To

please, gratify. —III. 1 P (madati)

(1) To be proud.

(2) To be poor.

मन् — man Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899man in comp. for 1. «mad».

man cl.8.4. ā. ( xxx, 9; xxv, 67) «manute, manyate» (ep. also «-ti»; 3. pl.

«manvate» ; pf. «mene» &c.; «mamnāthe, -nāts» ; aor. «amata,

amanmahi» Subj. «manāmahe, mananta», p. «manāna» q.v. ; «maṁsi,

amaṁsta» Subj. «maṁsate» Prec. «maṁsīṣṭa», 1. pers. m.c. «masīya» ;

«māṁsta» , «-stādm» ; «mandhvam» ; «amaniṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «maṁsyate» ,

«-ti» ; «manta, manitā» Gr.; «maniṣyate» ; inf. «mantum» &c., «mantave,

-tavai» , «mantos» ; ind. p. «matvā» &c.; «manitvā» Gr.; «-matya» &c.;

«-manya» &c.), to think, believe, imagine, suppose, conjecture &c. &c.

(«manye», I think, methinks, is in later language often inserted in a

sentence without affecting the construction; cf. g. «cādi» and ; to regard

or consider any one or anything (acc.) as (acc. with or without «iva», or

adv., often in «-vat»; in later language also dat., to express contempt [cf.

g. «rājyaṁ tṛṇaya» «manye», «I value empire at a straw» i.e. I make light

of it = «laghu» «man», and opp. to «bahu», or «sādhu» «man», to think

much or well of. praise, approve) ; to think one’s self or be thought to be,

appear as, pass for (nom.; also with «iva») ; to be of opinion, think fit or

right &c.; to agree or be of the same opinion with (acc.) ; to set the

heart or mind on, honour, esteem (with «nau», disdain), hope or wish for

(acc. or gen.) &c. &c.; to think of (in prayer &c., either «to remember,

meditate on», or «mention, declare», or «excogitate, invent») ; to

perceive, observe, leam, know, understand, comprehend (acc., Ved. also

gen.). &c. &c.; to offer, present Caus. ( xxxiv, 36) «mānayati» (ep. also

«-te»; aor. «amīmanat»; Pass. «mānyate»), to honour, esteem, value

highly (also with «uru, bahu» and «sādhu») &c. &c.; (ā.) «stavibhe» ;

«garvake» Desid. ( xxiii, 3) «mīmāṁsate» (rarely «-ti; amīmāṁsiṣṭhās» ;

«mīnāṁsyate» ; «mimaṁsate, mimaniṣate» Gr.), to reflect upon, consider,

examine, investigate &c.; to cali in question, doubt («with regard to»

loc.) Desid. of Desid. «mimāmiṣate» Gr.: Intens. «manmanyate,

manmanti» ‘man’; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘meminisse’, ‘monere’; Slav. and Lith.

‘mineti’; Goth. ‘ga-munan’; Germ, ‘meinen’; Eng. ‘mean’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

man I. 1 P. (manati)

(1) To be proud.

(2) To worship. —II. 10. A. (mānayate) To be proud. —III. 4. 8. A.

(manyate, manute, mene, amaṁsta, maṁsyate, maṁtuṁ, mata)

(1) To think, believe, suppose, magine, fancy, conceive; aṁkaṁ ke’pi

śaśaṁkire jalanidheḥ paṁkaṁ pare menire Subhaṣ: vatsa manye

kumāreṇānena jṛṁbhakāstramāmaṁtritaṁ U. 5; kathaṁ bhavān manyate

‘what is your opinion’ ?.

(2) To consider, regard, deem, look upon, take (one) for, take to be;

samībhūtādṛṣṭistribhuvanamapi brahma manute Bh 3. 84; amasta cānena

parārdhyajanmanā sthiterabhettā sthitimaṁtamanvayaṁ R. 3. 27; 1. 32,

6. 84; Bg. 2. 26, 35; Bk. 9. 117 stanavinihitamapi hāramudāram. sā

manute kṛśatanuriva bhāraṁ Gīt. 4.

(3) To honour, respect, value, esteem, think highly of, prize;

yasyānuṣaṁgiṇa ime bhuvanādhipatyabhogādayaḥ kṛpaṇalokamatā

bhavaṁti Bh. 3. 76.

(4) To know, understand, perceive, observe, have regard to; matvā

devaṁ dhanapatisakhaṁ yatra sākṣādvasaṁtaṁ Me. 73.

(5) To agree or consent to, act up to; tanmanyasya mama vacanaṁ

Mk. 8.

(6) To think or reflect upon.

(7) To intend, wish or hope for.

(8) To set the heart or mind on.

(9) To mention, declare. (10) To think out, devise, invent.

(11) To be considered or regarded as, seem, appear like. (The senses

of man are variously modified according to the word with which it is used;

e. g. bahu man to think highly or much of, value greatly, prize, esteem,

bahu manute nanu te tanusaṁgatapavanacalitamapi reṇu Gīt. 5; see

under bahu also; laghu man to think lightly of, despise, slight; S. 7. 1;

anyathā mab to think otherwise; doubt; sādhu man to think well of,

approve, consider satisfactory; S. 1. 2; asādhu man to disapprove; tṛṇāya

man or tṛṇavat man to value at a straw, value lightly, make light of;

harimapyamaṁsata tṛṇāya Śi. 15. 61; na man to disregard, not to mind)

—Caus. (mānayati-te) To honour, esteem, respect, pay respect to, value;

mānyān mānaya Bh. 2. 77; (Atm.) to esteem one-self highly, prize highly.

—Desid. (mīmāṁsate)

(1) To reflect upon, examine, investigate, inquire into.

(2) To doubt, call in question (with loc.).

मर्च् — marc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899marc (cf. «mṛc») cl.10.P. «marcayati», to sound (v.l. for «mārj»); to

seize, take (cf.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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marc 10 U. (marcayati-te)

(1) To take.

(2) To cleanse.

(3) To sound.

(4) To go, move.

(5) Ved. To threaten, menace.

(6) To injure, hurt.

(7) To endanger, imperil.

मर्ज् — marj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899marj (cf. «mṛj») cl.1.6. P. «marjati, mṛṇjati», to sound (v.l. for «muj,

muṇj»).

मा — mā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mā ind. (casting a following «ch» to be changed to «cch» not, that not,

lest, would that not &c. &c.; a particle of prohibition or negation = Gk.

[greek] most commonly joined with the Subjunctive i.e. the augmentless

form of a past tense (esp. of the aor. e.g. «mā no vadhīr indra», do not

slay us, O Indra ; «mā bhaiṣīḥ» or «mā bhaiḥ», do not be afraid ;

«tapovana-vāsinām uparodho mā bhūt», let there not be any disturbance

of the inhabitants of the sacred grove ; often also with «sma» e.g. «mā

sma gamaḥ», do not go cf. ; 176 in the sense of, «that not, lest» also

«yathā mā» e.g. «yathā mā vo mṛtyuḥ pari-vyatkā iti», that death may not

disturb you, PraśuUp.; or «māyathā» e.g. «mā bhūt kālātyayo yathā», lest

there be any loss of time ; «mā na» with aor. Subj. = Ind, without a

negative e.g. «mā dviṣo na vadhīr mama», do slay my enemies cf. ; rarely

with the augmentless impf. with or without «sma» e.g. «maīnam

abhibhāṣathāḥ», do not speak to him ; «mā sma karot», let him not do it ;

exceptionally also with the Ind. of the aor. e.g., «mā, kālas tvām aty-

agāt», may not the season pass by thee ; cf. ; or with the Impv. (in only

viii, 103, 6, «mā no hṛṇītām» [ «hṛṇītās] agniḥ», may Agni not be angry

with us; but very often in later language e.g. «mā kranda» do not cry ;

«gaccha vā mā ā», you can go or not go ; «ripur ayam mājāyatām», may

not this foe arise, śalntiś.; also with «sma» e.g. «mā sva kiṁ cid vaco

vada» do not speak a word ; or with the Pot. (e.g. ma «yamam paseyam»,

may l not see Yama; esp. «mābhujema» in ; or with the Prec. (only once

in «mā bhūyāt», may it not be [B.] ii, 75, 45); or sometimes with the fut.

(= that not, lest e.g. «mātvāṁ śapsye», lest I curse thee cf. ; or with a

participle (e.g. «mājīvanyo duḥkhadagdho jīvati», he ought not to live who

lives consumed by pain ; «gataḥ sa mā», he cannot have gone ;

«maīvamprārthyam», it must not be so requested ; sometimes for the

simple negative «na» (e.g. «katham mā bhūt», how may it not be ; «mā

gantum arhasi», thou oughtest not to go, R; «mā bhūd āgataḥ», can he

not i.e. surely he must have arrived ; occasionally without a verb (e. g.

«mā śabdaḥ» or «śabdam», do not make a noise ; «mā nāma rakṣiṇaḥ»,

may it not be the watchmen ; «mā bhavantam analaḥ pavano vā», may

not fire or wind harm thee ; esp. = not so e.g. «mā prātṛda», not so, O

Prātṛida ; in this meaning also «mā mā, mā maivam, mā tāvat»); in the

Veda often with «u» («mo») = and not, nor (e.g. «mā maghonaḥ pari

khyatam moasmākam ṛṣṇām», do not forget the rich lords nor us the

poets ; and then usually followed by «ṣu» = «su» e.g. «mo ṣu ṇaḥ nirṛtir

vadhīt», let not Nirṛitir on any account destroy us, i, 38, 6); in «sma mā» —

«mo sma» = neither — nor (in a prohibitive sense).

mā cl.3.P. «mirnāti» (accord. to ā. «mimīte» «mimeti»; Pot. «mimīyat» ;

pf, «mimāya»; aor. «amīmet» Subj. «mīmayat»; inf. «mātavai»), to sound,

bellow, roar, bleat (esp. said of cows, calves, goats &c.) Intens., only pr.

p. «memyat», bleating (as a goat)

mā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 54) «māti»; cl.3. ā. (xxv, 6) «mimīte»; cl.4. (xxvi, 33)

«māyate» (Ved. and ep. also «mimāti» Pot. «mimīyāt» Impv., «mimīhi»;

Pot. «mimet» ; pf. «mamau, mame, mamire» ; aor. «aināsi» Subj.

«masātai» ; «amāsīt» Gr.; Prec. «māsīṣṭa, meyāt» ; fut. «mātā; māsyati,

māsyate» ; inf. «me» «-mai» ; «mātum» ; ind. p. «mitvā, -māya» &c. &c.),

to measure, mete out, mark off &c. &c.; to measure across = traverse ;

to measure (by any standard), compare with (instr.) ; («māti») to

correspond in measure (either with gen., «to be large or long enough for»

; or with loc., «to find room or be contained in» ; or with «na» and instr.,

«to be beside one’s self with ; to measure out, apportion, grant ; to help

any one (acc.) to anything (dat.) ; to prepare, arrange, fashion, form,

build, make ; to show, display, exhibit («amimīta», «e displayed or

developed himself», iii, 29, 11) ; (in phil.) to infer, conclude; to pray

(«yācṇā-karmaṇi») Pass. «mīyate» (aor. «amāyi»); to be measured &c.

&c. &c.: Caus, «māpayati, -te» (aor. «amīmapat» 2 , to cause to be

measured or built, measure, build, erect &c.: Desid. «mitsati, -te» (cf.

«nir-mā»): Intens. «memīyate» ‘ma’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘metior’, ‘mensus’,

‘mensura’; Slav. ‘mera’; Lith. ‘mera’.]

mā f. see under 4. ma, p.751, col.2.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mā ind. A particle of prohibition (rarely of negation) usually joined with

the Imperative; madvāṇi mā kuru viṣādamanādareṇa Bv. 4. 41; also

(a) with the Aorist, when the augment a is dropped; pāpe ratiṁ mā

kṛthāḥ Bh. 2. 77; mā mūmuhat khalu bhavaṁtamananyajanmā mā te

malīmasavikāraghanā matirbhūt Māl. 1. 32; the a is sometimes retained;

mā niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṁ tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ Rām.

(b) the Imperfect (the augment being dropped here also); mā

cainamabhibhāṣathaḥ Rāma;

(c) the Future, or Potential mood, in the sense of ‘lest,’ ‘that not’;

laghu etāṁ paritrāyasva mā kasyāpi tapasvino haste patiṣyati S. 2; mā

kaścinmamāpyanartho bhaveta Pt. 5; mā nāma devyāḥ

kimapyaniṣṭamutpannaṁ bhavet K. 307; the Imperative mood also is

sometimes used for the Potential; tvaratāmāryaputra etāṁ samāśva

sayituṁ māsyā vikāro vardhatāṁ M. 4.

(d) the Present Participle when a curse is implied; mā jīvanyaḥ

parāvajñāduḥkhadagdhopi jīvati Śi. 2. 45; or

(e) with potential passive participles; maivaṁ prārthyam. mā is

sometimes used without any verb; mā tāvat ‘oh ! do not (say or do) so’;

mā maivaṁ; mā nāma rakṣiṇaḥ Mk. 3. ‘may it not be the police’; see

under nāma. Sometimes mā is followed by sma and is used with the

Aorist or Imperfect with the augment dropped, and rarely with the

potential mood; klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha Bg. 2. 3; mā sma

pratīpaṁ gamaḥ S. 4. 17; māsma sīmaṁtinī kācijjanayet putramīdṛśam.

— Comp.

—ciraṁ, —vilaṁbaṁ, —vilaṁbitaṁ ind. without delay, shortly,

quickly.

मातर् — mātar
मी — mī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mī cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 4) «mīnāti, mīnīte» (Ved. also «mināti» and «minoti;

mīyate» or «mīyate» [ xxvi, 28]; «mimītas, mimīyāt» [?]; pf. «mimāya» ;

«mīmaya» ; «mamau, mimye» Gr.; aor. «amāsīt, amāsta» Gr.; «meṣṭa» ;

aor. Pass. «amāyi» ; Prec. «mīyāt, māsīṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «mātā, māsyati, -te»

Gr.; «meṣyate» ; inf. «-miyam, -miye» ; «metos» ; ind. p. «mītvā, -mīya,

māya» Gr.), to lessen, diminish, destroy (A. and Pass. to perish,

disappear, die) ; to lose one’s way, go astray ; to transgress, violate,

frustrate, change, alter Caus. «māpayati» aor. «amīmapat». see «pra-mī»;

Desid. «mitsati, -te» Gr.: Intens. «memīyate, memayīti, memeti» ; Lat.

‘minuere’; Slav. ‘minij’; Germ. ‘minniro’, ‘minre’, ‘minder’; Angl. Sax.

‘min’.]

mī see «manyu-mī».

mī cl.1.10. P. «mayati» or «māyayati», to go, move ; to understand

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mī I. 9 U. (mīnāti, mīnīte; seldom used in classical literature)

(1) To kill, destroy, hurt, injure.

(2) To lessen, diminish.

(3) To change, alter.

(4) To transgress, violate.

(5) To disappear, be lost.

(6) To stray, go astray. —II. P., 10 U. (mayati, māyayati-te)

(1) To go, move.

(2) To know, understand (gatimatyayoḥ). —III. 4 A. (mīyate) To die,

perish.

मुच् — muc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899muc cl.1.ā. «mocate», to cheat (= «mac» q.v.)

muc cl.6.P. ā. ( xxviii, / 136) «muṇcati, -te» ( also, «mucanti, mucasva»;

p. «muṇcāna» ; pf., «mumoca, mumuce», Ved, also, «mumocat, mumocati,

mumucas, mumoktu, amumuktam»; aor. «amok» ; Impv. «mogdhi» ;

«amauk» ; «amucat» ; «amukṣi, mukṣata» ; Prec. «mucīṣṭa» ; «mukṣīya» ;

fut, «moktā», Kalid.; «mokṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «moktum» &c.; ind p.

«muktvā» , «-mucya» , «mokam», Br), to loose, let loose, free, let go,

slacken, release, liberate («from», abl. or «-tas»; ā. and Pass. with abl. or

instr., rarely with gen. «to free one’s self, get rid of, escape from») &c,

&c. (with «kaṇṭham», to relax the throat i.e. raise a cry; with «raśmīn», to

slacken the reins; with «prāṇān», to deprive of life, kill); to spare, let live ;

to set free, allow to depart, dismiss, despatch to, («loc. or dat.) &c.; to

relinquish, abandon, leave, quit, give up, set aside, depose (with

«kalevaram, deham, prāṇān» or «jīvitam», to quit the body or give up the

ghost i.e. to die); to yield, grant, bestow ; to send forth, shed, emit,

utter, discharge, throw, cast, hurl, shoot at («or upon» loc. dat., or acc.

with or without «prati»; with abl. and «ātmānam», to throw one’s self

down from) &c.; (ā) to put on ( Pass. «mucyate» (or «mucyate», ep. also

«-ti» and fut. «mokṣyati»; aor. «amoci»), to be loosed, to be set free or

released &c. &c.; to deliver one’s self from, to get rid of, escape (esp.

from sin or the bonds of existence) &c.; to abstain from (abl.) ; to be

deprived or destitute of (instr.) Caus. «mocayati» (m.c. also «-te»; aor.

«amūmucat»), to cause to loose or let go or give up or discharge or shed

(with two acc.) ; to unloose, unyoke, unharness (horses) ; to set free,

liberate, absolve from (abl.) &c.; to redeem (a pledge) ; to open (a road)

; to give away, spend, bestow ; to gladden, delight, yield enjoyment

Desid. of Caus. «mumocayiṣati», to wish to deliver (from the bondage of

existence) (cf., «mumocayiṣu»): Desid. «mumukṣati, -te», (P.) to wish or

be about to set free ; to be about to give up or relinquish (life) ; to wish

or intend to cast or hurl ; (ā.) to wish to free one’s self ; to desire final

liberation or beatitude (cf. «mokṣ»): Intens. «momucyate» or «monokti»

Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘mungo’, ‘mucus’.])

muc mfn. freeing or delivering from (see «aṁho-m-«)

mfn. letting go or letting fall, dropping, discharging, shooting, sending

(see «jala-, parṇa-, sāyaka-m-» &c.)

muc f. deliverance (see «a-muc»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

muc I. 1 A. (mocate) To deceive, cheat; see muṁc —II. 6 U. (muṁcati-

te, mumoca-pumuce, amucat-amukta, mokṣyati-te, moktaṁ, mukta)

(1) To loose set free, release, let go, let loose, liberate, deliver (from

captivity &c.); vanāya … yaśodhano dhenumṛṣermumoca R. 2. 1, 3. 20;

Ms. 8. 202; mokṣyate murabadīnāṁ veṇīrviryavibhūtibhiḥ Ku. 2 61; R. 10.

47; mā bhavānagāni muṁcatu V. 2 ‘let not thy limbs droop’, ‘do not

despond’.

(2) To set free, loosen (as the voice); kaṁṭhaṁ muṁcati barhiṇaḥ

samadanaḥ Mk. 5. 14 ‘loosens his throat or voice’ i. e. raises a cry.

(3) To leave, abandon, quit, give up, lay aside, relinquish; rātrirgatā

matimatāṁ vara muṁca śayyāṁ R. 5. 66; muca mayi mānamanidānaṁ

Gīt. 10; muktisutāpraṇayasmṛtirodhinā mama ca muktamidaṁ tamasā

manaḥ S. 6. 7; maunaṁ muṁrcāta kiṁ ca kairavakule Bv. 1. 4; āvirbhūte

śaśini tamasā mucyamāneva rātriḥ V. 1. 8; Me. 96, 41; R. 3. 11.

(4) To set apart, take away, except, see muktvā.

(5) To dismiss, send away.

(6) To cast throw, hurl, fling, discharge; mṛgeṣu śarān mumukṣoḥ R.

9. 58: Bk. 15. 53.

(7) To emit, drop, pour forth or down, shed, let fall (tears &c.)

apasṛtapāṁḍupatrā muṁcaṁtyaśrūṇīva latāḥ S. 4. 11; ciravirahajaṁ

muṁcato bāṣpamuṣṇaṁ Me. 12; sa śaravṛṣṭimucā dhanuṣā R. 9. 12, Bk.

7. 2.

(8) To utter, give forth; Māl. 9. 5; Bk. 7. 57.

(9) To give away, grant, bestow. (10) To put on

(A).

(11) To void (as excrement).

(12) To sacrifice. —Pass. (mucyate)

(1) To be loosed or released, be freed or absolved from (with abl. or

instr.); mucyate sarvapāpebhyaḥ &c.

(2) To become loose or relaxed.

(3) To free oneself, scape.

(4) To abandon, deviate or werve from. —Caus. (mocayati-te)

(1) To cause to be freed or liberated.

(2) To cause to shed.

(3) To loose, set at liberty, liberate.

(4) To extricate, disentangle.

(5) To unyoke, unharness.

(6) To give away, bestow.

(7) To gladden, delight.

(8) To open (a road).

(9) To redeem from. —Desid. (mumukṣati)

(1) To wish to free or liberate &c.

(2) (mumukṣate, mokṣate) To long for final emancipation.

muc a. (An the end of comp.)

(1) Freeing, liberating, delivering from.

(2) Discharging, throwing, sending, emitting.

(3) Giving up, leaving &c.

मुद् — mud Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mud cl.10.P. «modayati», to mix, mingle, blend, unite

mud cl.1.ā. ( ii, 15) «modate» (ep. and m.c. also P. «-ti»; pf. «mumoda» ;

«mumude» &c.; aor. «amodiṣṭa» Gr.; Pot. «mudīmahi» ; Prec.

«modiṣīṣṭhās» ; fut. «moditā» Gr.; «modiṣyate» ; ind. p. «-modam» , to be

merry or glad or happy, rejoice, delight in (instr. or loc.) &c. &c.: Caus.,

«modayati, -te» (aor. «amumudat»), to gladden, give pleasure, exhilarate

Desid, of Caus. «mumodayiṣati» Desid. «mumodiṣate» or «mumudithate»

Intens. «momudyate, momudīti, momotti» Gr.

mud f. joy, delight, gladness, happiness (also pl.) &c. &c.

f. Joy personified (as a daughter of Tuṣṭi)

f. intoxication, frenzy

f. a species of drug (= «vṛddhi»)

f. a woman (?)

mud pl. N. of a class of Apsaras

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mud I. 10 U. (modayati-te)

(1) To mix, blend.

(2) To cleanse, purify. —II. 1 A. (modate, mudita; desid. mumudiṣate

or mumodiṣate) To rejoice, be glad or happy, be joyful or delighted;

yakṣye dāsyāmi modiṣya ityajñānavimohitāḥ Bg. 16. 15; Ms. 2. 232, 3.

191; Bk. 15. 97. —Caus. To please, delight, give pleasure, gratify.

मुष् — muṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899muṣ cl.1.P. «moṣati» v.l. for «maṣ» q.v.

muṣ cl.9.1. P. ( xxxi, 58 and xvii, 25 v.l.; cf. 1. «mūṣ») «muṣṇāti, moṣati»

(ep. also cl.6.P. «muṣati»; 2. sg. Imp. «muṣāṇa» ; pf. «mumoṣa»; aor.

«amoṣīt», 2. sg. «moṣīs» ; fut, «moṣitā, moṣiṣyati» Gr.; ind. p. «muṣitvā» ;

«mudṣya» ; inf. «muṣe» ; «moṣitum» Gr.), to steal, rob, plunder, carry off

(also with two acc.= take away from, deprive of) &c. &c.; to ravish,

captivate, enrapture (the eyes or the heart) &c.; to blind, dazzle (the

eyes) ; to cloud, obscure (light or the intellect) ; to break, destroy (cf.

«mus»): Pass., «muṣyate» (ep. also «-ti»; aor. «amoṣi»), to be stolen or

robbed &c.: Caus., «noṣayati» (aor. «amūmuṣat») Gr.: Desid.

«mumuṣiṣati» (cf. «munuṣiṣu»): Intens. «momuṣyate, momoṣṭi» see

under 2. «mūṣ», p.827.]

muṣ (ifc.; nom. «mut»), stealing, robbing, removing, destroying &c.;

surpassing, excelling ; f. stealing, theft

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

muṣ I. 9 P. (muṣṇāti, muṣita; desid. mumuṣiṣati)

(1)

(a) To steal, filch, rob, plunder, carry off (said to govern two acc.;

devadattaṁ śataṁ muṣṇāti, but very rarely used in classical literature);

muṣāṇaratnāni Śi. 1. 51; 3. 38; kṣatrasya muṣṇan vasu jaitramojaḥ Ki. 3.

41; Śi. 3. 38.

(b) To ravish, seduce, ab duct, carry off; Bk. 15. 16

(2) To dispel, remove, drive off; ghanatimiramuṣi jyotiṣi Śi. 4. 67, Ratn

3. 19.

(3) (Fig.) To ruin, undo: na vetsi muṣitamātmānaṁ K. 164, Ratn. 4. 3.

(4) To eclipse, cover, envelop, conceal; sainyareṇumuṣitārkadīdhitiḥ

R. 11. 51.

(5) To captivate, enrapture, ravish.

(6) To surpass, excel; muṣṇañ śriyamaśokānāṁ raktaiḥ

parijanāṁbaraiḥ . gītairvarāṁganānāṁ ca kokilabhramaradhvaniṁ Ks. 55.

113; Ratn. 1. 24; Bk. 9. 92; Me. 47. —II. 1 P. (moṣati)

(1) To hurt, injure, kill. —III. 4 P. (muṣyati)

(1) To steal.

(2) To break, destroy.

मृध् — mṛdh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mṛdh cl.1.P. ā. ( xxi, 10 ) «mardhati, -te» (Ved. also cl, 6. P. ā. «mṛdhati,

-te»; aor. «mardhīs, mardhiṣat» ; Pot. «mṛdhyās» , to neglect, forsake,

abandon ; to be moist or moisten or («undane»), Dhstup.

mṛdh f. fight, battle ()

f. a contemner, adversary, foe

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mṛdh 1 U. (mardhati-te)

(1) To be moist, or to moisten.

(2) Ved. To hurt, kill.

(3) To disregard.

mṛdh f. Ved.

(1) Battle, fight.

(2) An enemy.

म्रुच् — mruc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mruc (cf. «mluc») cl.1.P. «mrocati» (aor. «amrucat» and «amrocīt» , to go,

move Desid. «mumruciṣati» and «mumrociṣati» (cf. «ni-» and «abhi-ni-

mruc»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

mruc 1 P. (mrocati) To go, move.

म्लेछ् — mlech Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mlech (= «mlich») cl.1.P. ( vii, 25) «mlecchati» (Gr. also pf. «mimleccha»

fut. «mlecchitā» &c.; Ved. inf. «mlecchitavai» , to speak indistinctly (like a

foreigner or barbarian who does not speak Sanskṛit) Caus. or cl.10. P.

«mlecchayati» id.

यज् — yaj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yaj cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 33) «yajati, -te» (1. sg. «yajase» ; Ved. Impv. «yakṣi»

or «-ṣva»; pf. «iyāja» ; «ije» ; «yeje» [?] cf. on ; Ved. aor. «ayākṣīt» or

«ayāṭ; ayaṣṭa»; Subj. «yakṣat, yakṣati, -te»; 3. sg. «ayakṣata» ; Prec.

«ijyāt» ; «yakṣīya» ; fut. «yaṣṭā» ; «yakṣyati, -yate» &c. &c.; inf. «yaṣṭum,

ījitum» ; Ved. «-ṭave; yajadhyai» or «yajadhyai»; p.p. «iṣṭa» ind. p. «iṣṭvā» ;

«iṣṭvīnam» ; «-ijya» Gr.; «yājam» , to worship, adore, honour (esp. with

sacrifice or oblations); to consecrate, hallow, offer (with acc., rarely dat.

loc. or «prati», of the deity or person to whom; dat. of the person for

whom, or the thing for which; and instr. of the means by which the

sacrifice is performed; in older language generally P. of Agni or any other

mediator, and ā. of one who makes an offering on his own account cf.

«yaja-māna»; later properly P. when used with reference to the officiating

priest, and ā. when referring to the institutor of the sacrifice) &c. &c.; to

offer i.e. to present, grant, yield, bestow ; (ā.) to sacrifice with a view to

(acc.) ; to invite to sacrifice by the Yājyā verses Pass. «ijyate» (p. Ved.

«ijyamāna» or «yajyamāna» on ; ep. also pr. p. «ijyat»), to be sacrificed or

worshipped &c.: Caus. «yājayati» (ep. also «-te»; aor. «ayīyajat»), to

assist any one (acc.) as a priest at a sacrifice (instr.) ; to cause any one

(acc.) to sacrifice anything (acc.) or by means of any one (instr.) Desid.

«yiyakṣati, -te» (cf. «iyakṣati»), to desire to sacrifice or worship Intens.

«yāyajyate, yāyajīti, yāyaṣṭi» ‘yaz’; Gk. [greek]. ]

yaj (ifc.; cf. sacrificing, worshipping, a sacrificer (see «divi-» and «deva-

yaj»)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yaj 1 U. (yajati-te, iyāja, īje; ayākṣīt ayaṣṭa, yakṣyati-te, yaṣṭaṁ, iṣṭa;

pass. ijyate; desid. yiyakṣati-te)

(1) To sacrifice, worship with sacrifices (often with instr. of words

meaning ‘a sacrifice’); yajeta rājā kratubhiḥ Ms. 7. 79; 5. 53, 6. 36, 11.

40; Bk. 14. 90; so aśvamedheneje, pākayajñeneje &c.

(2) To make an oblation to (with acc. of the deity and instr. of the

means of sacrifice or oblation); paśunā rudraṁ yajate Sk.;

yastilairyajataṁ pitṝn Mb., Ms. 8. 105, 11. 119.

(3) To worship, adore, honour, revere.

(4) To consecrate, dedicate.

(5) To give, bestow. —Caus. (yājayati-te)

(1) To cause to sacrifice.

(2) To assist at a sacrifice.

(3) To perform the office of the sacrificing priest.

यत् — yat Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yat mfn. (pr. p. of 5. «i») going, moving &c. &c. («abde yati», in this year

yat cl.1.ā. (prob. connected with «yam» and orig. meaning, «to stretch»

«yatate» (Ved. and ep. also P. «-ti»; p. «yatamāna, yatāna» and «yatāna» ;

pf. «yete», 3. pl. «yetire» &c.; aor. «ayatiṣṭa» ; fut. «yatiṣyate» , «-ti» ; inf.

«yatitum» ; ind. p. «-yatya» , (P.) to place in order, marshal, join, connect

; (P. or ā.) to keep pace, be in line, rival or vie with (instr.) ; (ā.) to join

(instr.), associate with (instr.), march or fly together or in line ; to

conform or comply with (instr.) ; to meet, encounter (in battle) ; to seek

to join one’s self with, make for, tend towards (loc.) ; to endeavour to

reach, strive after, be eager or anxious for (with loc. dat. acc. with or

without «prati», once with gen.; also with «arthe, arthāya, artham» and

«hetos» ifc.; or with inf.) &c.; to exert one’s self, take pains, endeavour,

make effort, persevere, be cautious or watchful ; to be prepared for

(acc.) Caus. (or cl.10. ) «yātayati» (or «-te»; aor. «ayīyatat»; Pass.

«yātyate»), to join, unite (ā. intrans.) ; to join or attach to (loc.) P. ; to

cause to fight ; to strive to obtain anything (acc.) from (abl.) ; (rarely ā.)

to requite, return, reward or punish, reprove (as a fault) &c. &c.; (ā.) to

surrender or yield up anything (acc) to (acc. or gen.) ; (P. ā.) to distress,

torture, vex, annoy ; accord. to also «nikāre» (others «nirākāre» or

«khede») and «upaskāre»: Desid. «yiyatiṣate» Gr.: Intens. «yāyatyate» and

«yāyatti»

yat in comp. for «yad».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yat 1 A. (yatate, yatita)

(1) To attempt, endeavour, strive, try (usually with inf. or dat.);

sarvaḥ kalye vayasi yatate labdhumarthān kuṭuṁbī V. 3. 1.

(2) To strive after, be eager or anxious for, long for; yā na yayau

priyamanyavadhūbhyaḥ sāratarāgamanā yatamānaṁ Śi. 4. 45; R. 9. 7.

(3) To exert oneself, persevere, labour.

(4) To observe caution, be watchful; Bg. 2. 60.

(5) Ved. To excite, stir up, rouse.

(6) To join, associate with.

(7) To go, proceed. —Caus. (yātayati-te) To return, repay, requite,

recompense, restore.

(2) To despise, censure.

(3) To encourage, animate.

(4) To torture, distress, annoy.

(5) To prepare, elaborate.

(6) Ved. To join, unite.

(7) To cause to be returned or restored.

यम् — yam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yam cl.1.P. ( xxiii, 15) «yacchati» (Ved. also «-te», and Ved. ep. «yamati,

-te»; pf. «yayāma, yeme»; 2. sg. «yayantha», 3. pl. «yemuḥ, yemire» &c.

&c.; 3. du. irreg. «-yamatuḥ» ; aor. «ayān, ayamuh»; Impv. «yaṁsi,

yandhi»; Pot. «yamyās, yamīmahi» ; «ayāṁsam, ayāṁsi, ayaṁsta» Subj.

«yaṁsat, -satas, -sate» ; 3. sg. «-yamiṣṭa» ; «ayaṁsiṣam» Gr.; fut. «yantā»

; «yaṁsyati, yamiṣyati» &c. inf. «yantum, yamitum» ; «yantave,

yamitavai» ; ind. p. «yatvā, yamitvā» &c.; «yatya» ; «-yamya» ; «-yamam»

, to sustain, hold, hold up, support (ā. «one’s self»; with loc. «to be

founded on») ; to raise, wield (a weapon &c.; ā. with «āyudhaih», «to

brandish weapons») ; to raise, extend or hold (as a screen &c.) over

(dat.) ; (ā.) to extend one’s self before (dat.) ; to raise (the other scale),

weigh more ; to stretch out, expand, spread, display, show ; to hold or

keep in, hold back, restrain, check, curb, govern, subdue, control &c. &c.;

to offer; confer, grant, bestow on (dat. or loc.), present with (instr.) &c.

&c.; (with «mārgam»), to make way for (gen.) ; (with «prati» and abl.), to

give anything in exchange for anything on ; (ā.) to give one’s self up to,

be faithful to, obey (dat.) ; to raise, utter (a sound &c.) ; to fix, establish

; (ā.) to be firm, not budge ; to catch fire ( Pass. «yamyate» (aor. «ayā-

mī»), to be raised or lifted up or held back or restrained &c. &c.: Caus.

«yāmayati» (), «yamayati» ( &c.; «-te» ; aor «ayīyamat»), to restrain, hold

in, control, keep or put in order: Desid. «yiyaṁsati», to wish to restrain

&c. Intens. «yaṁyamīti» (see «ud-yam») or «yaṁyamyate» ( 7-4, 85,

Vartt. 2 ([Cf. Gk. [greek] «restraint, punishment.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yam 1 P. (yacchati, yayāma, ayaṁsīt, yaṁsyati, yaṁtuṁ, yata; desid.

yiyaṁsati)

(1) To check, curb, restrain, control, subdue, stop, suppress;

yacchedbāṅmanasī prajñaḥ Kaṭh; yatacittātman Bg. 4. 21; see yata.

(2) To offer, give, bestow.

(3) Ved. To support, sustain.

(4) To raise, lift up.

(5) To extend, stretch.

(6) To go.

(7) To exhibit, show. —Caus. (yamayati-te) To restrain, check &c.

या — yā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yā f. going, a car

m. restraining, religious meditation

m. attaining

m. pudendum muliebre

m. N. of Lakṣmī.

yā (collateral form of 5. «i») cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 41) «yāti» (1. pl. «yāmahe» ;

impf. 3. pl. «ayuḥ» ; «ayān» ; pf. «yayau, yayātha, yaya, yayuḥ» &c. &c.;

«yaye» ; aor. «ayāsam» or «ayāsiṣam»; Subj. «yāsat, yeṣam, yāsiṣat» ;

Prec. «yāsiṣīṣṭhās» ; fut. «yātā» &c.; «yāsyati» ; «-te» ; inf. «yātum» &c.;

Ved. inf. «yai, yātave» or «-vai»; ind. p. «yātvā» ; «-yāya, -yāyam» , to go,

proceed, move, walk, set out, march, advance, travel, journey (often with

instr. or acc. of the way, esp. with «gatim, mārgam, adhvānam,

panthānam, padavīm, yātrām») &c. &c.; to go away, withdraw, retire

&c.; (also with «palāyya») to flee, escape (with «kṣemeṇa» or «svasti», to

escape unscathed ; to go towards or against, go or come to, enter,

approach, arrive at, reach &c. &c. (with acc. often followed by «prati»

e.g. with «gṛham», to enter a house; with «ripum prati», to march against

the enemy; with «mṛgayām», to go out hunting; with «śirasāmahīm», to

bow down to the ground with the head; with «prakṛtim», to return to

one’s natural state; with «karṇau», to come to the ears, be heard; with

«utsavād utsavam», to go from one festival to another; with «hastam» ifc.,

to fall into the hands of; with «patham» or «gocaram» ifc., to come within

range of; esp. with the acc. of an abstract noun = to go to any state or

condition, become, be e.g. «vināśaṁ yāti», he goes to destruction i.e. he

is destroyed; «kāṭhinyaṁ yāti», it becomes hard; «dveṣyatāṁ yāti», he

becomes hated; similarly «nidhanaṁ-yā», to die; «nidrāṁ-yā», to fall

asleep; «udayaṁ-yā», to rise, said of stars &c.; sometimes also with loc.

e.g. «yāhi rājṇah sakāśe», go into the presence of the king ; or even with

dat. e.g. «yayatuḥ sva-niveśāya», both went home ; «na cātmane

kṛpaṇasya dhanaṁ yāti», nor does the wealth of the miser go to [i.e.

benefit] himself. ; «phalebhyo yāti», he goes to [fetch] fruits ; to go to for

any request, implore, solicit (with two acc.) ; (with «striyam») to go to a

woman for sexual intercourse ; to go to for any purpose (inf.) ; often with

adverbs e.g. with «bahir», to go out ; with «adho», to go down, sink ; with

«khaṇḍaśo» or «dalaśo», to fall to pieces ; with «śata-dhā», to fall into a

hundred pieces ; to extend to (acc.) ; to last for (acc.) ; to pass away,

elapse (said of time) &c.; to vanish, disappear (as wealth) ; to come to

pass, prosper, succeed ; to proceed, behave, act ; to find out, discover ;

to receive or learn (a science) from (abl.) ; to undertake, undergo (acc.) ;

Impv. «yātu», be it as it may Pass. «yāyate», to be gone or moved Caus.

«yāpayati» (aor. «ayīyapat»), to cause to depart, cause to go or march,

dismiss ; to cause to go towards (acc.) (cf. «yāpita»); to direct (the

gaze) towards (loc.) (v.l. «pātayati»); to drive away remove, cure (a

disease) ; to cause to pass or elapse, pass or spend (time) &c.; to live

(Pāli «yāpeti») ; to cause to subsist, support, maintain ; to induce Desid.

«yiyāsati», to intend or be about to go, desire to proceed &c.: Intens.

«īyāyate» (?), to move ; «yāyayate, yāyeti, yāyāti» Gr.

yā (ifc.) going, moving (see «ṛṇa-» «eva-, tura-, deva-yā»).

yā f. of 3. «ya» q.v.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yā 2 P. (yāti, yayau, ayāsīt, yāsyati, yāṁtuṁ, yāta)

(1) To go, move, walk, proceed; yayau tadīyāmavalaṁbya cāṁguliṁ

R. 3. 25; anvagyayau madhyamalokapālaḥ 2. 16.

(2) To march against, invade; Ms. 7. 183.

(3) To go to, march towards, set out for (with acc., dat. or with

prati).

(4) To pass away, withdraw, depart; yātu prastutamanusaṁdhīyatāṁ

H. 3. ‘let it go or pass, never mind it’.

(5) To vanish, disappear; yātastavāpi ca vivekaḥ Bv. 1. 66;

bhāgyakrameṇa hi dhanāni bhavaṁti yāṁti Mk. 1. 13.

(6) To pass away or by, elapse (as time); yauvanamanivarti yātaṁ tu

K. P. 10.

(7) To last.

(8) To happen, come to pass.

(9) To go or be reduced to any state, be or become (usually with the

acc. of abstract noun). (10) To undertake; na svasya siddhau yāsyāmi

sargavyāpāra mātmanā Ku. 2. 54.

(11) To have carnal intercourse with.

(12) To request, implore.

(13) To find out, discover.

(14) To behave, act. (The meanings of yā, like those of gam, are

variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected; e. g.

nāśaṁ yā to be destroyed; vācyatāṁ yā to incur blame or censure;

laghutāṁ yā to be slighted; prakṛtiṁ yā to regain one’s natural state;

nidrāṁ yā to fall asleep; vaśaṁ yā to submit, go into one’s possession;

udayaṁ yā to rise; astaṁ yā to set, decline; pāraṁ yā to reach the other

side of, to master, surmount, get over; padaṁ yā to attain to the position

of; agre yā to go before, take the lead, lead; adho yā to sink; viparyāsaṁ

yā to undergo a change, to be changed in appearance; śirasā mahīṁ yā

to bend the head down to the ground &c.), —Caus. (yāpayati-te)

(1) To cause to go or proceed.

(2) To remove, drive away; pramadayā madayāpitalajjayā R. 9. 31.

(3) To spend, pass (time): tāṁvatkokila virasānṁ yāpaya divasān Bv.

1. 7; Me. 89.

(4) To live or spend time with; Ki. 2. 45.

(5) To support, nourish. —Desid. (yiyāsati) To wish to go, to be about

to go &c. —WITH ati 1 to go beyond, transgress, violate. —2. to surpass.

—adhi to go away or forth; escape; kuto’dhiyāsyasi kūra nihatastena

pātribhiḥ Bk. 8. 90.

यु — yu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yu (cf. «yuch») cl.3.P. «yuyoti» (Impv. 2. sg. «yuyodhi» ; «yuyudhi» ; 2. du.

«yuyotam» or «yuyutam» ; 2. pl. «yuyota» or «-tana» ; ā. Subj. 2. sg:

«yuyothās» ; ā. impf. 3. pl. «ayuvanta» ; aor. P. «yaus, ayauṣīt»; Subj.

«yoṣati, yoṣat» ; «yūṣat» ; «yūyāt, yūyātām» ; «yūyot» ; «yāvīs» ; ā.

«yoṣṭhās» ; «yavanta» ; Pass. «ayāvi» ; inf. «yotave, -tavai, -tos» ; «-

yāvam» , to separate, keep or drive away, ward off (acc.), exclude or

protect from (abl.) ; to keep aloof, to be or remain separated from (abl.)

Caus. «yavayati» or «yāvayati», to cause to separate or remove or keep off

&c. Intens. «yoyavīti» (impf. «ayoyavīt»; p. «yoyuvat»), to retreat back,

recede ; to be rent, gape asunder ; to keep off from (abl.)

yu (cf. «yuj») cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 23) «yauti» (Ved. also ā. «yute» and cl.6.

«yuvati, -te»; accord. to cl.9. «yunāti, yunīte»; pf. «yuyāva», 2. sg.

«yuyavitha» ; «yuyuve» ; aor. «-yāviṣṭam» (?) ; «ayaviṣṭa» Gr.; Prec.

«yūyāt» ; fut. «yuvitā» ; «yavitā, yaviṣyati, -te» Gr.; ind. p. «yutvā» ; «-

yūya» ; «-yutya» , to unite, attach, harness, yoke, bind, fasten ; to draw

towards one’s self, take hold or gain possession of, hold fast ; to push on

towards (acc.) ; to confer or bestow upon (dat.), procure ; («yauti»), to

worship, honour Pass. «yūyate» (aor. «ayāvi») Gr.: Caus. «yāvayati» (aor.

«ayīyavat») Desid. of Caus. «yiyāvayiṣati» Desid. «yuyūṣati» (),

«yiyaviṣati» (Gr.), to wish to unite or hold fast: Intens. «yoyūyate, yoyoti,

yoyavīti» &c. (see «ā-, ni-yu»).

yu mfn. ( «yā») going, moving

yu the actual base of the du. and pl. numbers of the 2nd pers. pron. (see

«yuṣmad»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yu I. 2 P. yauti, yuta; caus. yāvayati; desid. yiyaviṣati or yuyūṣati)

(1) To join, unite.

(2) To mix, combine. —II. 3 P. (yuyoti) To detach, separate; as in

yutasiddha —III. 9 U. (yunāti, yunīte)

(1) To bind, fasten.

(2) To join, unite.

(3) To mix, combine.

(4) Ved. To give, grant.

(5) To acquire.

(6) To worship, respect. —IV. 10 A. (yāvayate) To censure. —WITH

vyati to mix; anyonyaṁ sma vyatiyutaḥ śabdāñ śabdaistu bhīṣaṇān Bk. 8.

6.

युज् — yuj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yuj (cf. 2. «yu» cl.7.P. ā. «yunakti, yuṅkte» (ep. also «yuṇjati, -te»; Ved.

«yojati, -te; yuje, yujmahe», 3. pl. «yujata» Impv. «yukṣva»; Pot. «yuṇjīyāt»

; pf. «yuyoja, yuyuje» &c. &c., 3. sg. «yuyojate» ; aor. Class. P. «ayokṣīt,

ayaukṣīt» or «ayujat»; Ved. also ā. «ayuji»; Ved. and Class. «ayukṣi,

ayukta»; fut. «yoktā» ; «yokṣyati» ; «-te» &c. &c.; inf. «yoktum» ; «yuje» ;

ind. p. «yuktvā» &c. &c.; «yuktvāya» ; «-yujya» &c.), to yoke or join or

fasten or harness (horses or a chariot) &c. &c.; to make ready, prepare,

arrange, fit out, set to work, use, employ, apply ; to equip (an army) ; to

offer, perform (prayers, a sacrifice) ; to put on (arrows on a bow-string) ;

to fix in, insert, inject (semen) ; to appoint to, charge or intrust with (loc.

or dat.) ; to command, enjoin ; to turn or direct or fix or concentrate (the

mind, thoughts &c.) upon (loc.) &c. &c.; (P. ā.) to concentrate the mind

in order to obtain union with the Universal Spirit, be absorbed in

meditation (also with «yogam») &c.; to recollect, recall ; to join, unite,

connect, add, bring together &c. &c. (ā. to be attached, cleave to ; to

confer, or bestow anything (acc.) upon (gen. or loc.) (ā. with acc., to

become possessed of ; with «ātmani», to use for one’s self, enjoy ; to

bring into possession of, furnish or endow with (instr.) &c.; to join one’s

self to (acc.) ; (in astron.) to come into union or conjunction with (acc.)

Pass. «yujyate» (ep. also «-ti»; aor. «ayoji»), to be yoked or harnessed or

joined &c. &c. &c.; to attach one’s self to (loc.) ; to be made ready or

prepared for (dat.) ; to be united in marriage ; to be endowed with or

possessed of (instr. with or without «saha») &c.; (in astron.) to come

into conjunction with (instr.) ; to accrue to, fall to the lot of (gen.) ; to be

fit or proper or suitable or right, suit anything (instr.), be fitted for (loc.),

belong to or suit any one (loc. or gen.), deserve to be (nom.) &c.; (with

«na») not to be fit or proper &c. for (instr.) or to (inf., also with pass.

sense = «ought not to be») Caus. «yojayati» (m.c. also «-te»; aor.

«ayūyujat»; Pass. «yojyate»), to harness, yoke with (instr.), put to (loc.)

&c.; to equip (an army), draw up (troops) &c.; to use, employ, set to

work, apply, undertake, carry on, perform, accomplish &c.; to urge or

impel to ; to lead towards, help to (loc.) ; to set (snares, nets &c.) ; to

put or fix on (esp. arrows) &c.; to aim (arrows) at (loc.) ; to fasten on or

in, attack, adjust, add, insert ; (with «manas, ātmānam» &c.) to direct

the thoughts to, concentrate or fix the mind upon (loc.) ; to join, unite,

connect, combine, bring or put together (also = write, compose) &c.; to

encompass, embrace ; to put in order, arrange, repair, restore ; to endow

or furnish or provide with (instr.) &c.; to mix (food) with (instr.) ; to

confer anything upon (loc.) ; (in astron.) to ascertain or know («jānāti»)

the conjunction of the moon with an asterism (instr.) 11 ; (ā.) to think

little of, esteem lightly, despise in Desid. «yuyukṣati», to wish to harness

or yoke or join &c.; to wish to appoint or institute ; to wish to fix or aim

(arrows) ; (ā.) to wish to be absorbed in meditation, devout Intens.

«yoyujyate, yoyujīti» or «yoyokti» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘jungere’,

‘jugum’; Lith. ‘jungus’; Slav. ‘igo’; Goth. ‘juk’; Germ. ‘joh’, ‘Joch’; Angl.

Sax. ‘geoc’; Eng. ‘yoke’.])

yuj mfn. (mostly ifc.; when uncompounded, the strong cases have a

nasal e.g. nom. «yuṅ, yuṇjau, yuṇjas», but «aśva-yuk» &c. joined, yoked,

harnessed, drawn by &c. &c. (cf. «aśva-, hari-, hayottama-yuj»)

mfn. furnished or provided or filled with, affected by, possessed of

(instr., mostly comp.) &c.

mfn. bestowing, granting (e.g. «kāma-yuj», «granting wishes»)

mfn. exciting, an exciter (e.g. «yuṇ bhiyaḥ», an exciter of fear)

mfn. being in couples or pairs, even (not odd or separate) &c.

yuj m. a yoke-fellow, companion, comrade, associate

yuj m. a sage who devotes his time to abstract contemplation

yuj m. a pair, couple, the number «two»

yuj du. the two Aśvins

yuj mfn. (in astron.) the zodiacal sign Gemini.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yuj I. 7 U. (yunakti, yuṁkte, yuyoja, yuyuje, ayujat, ayaukṣīt, ayukta,

yokṣyati-te, yoktuṁ, yukta)

(1) To join, unite, attach, connect. add; tamarthamiva bhāratyā

sutayā yoktumarhasi Ku. 6. 79; see pass. below.

(2) To yoke, harness, put to; bhānuḥ sakṛdyuktaturaṁga eva S. 5. 4;

Bg. 1. 14.

(3) To furnish or endow with; as in guṇayukta.

(4) To use, employ, apply; praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha

yujyate Bg. 17. 26; Ms. 7. 204.

(5) To appoint, set (with loc.).

(6) To direct, turn or fix upon (as the mind &c.).

(7) To concentrate one’s attention upon; manaḥ saṁyamya maccitto

yukta āsīta matparaḥ Bg. 6. 14; yuṁjannevaṁ sadātmānaṁ 15.

(8) To put, place or fix on (with loc.).

(9) To prepare, arrange, make ready, fit. (10) To give, bestow,

confer; āśiṣaṁ yuyuje.

(11) To adhere or cleave to.

(12) To enjoin, charge.

(13) To put in, insert.

(14) To think or medita to upon. —Pass. (yujyate)

(1) To be joined or united with; ravipītajalā tapātyaye punaroghena hi

yujyate nadī Ku. 4. 44; R. 8. 17.

(2) To get, be possessed of; iṣṭairyujyethāṁ Mv. 7; iṣṭena yujyasva S.

5; R. 3. 65.

(3) To be fit or right, be proper, to suit (with loc. or gen.); yā yasya

yujyate bhūmikā tāṁ khalu bhāvena tathaiva sarve vargyāḥ pāṭhitāḥ Māl

1; trailokyasyāpi prabhutvaṁ tvayi yujyate H. 1.

(4) To be ready for; tatā yuddhāya yujyasva Bg. 2. 38, 50.

(5) To be intent on, be absorbed in, be directed towards; Ms. 3. 75,

14. 35; Ki. 7. 13.

(6) To be fastened or harnessed.

(7) To adhere, to be in close contact.

(8) To attain to, possess, obtain.

(9) To be made ready. —Caus. (yojayati-te)

(1) To join, unite, bring together; paraspareṇa spṛhaṇīyaśobhaṁ na

cedidaṁ dvaṁdvamayojayiṣyat R. 7. 14.

(2) To present, give, bestow; R. 10. 56.

(3) To appoint, employ, use; śatrubhiryojayicchatruṁ Pt. 4. 17.

(4) To turn or direct towards; pāpānnivārayati yojayate hitāya Bh. 2.

72.

(5) To excite, urge, instigate.

(6) To perform, achieve.

(7) To prepare, arrange, equip.

(8) To yoke, harness.

(9) To apply, fix, set, place. (10) To furnish or endow with.

(11) To surround.

(12) To despise, think lightly of.

(13) To appoint to. —Desid. (yuyukṣati-te) To wish to join, yoke, give

&c. —II. 1. P., 10 U (yījati, yojayati-te) To unite, join, yoke &c.; see yuj

above. —III. 4 A. (yujyate) To concentrate the mind (identical with the

pass. of yuj I). —IV. 10 A. (yojayate) To censure.

yuj a. (At the end of comp.)

(1) Joined or united with, yoked, drawn by &c.

(2) Furnished or filled with, possessed of.

(3) Exciting, setting on.

(4) Even, not odd. —m.

(1) A joiner, one who unites or joins.

(2) A sage, one who devotes himself to abstract meditation.

(3) A pair, couple (n. also in this sense). —m dual.

(1) The sign Gemimi of the zodiac.

(2) The two Aśvins.

युध् — yudh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yudh cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 64) «yudhyate» (rarely P. «-ti»; cl.1. P. «yodhati» ;

Impv. «yotsi» ; pf. «yuyodha, yuyudhe» &c. &c.; aor. Ved. «yodhi, yodhat,

yodhāna; ayodhīt, yodhiṣat; yutsmahi»; ep. «yotsīs»; Class. «ayuddha»;

fut. «yoddhā» ; «yotsyati, -te» &c.; inf. «yudhe» or «yudhaye» ; «yudham» ;

«yoddhum» ; ind. p. «-yuddhvī» ; «-yudhya» , to fight, wage war, oppose or

(rarely) overcome in battle; to fight with (instr., also with «saha,

samam») or for (loc.) or against (acc.) &c. &c.; («yudhyati»), to go ; to

move, fluctuate (as waves) (cf. on Pass. «yudhyate», to be fought (also

impers.) (v.l.): Caus. «yodhayati» ( 1-3, 86; m.c. also «-te»; aor.

«ayūyudhat» ; Pass. «yodhyate» , to cause to fight, lead to war, engage in

battle &c. &c.; to oppose or overcome in war, be a match for (acc.) &c.;

to defend Desid. «yuyutsati, -te» (P. in Class. only m.c.), to be desirous

or anxious to fight, wish to fight with (instr.) &c. &c.: Caus. of Desid.

«yuyutsayati», to make desirous of fighting Intens. «yoyudhyate,

yoyoddhi» (cf. «yavīyudh») Gr. ([Cf. Zd. ‘yud’; Gk. [greek]. ])

yudh m. a fighter, warrior, hero

yudh m. («yudh») f. war, fight, combat, struggle, contest

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yudh 4 A. (yudhyate, yuddha)

(1) To fight, struggle, contend with, wage war; Bg. 1. 23; Bk. 5. 101.

(2) To conquer or overcome in fight. —Caus. (yodhayati-te)

(1) To cause to fight.

(2) To oppose or encounter in fight with; R. 12. 50.

(3) To vanquish, conquer. —Desid. (yuyutsate) To wish to fight. —

WITH ni to wrestle, box. —prati to encounter in fight, oppose.

yudh f. War, battle, fight, contest; nighātayiṣyanyudhi yātudhānān Bk. 2.

21; sadasi vākpaṭutā yudhi vikramaḥ Bh. 2. 63. —m. A hero, soldier.

येष् — yeṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899yeṣ cl.1.P. «yeṣati», to boil up, bubble ; (ā.) «yeṣate», to exert one’s self,

endeavour (v.l. for «peṣ»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

yeṣ I. 1 A. (yeṣate) To try, strive, attempt. —II. 1 A. Ved.

(1) To bubble.

(2) To flow.

रण् — raṇ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899raṇ or #ran (cf. «ram») cl.1.4. P. «raṇati, raṇyati» (2. du. «raṇyathaḥ» ;

pf. «rāraṇa» ; aor. «arāṇiṣuḥ, raṇiṣṭana» , to rejoice, be pleased, take

pleasure in (loc., rarely acc.) ; to gladden, delight, gratify Caus.

«raṇḍyati, -te», to cheer, gladden, exhilarate with (instr. or loc.) ; to be at

ease, be pleased or satisfied with, delight in (loc.) Intens. (Subj.

«rāraṇat, rāran»; Impv. «rārandhi, rārantu») = Caus. (as well in the trans.

as in the intrans. meanings)

raṇ cl.1.P. ( xiii, 2) «raṇati» (Gr. also pf. «rarāṇa» fut. «raṇitā» &c.), to

sound, ring, rattle, jingle Caus. «raṇayati» (aor. «arīraṇat» or «ararāṇat»

on , to make resound Desid. «riraṇiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «raṁraṇyate,

raṁraṇṭi»

raṇ cl.10.P. «raṇayati», to go

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

raṇ 1 P. (raṇati, raṇita)

(1) To sound, ring, tinkle, jingle (as anklets &c.):

raṇadbhirāghaṭṭanayā nabhasvataḥ pṛthagvibhinnaśrutimaṁḍalaiḥ svaraiḥ

Śi. 1. 10; caraṇaraṇitamaṇinūpurayā paripūritasuratavitānaṁ Gīt. 2.

(2) To go.

(3) Ved. To rejoice.

रद् — rad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rad cl.1.P. ( iii, 16) «radati» (rarely ā. «-te»; Ved. Impv. «ratsi»; pf.

«rarāda» ; aor. «arādīt» Gr.; fut. «raditā, -diṣyati» , to scratch, scrape,

gnaw, bite, rend, dig, break, split, divide ; to cut, open (a road or path) ;

to lead (a river) into a channel ; to convey to, bestow on, give, dispense

‘rad-o’, ‘rod-o’; Eng. ‘rat’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rad 1 P. (radati)

(1) To split, rend.

(2) To scratch.

(3) To gnaw.

(4) To dig.

रध् — radh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899radh or #randh cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 84) «radhyati» (pf. «rarandha», 1. pl.

«rarandhima» or «redhma» Gr.; 3. pl. «rāradhuḥ» ; aor. «aradhat» ; Subj.

«randhīs» Impv. «randhi» for «randdhi» ; fut. «radhitā, raddhā» Gr.;

«radhiṣyati, ratsyati» ; inf. «radhitum» , to become subject to (dat.), be

subdued or overthrown, succumb ; to be completed or matured (cf.

«rādh»); to bring into subjection, subdue ; to deliver into the hand of

(dat.) ; to hurt, torment Caus. «randhayati» (Ved. also «-te»; aor.

«rīradhat» ; «ararandhat» Gr.), to make subject, deliver over to (dat.) ; to

torment, afflict ; to destroy, annihilate ; to cook, prepare (food) Desid.

«riradhiṣati, riratsati» Gr.: Intens. «rāradhyate, rāraddhi» Gr. (in

«rārandhi» for «rāranddhi», and v, 54, 13 «rāranta» for «rārantta») to hand

over to, deliver.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

radh , raṁdh 4 P. (radhyati, raddha; caus. raṁdhayati; desid. riradhiṣati

or riratsati)

(1) To hurt, injure, torment, kill, destroy; akṣaṁ rādhitumārebhe Bk.

9. 29.

(2) To subdue.

(3) To become subject to (any one).

(4) Ved. To die.

(5) Ved. To be completed. —Caus. (raṁdhayati)

(1) To hurt, injure.

(2) To oppress, torment.

(3) To dress, cook or prepare (as food).

रप् — rap Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rap (cf. «lap») cl.1.P. ( xi, 7) «rapati» (pf. «rarāpa» &c. Gr.), to talk,

chatter, whisper Intens. «rārapīti» id.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rap 1 P. (rapati)

(1) To speak distinctly.

(2) Ved. To praise.

रभ् — rabh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rabh or #rambh (mostly comp. with a prep.; cf. «grabh» and see «labh»

with which «rabh» is connected) cl.1.ā. ( xxiii, 5) «rabhate» (m.c. also «-ti»

and ep. «rambhati, -te»; pf. «rebhe» ; also «rārabhe» and 1. pl.

«rarabhma»; aor. «arabdha» ; fut. «rabdhā» Gr.; «rapsyati» ; «-te» &c.; inf.

«rabdhum» ; Ved. «rabham, rabhe»; ind. p. «rabhya» &c.), to take hold of,

grasp, clasp, embrace («arabhat» 8106 w.r. for «ārabhat»); to desire

vehemently ; to act rashly (cf. «rabhas, rabhasa»): Pass. «rabhyate» aor.

«arambhi, pāṇ». vii, 1, 63: Caus. «rambhayati, -te» aor. «ararambhat»

Desid. «ripsate» Intens. «rārabhyate, rārabhīti, rārabdhi» (as far as these

forms really occur, they are only found after prepositions; cf. «anv-ā-, ā-,

prā-, vy-ā-, pari-, saṁ-rabh» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rabh 1 A. (rabhate, rabdha; caus. raṁbhayatite; desid. ripsate)

(1) To begin.

(2) To clasp, embrace.

(3) To long for, be eager.

(4) To act rashly.

रस् — ras Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ras (cf. 1. «rās») cl.1.P. ( xvii, 63) «rasati» (rarely ā. «-te»; pf. «rarāsa»

«resuḥ» &c.; aor. «arāsīt» Gr.; fut. «rasitā, rasiṣyati» ; inf. «rasitum» , to

roar, yell, cry, sound, reverberate &c. &c.; to praise Caus. «rāsayati»

(aor. «arīrasat»), Gr.: Desid. «rirasiṣati» Intens. «rārasyate» (or «rārasti»,

Gr.), to cry out loudly, scream aloud

ras (rather Nom. fr. «rasa» below) cl.10.P. ( xxxv. 77) «rasayati» (rarely

ā. «-te» ep. also «rasati» and «rasyati»), to taste, relish &c.; to feel,

perceive, be sensible of ; to love Desid. «rirasayiṣati», to desire to taste

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ras I. 1 P. (rasati, rasita)

(1) To roar, yell, cry out, scream; karīva vanyaḥ paruṣaṁ rarāsa R.

16. 78; Śi. 3. 41.

(2) To sound, make a noise, tinkle, jingle &c.; rājanyopanimaṁtraṇāya

rasati sphītaṁ yaśoduṁdubhiḥ Ve. 1. 25; rasatāṁ nirbharaṁ nūpurāṇāṁ

Ratn. 1. 19; rasatu rasanāpi tava ghana jaghanamaṁḍale Gīt. 10

(3) To resound, reverberate.

(4) To sing.

(5) Ved. To praise. —II. 10 U. (rasayatite, rasita)

(1) To taste, relish; mṛdvīkā rasitā Bv. 4. 13; Śi. 10. 27.

(2) To feel, perceive.

(3) To love.

रा — rā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rā f. (only amorous play (= «vibhrama»)

rā or #rās cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 49) «rāti» (Ved. also ā. «rāte»; Impv. «rirīhi,

rarāsva, raridhvam»; p. «rarāṇa»; 3. sg. «rarate» and «rāsate»; pf. «rarima,

rare»; aor. «arāsma» Subj. «rātat» &c. Pot. «rāsīya»; Class-forms are only

pr. «rāti»; fut. «rātā» ; «rāsyati» inf. «rātave» , to grant, give, bestow,

impart, yield, surrender

rā (ifc.) granting, bestowing

rā f. see 3. «rai».

rā see under 3. «ra».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rā 2 P. (rāti, rāta) To give, grant, bestow; vayaṁ te adya rarimā hi

kāmaṁ Rv. 3. 14. 5; sa rātu vo duśrayavano bhāvukānāṁ paraṁparāṁ K.

P. 7.

राज् — rāj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rāj (prob. originally two roots; cf. «raj» «raṇj, ṛṇj») cl.1.P. ā. ( «rājati, —

te» (Ved. also «rāṣṭi, rāṭ»; pf. «rarāja; rarāje» or «reje», 2. sg. P.

«rarājitha» or «rejitha» &c.; aor. «arājiṣuḥ» ; «arājiṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «rājitā,

rājiṣyati» ; inf. «rājase» , to reign, be king or chief, rule over (gen.), direct,

govern (acc.) &c. &c.; to be illustrious or resplendent, shine, glitter ; to

appear as or like («iva») Caus. «rājayati, -te» (aor. «ararājat»), to reign,

rule ; to illuminate, make radiant (cf. «rājita»): Desid. «rirājiṣati, -te» Gr.:

Intens. «rārājyate, rārāṣṭi» see under «rājan».]

rāj (ifc.) shining, radiant &c.; («rāj») m. (nom. «rāṭ») a king, sovereign,

chief (in later language only ifc.) &c. &c.; anything the best or chief of its

kind (cf. «śaṅkha-r-«); N. of an Ekāha ; a kind of metre ; f. N. of a

goddess (explained by «rājamānā»)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rāj 1 U. (rājati-te, rājita)

(1)

(a) To shine, glitter, appear splendid or beautiful, be eminent; reje

grahamayīva sā Bh. 1. 17; tasyāḥ praviṣṭā natanābhiraṁdhraṁ rarāja

tanvī navalomarājiḥ Ku. 1. 38; rājan rājati vīravairivanitāvaidhavyadaste

bhujaḥ K. P. 10; R. 3. 7; Ki. 4. 24, 11. 6.

(b) To appear or look (like), shine (like); toyāṁtarbhāskarālīva

reje muniparaṁparā Ku. 6. 49.

(2) To rule, govern.

(3) To direct, regulate.

(4) To be the first or chief, be at the head. —Caus. (rājayati-te) To

cause to shine, illuminate, brighten.

rāj m., rājaḥ

(1) A king, chief, prince.

(2) Anything best of its kind.

राध् — rādh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rādh (cf. «ṛdh» and «radh») cl.5.4. P. ( xvii, 16; xxvi, 71) «rādhnoti»

«rādhyati» (Ved. also pr. «rādhati» and «rādhyate»; pf. «rarādha» &c. &c.

[2. sg. «rarādhitha» or «redhita», cf. ; aor, «arātsīt, rādhiṣi» ; Prec.

«rādhyāsam» ; fut. «rāddhā» Gr.; «rātsyati» ; ind. p. «rāddhvā, -rādhya» ,

to succeed (said of things), be accomplished or finished ; to succeed

(said of persons), be successful with (instr.), thrive, prosper ; to be ready

for, submit to (dat.) ; to be fit for, partake of, attain to (dat. or loc.),

Apast. ; («rādhyati») to prophesy to (dat.) ; to accomplish, perform,

achieve, make ready, prepare, carry out ; to hit, get at (acc.) ; to

propitiate, conciliate, gratify ; to hurt, injure, destroy, exterminate (cf.

Pass. «rādhyate» (aor. «arādhi»), to be conciliated or satisfied (cf.

«rādhyate» above ): Caus. «rādhayati» (aor. «arīradhat» ; Pass. «rādhyate»

, to accomplish, perform, prepare, make ready &c. &c.; to make

favourable, propitiate, satisfy Desid. of Caus. «rirādhayiṣati» Desid.

«rirātsati» or «-ritsati» 1 Intens. «rārādhyate, rārāddhi» Gr. ([Cf. «iradh»;

Goth. ‘garedan’, ‘rathjo’; Slav. ‘raditi’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

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rādh I. 5 P. (rādhnoti, rāddha; desid. rirātsrati, but ritsati ‘to wish to kill’)

(1) To propitiate, conciliate, please.

(2) To accomplish, effect, complete, perform, achieve.

(3) To prepare, make ready.

(4) To fall to the lot of any one (also 4 P.).

(5) To injure, destroy, kill, exterminate; vānarā bhūdharān redhuḥ Bk.

14. 19. —II. 4 P. (rādhyati, rāddha)

(1) To be favourable or merciful.

(2) To be accomplished or finished.

(3) To propitiate, look to the welfare of (any one, with dat.); kṛṣṇāya

rādhyati gargaḥ Sk. (i. e. pṛṣṭo gargaḥ śubhāśubhaṁ paryālocayati).

(4) To be successful, to succeed, prosper.

(5) To be ready.

(6) To kill, destroy. —Caus. (rādhayati-te)

(1) To propitiate.

(2) To accomplish, complete.

(3) To make ready.

रिभ् — ribh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ribh or #rebh cl.1.P. «rebhati» (accord. to ā. «-te»; pf. «rirebha» ; aor.

«arebhīt» Gr.; fut. «rebhitā, rebhiṣyati» , to crackle (as fire) ; to creak (as

a car) ; to murmur (as fluids) ; to chatter, talk aloud ; to shout, sing,

praise

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ribh 1 A. (rebhate)

(1) To crackle, creak

(2) To murmur (as a stream &c.)

(3) To sound in general.

(4) To chatter.

(5) Ved. To praise, worship.

(6) To shout with joy.

रिष् — riṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899riṣ (cf. «riś») cl.1.4. P. ( xvii, 43 and xxvi, 120 v.l.) «reṣati» or «riṣyati»

(ep. also «riṣyate»; aor. «rīḍhvam» «ariṣat» Subj. «riṣātha», p. «rīṣat» ;

«areṣīt» Gr.; fut. «reṣitā, reṣṭā» , «reṣiṣyati» ; inf. «reṣitum», or «reṣṭum» ;

Ved. inf. «riṣe, riṣas»), to be hurt or injured, receive harm, suffer wrong,

perish, be lost, fail &c. &c.; to injure, hurt, harm, destroy, ruin ; Caus.

«reṣayati» (aor. «arīriṣat»; Ved. forms «rīriṣīṣṭa, ririṣeḥ, riṣayadhyai»), to

hurt, injure, harm, cause to miscarry or fail ; (A. «rīriṣīṣṭa»), to fail, meet

with misfortune or disaster Desid. «ririkṣati» (; «ririṣiṣati» or «rireṣiṣati»

Gr.), to wish to injure or harm (cf. «riś»): Intens. «reriṣyate, rereṣṭi» Gr.

riṣ f. injury or an injurer (for, «-riṣe, riṣas» see under 1. «riṣ»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

riṣ 1. 4. P. (reṣati, riṣyati, riṣṭa)

(1) To injure, hurt, harm; tasyehārtho na riṣyate Mb.; tena

yāyātsatāṁ mārgaṁ tena gacchanna riṣyate Ms. 4. 178.

(2) To kill or destroy; Bk. 9. 31.

(3) To give offence.

(4) To perish, be injured (4 P.).

(5) To meet with a reverse or misfortune.

(6) To fail.

riṣ f. An injury, hurt, harm.

रिश् — riś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899riś (cf. «riṣ», from which it is not in all forms distinguishable) cl.6.P. (

xxviii, 126) «riśati» (Ved. also «-te»; pf. «rireśa» &c. Gr.), to hurt, tear,

pluck off, crop Caus. «reśayati» (aor. «arīriśat») Gr.: Desid. «ririkṣati» (cf.

«riṣ»): Intens. «reriśyate, rereṣṭi»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

riś 6 P. Ved.

(1) To tear, rend.

(2) To eat, feed on.

(3) To hurt, injure.

रिह् — rih Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rih (Vedic. form of «lih»), cl.6. 2. P. «rihati» «reḍhi» (or «reLhi»; 3. pl. ā.

«rihate»; pr. p. «rihāṇa» or «rihāṇa»), to lick, kiss, caress ; («rihati») to

praise, worship ; (Imp. «ririḍḍhi, rirīhi») to ask, implore ; also v.l. for

«riph» Intens. «rerihyate» («rerihat, -hāṇa» see s.v.), to lick or, kiss again

and again, caress repeatedly

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rih 1 P. (rehati)

(1) To hurt, kill; see riph.

(2) Ved. A form of lih q. v.

रु — ru Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ru cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 24; cf. «rauti» or «ravīti» (Ved. also «ruvati» and «ravoti,

-te»; p. «ruvat, ravat, ravamāṇa, ravāṇa»; pf. «rurāva» ; «ruruvire» ; aor.

«arāvīt» ; Prec. «rūyāt» Gr.; fut. «ravitā» or «rotā» ; «raviṣyati» ; inf.

«ravitum» , «rotum» , to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud &c. &c.; to

make any noise or sound, sing (as birds), hum (as bees) &c.; («rauti») to

praise Caus. «rāvayati» (aor. «arūruvat» with the sense of the Intens. ; or

«arīravat» , to cause to bellow or roar, cause an uproar &c.: Desid. of

Caus. «rirāvayiṣati» Gr.: Desid. «rurūṣati» Intens. (Ved.) «roravīti» (p.

«roruvat» and «roruvāṇa») or (ep.) «rorūyate, -ti» or (Gr.) «roroti». to

bellow or roar &c. loudly, scream aloud, vociferate. [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat.

‘raucus’; Angl. Sax. ‘ryn’.]

ru m. (only sound, noise

m. fear, alarm

m. war, battle.

ru cl.1.ā. ( xxii, 63) «ravate» (only «rāviṣam» ; «ruruviṣe, araviṣṭa»

«aroṣṭa» to break or dash to pieces ( also «to go; to kill; to be angry; to

speak»): Intens. (only p. «roruvat») to break, shatter

ru m. cutting, dividing

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ru 2 P. (rauti, ravīti, ruta) To cry, howl, scream, yell, shout, roar; to hum

(as bees); to sound in general; karṇe kalaṁ kimapi rauti śanairvicitraṁ H.

1. 81; Bk. 3. 17, 12. 72, 14. 21. —II. 1 A. (ravate)

(1) To go, move.

(2) To hurt, kill.

(3) Ved. To break to pieces.

रुच् — ruc Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ruc cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 5) «rocate» (Ved. and ep. also «-ti»; pf. «ruroca, ruruce»

&c. &c.; Subj. «rurucanta» Pot. «rurucyās» ; p. «rurukvas, rurucāna» ; aor.

«arucat» ; «arociṣṭa» &c.; «arukta» ; p. «rucāna» ; aor. Pass. «aroci» ;

Prec. «rucīya» ; «rociṣīya» ; «ruciṣīya» ; fut. «rocitā» Gr.; «rociṣyate» ; inf.

«rocitum» ; «ruce» ; ind. p. «rucitvā» or «rocitvā» , to shine, be bright or

radiant or resplendent &c. &c.; (only in pf. P.) to make bright or

resplendent ; to be splendid or beautiful or good &c.; to be agreeable to,

please (dat. or gen.) &c.; to be pleased with, like (acc.) ; to be desirous

of, long for (dat.) Caus. «rocayati, -te» (aor. «arūrucat, -cata»; Pass.

«rocyate»), to cause to shine ; to enlighten, illuminate, make bright ; to

make pleasant or beautiful ; to cause any one (acc.) to long for anything

(dat.) ; to find pleasure in, like, approve, deem anything right (acc. or

inf.) &c.; to choose as (double acc.) ; to purpose, intend ; (Pass.) to be

pleasant or agreeable to (dat.) Desid. «ruruciṣate» or «rurociṣate» Gr.:

Intens. (only p. «rorucāna») to shine bright ‘lux’, ‘luceo’, ‘luna’, ‘lumen’;

Goth. ‘liuhath’, ‘lauhmuni’; Germ. ‘lioht’, ‘lieht’, ‘licht’; Angl. Sax. ‘leoht’;

Eng. ‘light’.]

ruc f. light, lustree, brightness &c. &c.

f. splendour, beauty, loveliness &c.

f. colour, hue

ruc f. (ifc.) appearance, resemblance

f. pleasure, delight, liking, wish, desire

ruc pl. N. of a partic. class of Apsarases

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ruc 1 A. (rocate, ruruve, arucatarociṣṭa, rociṣyate, rucita)

(1) To shine, look splendid or beautiful, be resplendent; rurucire

rucirekṣaṇavibhramāḥ Śi. 6. 46; Ms. 3. 62.

(2) To like, be pleased with (said of persons), be agreeable to, please

(of things); used with dat. of the person who is pleased and nom. of the

thing; na srajā rurucire ramaṇībhyaḥ Ki. 9. 35; yadeva rocate yasmai

bhavettattasya suṁdaraṁ H. 2. 53; sometimes with gen. of person;

dāridryānmaraṇādvā maraṇaṁ mama rocate na dāridryaṁ Mk. 1. 11. —

Caus. (rocayati-te)

(1) To cause to like, make pleasant or agreeable; Ku. 3. 16.

(2) To illuminate, irradiate.

(3) To like, find pleasure in

(4) To resolve. —Desid. (ruru-ro-ciṣate) To wish to like &c.

ruc , rucā f. [ruc-kvip vā ṭāp]

(1) Light, lustre, brightness; kṣaṇadāsu yatra ca rucaṁ katāṁ gatāḥ

Śi. 13. 53, 9. 23, 25; śikharamaṇirucaḥ Ki. 5. 43; Me. 44.

(2) Splendour, loveliness, beauty.

(3) Colour, appearance (at the end of comp.);

calavanbhṛṁgarucastavālakān R. 8. 53; Ku. 3. 65; S, 1. 16; Ki. 5. 45.

(4) Liking, desire.

(5) Lightning.

(6) The note of the parrot or Mainā.

रुज् — ruj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ruj cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 123) «rujati» (ep. also «-te»; pf. «ruroja» &c. &c.; aor.

2. sg. «rok» ; «ruk» ; «araukṣīt» Gr.; fut. «roktā, rokṣyati» ; inf. «-ruje» ;

ind. p. «ruktvā, -rujya» , to break, break open, dash to pieces, shatter,

destroy &c. &c.; to cause pain, afflict, injure (with acc. or gen.; cf. &c.

&c.: Caus. «rojayati» (aor. «arūrujat»), to cause to break &c.; to strike

upon (loc.) ; (cl. 10 to hurt, injure, kill: Desid. «rurukṣati» Gr. (see

«rurukṣaṇi»): Intens. «rorujyate, rorokti», Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat.

‘lugeo’.])

ruj (ifc.), breaking, crushing, shattering ; pain, illness, disease &c.;

fracture ; toil, trouble ; Costus Speciosus

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ruj I. 6 P. (rujati, rugṇa)

(1) To break to pieces, destroy; R. 9. 63, 12. 73; Bk. 4. 43.

(2) To pain, injure, disorder, afflict with disease, (sometimes with

gen); rāvaṇasyeha rokṣyaṁti kapayo bhīmavikramāḥ Bk. 8. 120.

(3) To bend. —II. 10 U. (rojayati-te) To hurt, kill.

ruj , rujā f. [ruj-kvip vāṭāp]

(1) Breaking, fracture.

(2) Pain, torment, pang, anguish; aniśamapi makaraketurmanaso

rujamāvahannabhimato me S. 3. 4; kva rujā hṛdayapramāthinī M. 3. 2;

caraṇaṁ rujāparītaṁ 4. 3.

(3) Sickness, malady, disease; R. 19. 52.

(4) Fatigue, toil, effort, trouble.

(5) A ewe.

(6) Leprosy.

— Comp.

—kara a. causing pain, sickening. (

—raḥ) a disease, sickness, illness.

—pratikriyā counteraction or treatment of disease, curing, practice

of medicine.

—bheṣajaṁ a medicine.

—sadmat n. feces, excrement.

रुद् — rud Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rud (cf. 1. «ru») cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 59; cf. «roditi» (Ved. and ep. also «rudati,

-te» and «rodati, -te»; pf. «ruroda, rurude» ; aor. «arudat» &c.; «arodīt, —

diṣuḥ» Gr.; «araudiṣīt» ; fut. «roditā» Gr.; «rodiṣyati» ; inf. «roditum» ; ind.

p. «ruditvā» or «roditvā» ; «-rudya» , to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail

&c. &c.; to bewail, deplore Pass. «rudyate» (aor. «arodi; rudyamāne»,

«while weeping is heard» Caus. «rodayati» (aor. «arūrudat»), to cause to

weep or lament &c. &c.: Desid. «rurudiṣati» Gr. (cf. «rurudiṣā, -ṣu»):

Intens. «rorudyate, rorotti» (p. «rorudyamāna, rorudat») ‘rudere’; Lith.

‘rudis’, ‘rauda’, ‘raudoti’; Angl. Sax. ‘reotan’.]

rud (ifc.), weeping, crying &c. (see «agharud» and «bhava-rud»); f. cry,

wail; sound; grief, pain; disease

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rud 2 P. (roditi, rudita; desid. rurudiṣati)

(1) To cry, weep, lament, mourn, shed tears; nirādhāro hā rodimi

kathaya keṣāmiha puraḥ G. L. 4; api grāvā rādityapi dalati vajrasya

hṛdayaṁ U. 1. 28.

(2) To howl, roar, scream. —WITH pra to weep bitterly.

rud f.

(1) A cry, wail.

(1) Sound, noise.

(3) Grief, pain, affliction.

(4) Disease.

रुध् — rudh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rudh (cf. 1. «ruh», of which this seems to be only another form) cl.1.P.

«rodhati», to sprout, shoot, grow (only «rodhati» ; and «virodhat», i, 67, 9;

accord. to some also p. «rudhat», i, 179, 4, in «nadasya rudhataḥ kāmaḥ»,

«the desire of the growing reed» i.e. of the membrum virile; others, «of

the husband who keeps me away», fr. 2. «rudh»; cf. also «nada»).

rudh cl.7.P. ā. ( xxix, 1) «ruṇaddhi, runddhe» (1. pl. «-rudhmas» ;

«rundhati, -te» &c.; «rodhati» pf. «rurodha, rurudhe» &c. &c.;

«rurundhatuḥ» ; aor. «araut» ; «arautsīt» &c.; «rotsīs» ; «arutsi, aruddha» ;

«arautsi» ; «arodham» ; «arudhma» ; p. «rudhat» cf. 1. «rudh; arudhat» &c.

&c.; Prec. «rudhyāt» ; fut. «roddhā» Gr.; «rotsyati, -te» &c. inf. «roddhum»

or «rodhitum» ; «roddhos» ; ind. p. «ruddhvā» ; «-rudhya» &c. &c.; «-

rundhya» ; «-rudham» ; «-rundham» ; «-rodham» , to obstruct, check,

arrest, stop, restrain, prevent, keep back, withhold (always with «na»),

&c. &c.; to avert, keep off, repel (cf. «rudhat» under 1. «rudh»); to shut,

lock up, confine in (loc.) &c. (accord. to also with double acc.); to

besiege, blockade, invest &c.; to close, block up (a path) ; to cover,

conceal, veil, obscure &c.; to stop up, fill ; to lay (dust) ; to touch, move

(the heart) ; to torment, harass ; to lose, be deprived of (acc.) ; to tear,

rend asunder (?) Caus. «rodhayati» (ep. also «-te» and «rundhayati»; aor.

«arūrudhat»; Pass. «rodhyate»), to stop, arrest ; to cause to be confined

by (acc.) ; to cause to be besieged by (instr.) ; to close (with a cover or

lid) ; to fetter, enchain, influence ; to oppress, torment, harass Desid.

«rorutsate» (), «-ti» (), to wish to obstruct &c.: Intens. «rorudhyate,

roroddhi», to obstruct intensely or repeatedly &c. Gr. (only «rorudhaḥ»

rudh (ifc.) impeding, holding (see «kara-r-«).

rudh prob. a root of this form once existed with a meaning «to be red.»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rudh 7 U. (ruṇaddhi, ruṁddhe, rurodha, rurudhe, arudhat-arautsīt-

aruddha, rotsyati-te, roddhuṁ, ruddha; desid. rurutsati-te)

(1) To obstruct, stop, arrest, check, oppose, hinder; impede, prevent

idaṁ ruṇaddhi māṁ padmamaṁtaḥkūjitaṣaṭpadaṁ V. 4. 21; ruddhāloke

narapatipathe Me. 37, 91; prāṇāpānagatī ruddhvā Bg. 4. 29.

(2) To hold up, preserve, sustain (from falling); āśābaṁdhaḥ

kusumasadṛśaṁ prāyaśo hyaṁganānāṁ sadyaḥpāti praṇayi hṛdayaṁ

viprayoge ruṇaddhi Me. 10. —3.

(a) To shut up, lock or block up, close up, shut or close; (with loc.,

but sometimes with two acc.); Bk. 6. 35; vrajaṁ ruṇaddhi gāṁ Sk.

(b) To surround, fence or hem in.

(4) To bind, confine; vyālaṁ bālamṛṇālataṁtubhirasau roddhuṁ

samujjṛbhate Bh. 2. 6.

(5) To besiege, invest, blockade; ruṁdhaṁtu vāraṇaghaṭā nagaraṁ

madīyāḥ Mu. 4. 17; aruṇadyavanaḥ sāketaṁ or mādhyamikān Mbh.; Bk.

14. 29.

(6) To hide, cover, obscure, conceal.

(7) To oppress, torment, afflict excessively. —Caus.

(1) To cause to stop, detain, impede, obstruct.

(2) To fetter, confine, chain.

(3) To oppress, torment, harass. —II. 1 P. (rodhati) To grow,

germinate, cf. ruh.

रुप् — rup Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rup (cf. «lup») cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 125) «rupyati» (pf. «ruropa» aor. «arupat» &c.

Gr.), to suffer violent or racking pain (in the abdomen) ; to violate,

confound, disturb Caus. «ropayati» (aor. «arūrupat»), to cause acute or

violent pain ; to break off ‘rumpere’; Angl. Sax. ‘reofan’; Germ. ‘roubon’,

‘rauben’; Eng. ‘reave’.]

rup f. the earth ()

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rup 4 P. (rupyati)

(1) To confound, disturb.

(2) Ved. To suffer violent pain.

रुष् — ruṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ruṣ (cf. «ruś») cl.1.4.P. (; xxvi, 120) «roṣati» or «ruṣyati» (rarely «-te», and

«ruṣati», cf. «ruṣat»; Gr. also pf. «ruroṣa»; aor. «aruṣat» or «aroṣīt»; fut.

«roṣitā, roṣṭā; roṣiṣyati»; inf. «roṣitum» or «roṣṭum»; ind. p. «ruṣya» , to

hurt, injure, kill («hiṁsāyām») ; (cl. 1.) to be hurt or offended by, take

offence (acc.) ; to displease, be disagreeable to (gen.) (cf. «ruṣat» and

1. «ruśat»); (cl. 4.) to be vexed or cross, be angry with (gen.) &c.: Caus.

(or cl.10. ) «roṣayati, -te» (aor. «arūruṣat»; Pass. «roṣyate»), to vex,

annoy, displease, irritate, exasperate &c.; to be furious or angry Desid.

«ruruṣiṣati, ruroṣiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «roruṣyate, roroṣṭi»

ruṣ f. (nom. «ruṭ» anger, westh, rage, fury, passion

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ruṣ I. 4 P. (rusyati; rarely ruṣyate; ruṣita, ruṣṭa) To be angry, to be vexed

or annoyed, be offended; tato’ruṣyadanardacca Bk. 17. 40; mā muho mā

ruṣo’dhunā 15. 16, 9. 20. —II. 1 P. (roṣati)

(1) To hurt, injure, kill.

(2) To vex, annoy.

(3) Ved. To be offended. —Caus. To provoke, engage, exasperate.

ruṣ , ruṣā f. Anger, wrath, rage; nirbaṁdhasaṁjātaruṣā R. 5. 21;

prahneṣvanirbaṁdharuṣo hi saṁtaḥ 16. 80, 19. 20.

रुह् — ruh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ruh (cf., 1. «rudh») cl.1.P. ( N. xx, 29) «rohati» (m.c. also «-te» and

«ruhati, -te»; Ved. and ep. impf. or aur. «aruhat»; Pot. «ruheyam, —

ruhethās, -ruhemahi»; Impv. «ruha», p. «ruhāṇa»; pf. «ruroha, ruruhuḥ»

&c. &c.; «ruruhe» ; aor. «arukṣat» &c.; fut. «roḍhā» Gr.; «rokṣyati, -te»

&c.; «rohiṣye» ; inf. «roḍhum» &c.; «rohitum» ; «rohiṣyai» ; ind. p.

«rūḍhvā» , «-ruhya» &c.; «-rūhya» ; «-ruham» ; «-roham» , to ascend,

mount, climb ; to reach to, attain (a desire) ; to rise, spring up, grow,

develop, increase, prosper, thrive &c. &c. (with «na», «to be useless or in

vain» ; to grow together or over, cicatrize, heal (as a wound) &c.: Caus.

«rohayati» or (later) «ropayati, -te» (aor. «arūruhat» or «arūrupat» Gr.;

Pass. «ropyate» aor. «aropi» , to cause to ascend, raise up, elevate ; to

place in or on, fix in, fasten to, direct towards (with acc. or loc.) ; to

transfer to, commit, entrust (cf. «ropita»); to put in the ground, plant,

sow ; to lay out (a garden) ; to cause to grow, increase ; to cause to

grow over or heal Desid. «rurukṣati» see «ā-ruh»: Intens. «roruhyate,

roroḍhi» Gr.

ruh f. rising, growth, sprout, shoot

ruh f. (ifc.) shooting, sprouting, growing, produced in or on (cf. «ambho-,

avani-, kṣiti-r-» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ruh 1 P. (rohati, ruroha, arukṣat, rokṣyati, roḍhuṁ, rūḍha)

(1) To grow, spring up, shoot forth, germinate; rūḍharāgapravālaḥ M.

4. 1; kesarairardharūḍhaiḥ Me. 21; chinno’pi rohati taruḥ Bh. 2. 87.

(2) To grow up, be developed, increase.

(3) To rise, mount upwards, ascend.

(4) To grow over, heal up (as a wound); rohate sāyakairviddhaṁ na

saṁrohati vākkṣataṁ Pt. 3. 111.

(5) To reach to, attain. —Caus. (ropayati-te, rohayati-te)

(1) To cause to grow, plant, put in the ground.

(2) To raise up, elevate.

(3) To entrust, devolve upon, commit to the care of;

guṇavatsutaropitaśriyaḥ R. 8. 11.

(4) To fix upon, direct towards, cast at; R. 9. 17.

(5) To fix, fasten. —Desid. (rurukṣati) To wish to grow &c.

ruh , ruha a. (At the end of comp.) Growing or produced in; as in

mahīruh, paṁkeruha &c.

रूक्ष् — rūkṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rūkṣ (rather Nom. fr. «rūkṣa») cl.10.P. «rūkṣayati» ( also «rūkṣāpayati»;

aor. «arurūkṣat»), to be rough or harsh ; to make dry or emaciated ; to

soil, smear ; to injure, offend, exasperate

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rūkṣ 10 U. (rūkṣayati-te)

(1) To be rough or harsh.

(2) To be unkind.

(3) Ved. To make dry.

रेज् — rej Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899rej cl.1.P. ā. «rejati, -te», (P.) to go ; to cause to tremble or shake ; (A.)

to shine (cf. «rāj») ; to shake, tremble, quiver Caus. «rejayati», to cause

to tremble or quake, to shake

rej mfn. (nom. «reṭ»; cf. 2. «reṣ») trembling, quaking

rej m. fire

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

rej 1 A. (rejate) To shine.

(2) To shake, tremble (Ved.).

rej m. N. of Agni.

लिख् — likh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899likh (cf. the earlier form «rikh») cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 72) «likhati» (rarely ā. «-

te»; pf. «lilekha» &c.; aor. «alekhīt» ; fut. «lekhitā, lekhiṣyati» Gr.;

«likhiṣyati» ; inf. «lekhitum», or «likhitum» Gr.; ind. p. «lekhitvā» ; «likhitvā»

; «-likhya» &c.), to scratch, scrape, furrow, tear up (the ground) &c. &c.;

to pick, peck (said of birds). ; to scarify, lance ; to produce by scratching

&c., draw a line (with or scil. «lekhām»), engrave, inscribe, write, copy,

trace, sketch, delineate, paint &c. &c.; to make smooth, polish ; to

graze, touch ; to unite sexually with a female(?) ( Pass. «likhyate» (aor.

«alekhi»), to be written Caus. «lekhayati» (or «likhāpayati»; aor.

«alīlikhat»), to cause to scratch or write or copy or paint &c.; to scratch,

lance ; to write, paint Desid. «lilikhiṣati» or «lilekhiṣati» ‘rekti’, «to cut.»]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

likh 6 P. (likhati, likhita)

(1) To write, write down, inscribe, draw a line, engrave; arasikeṣu

kavitvanivedanaṁ śirasi mā likha mā likha mā likha Udb.;

tārākṣarairyāmasite kaṭhinyā niśālikhad vyomni tamaḥpraśastiṁ N. 22.

54; Y. 2. 87, S. 7. 5; līneva pratibiṁbiteva likhiteva Māl. 5. 10.

(2) To sketch, draw, portray, delineate, paint; mṛgamadatilakaṁ

likhati sapulakaṁ mṛgamiva rajanīkare Gīt. 7; matsādṛśyaṁ virahatanu vā

bhāvagamyaṁ likhaṁtī Me. 85, 80; Ku. 6. 48; smitvā pāṇau

khaḍgalekhāṁ lilekha K. P. 10; keśagrahaḥ khalu tadā drupadātmajāyā

droṇasya cādya likhiteriva vīkṣito yaiḥ Ve. 3. 11.

(3) To scratch, rub, scrape, tear up; na kiṁcidūce caraṇena kevalaṁ

lilekha bāṣpākulalocanā bhuvaṁ Ki. 8. 14; mūrdhnā divamivā likhan Bk.

15. 22.

(4) To lance, scarify.

(5) To touch, graze.

(6) To peck (as a bird).

(7) To make smooth.

(8) To unite sexually with a female.

लिह् — lih Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899lih (later form of «rih») cl.2.P.ā ( xxiv, 6) «leḍhi, līḍhe» (ep. also «lihati»;

pf. «lileha, lilihe» Gr.; fut. «leḍhā, lekṣyati, -te» ; aor. «alikṣat, alikṣata»

and «alīḍha» ; inf. «leḍhum» ; ind. p. «līḍhvā» to lick, lap, lick at (loc.),

taste, sip, take any food by licking or lapping &c. &c.; to lick up = destroy

(said of an arrow) ; Caus. «lehayati» (aor. «alīlihat»), to cause to lick ; to

apply as an electuary Desid. «lilikṣati, -te» Gr.: Intens. «lelihyati, leleḍhi»

(p. «lelihat» «-hyat, -hyamana» or «-hāna» q.v.), to lick frequently or

constantly, play with the tongue ‘lingo’; Slav. ‘lizati’; Lith. ‘lezti’; Germ.

‘lecchon’, ‘lecken’; Angl.Sax. ‘liccian’; Eng. ‘lick’.]

lih (ifc.) licking (cf. «madhu-l-«); perceiving («nayanayoḥ» «in the eyes») ;

m. mild wind

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

lih 2 U. (loḍhi, līḍhe, lileha-lilihe, alikṣat-ta, alīḍha, lekṣyati-te, leḍhuṁ,

līḍha, desid. lilikṣati-te)

(1) To lick; kapāle mārjāraḥ paya iti karāṁlleḍhi śaśinaḥ K. P. 19; Bv.

1. 99; Ki. 5. 38; Śi. 12. 40.

(2) To lick up, taste, sip, lap; N. 2. 99, 100.

वच् — vac Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vac cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 55) «vakti» (occurs only in sg. «vacmi, vakṣi, vakti», and

Impv. «vaktu»; Ved. also cl.3. P. «vivakti»; pf. «uvāca, ūj» &c. &c.;

«uvaktha» ; «vavāca, vavakṣe» ; aor. «avocat, -cata» &c. &c.; in Veda also

Subj. «vocati, -te, vecāti»; Pot. «vocet, -ceta»; Impv. «vocatu»; Prec.

«ucyāsam» ; fut. «vaktā» &c.; «vakṣyati» &c. &c.; «-te» ; Cond.

«avakṣyat» ; inf. «vāktum» &c.; «-tave» ; «-tos» ; ind. p. «uktvā» &c.; «-

ucya» , to speak, say, tell, utter, announce, declare, mention, proclaim,

recite, describe (with acc. with or without «prati» dat. or gen. of pers.,

and acc. of thing; often with double acc. e.g. «tam idaṁ vākyam uvāca»,

«e spoke this speech to him»; with double acc. also «to name, call» ā.

with nom; «one’s self»; with «punar», «to speak again, repeat»; or «to

answer, reply») &c. &c.; to reproach, revile (acc.) Pass. «ucyate» (aor.

«avāci», or in later language «avoci»), to be spoken or said or told or

uttered &c. &c. &c. («yad ucyate», «what the saying is»); to resound ; to

be called or accounted, be regarded as, pass for (nom. also loc.) &c.:

Caus. «vācayati, -te» (Pot. «vācayīta» ; aor. «avīvacat»; Pass. «vācyate»),

to cause to say or speak or recite or pronounce (with, double acc.; often

the object is to be supplied) &c.; to cause anything written or printed to

speak i.e. to read out loud &c.; ( xxxiv, 35) to say, tell, declare ; to

promise Desid. «vivakṣati, -te» (Pass. «vivakṣyate»), to desire to say or

speak or recite or proclaim or declare &c.; (Pass.) to be meant Intens.

(only «avāvacīt») to call or cry aloud ‘vocare’, ‘vox’; Germ. ‘gi-waht’, ‘gi-

wahinnen’, ‘er-w„hnen’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vac 2 P. (A. also in non-conjugational tenses; in conjugational tenses it is

said to be defective in the third person plural by some authorities, or in

the whole plural by others; vakti, uvāca, avocat, vakṣyati, vaktuṁ, ukta)

(1) To say, speak; vairāgyādiva vakṣi K. P. 10; (oft. with two. acc.);

tāmūcatuste priyamapyamithyā R. 14. 6; sometimes with accusative of

words meaning ‘speech’; uvāca dhātryā prathamoditaṁ vacaḥ R. 3. 25, 2.

59; ka evaṁ vakṣyate vākyaṁ Rām.

(2) To relate, describe; raghūṇāmanvayaṁ vakṣye R. 1. 9.

(3) To tell, communicate, announce, declare; ucyatāṁ

madvacanātsārathiḥ S. 2; Me. 98.

(4) To name, call; tadekasaptatiguṇaṁ manbaṁtaramihocyate Ms. 1.

79.

(5) To signify, denote (as sense).

(6) To recite, repeat.

(7) To censure; reproach. —Caus. (vācayati-te)

(1) To cause to speak.

(2) To go over, read, peruse.

(3) To say, tell, declare.

(4) To promise. —Desid. (vivakṣati) To wish to speak, intend to say

(something); vivakṣatā doṣamapi cyutātmanā tvayaikamīśaṁ prati sādhu

bhāṣitaṁ Ku. 5. 81.

वन् — van Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899van cl.1.P. (Dhātiip. xiii, 19; 20; xix, 42) «vanati» (Ved. also «-te», and

«vanati»); cl.8. P. ā. (xxx, 8) «vanoti, vanute» (pf. «vāvāna, vāvantha,

vavanma, vavne»; p. «vavanvas» ; aor. «vanta, vaṁsva» ; «vaṁsat, -sate»

; «vaniṣat» ; «-ṣanta» ; «vanuṣanta», ; Pot. «vaṁsīmahi, vasīmahi» ; Prec.

«vaniṣīṣṭa» «vaṁsiṣīya» ; fut. «vaniśā» Gr.; «vaniṣyate», SāṅkhSr.; inf.

«vanitum» Gr.; «-vantave» , to like, love, wish, desire ; to gain, acquire,

procure (for one’s self or others) ; to conquer, win, become master of,

possess ; to prepare, make ready for, aim at, attack ; to hurt, injure (

also «to sound»; «to serve, honour, worship. help, aid»): Caus. «vanayati»

or «vānayati» ; xxxix, 33 v.l. (cf. «saṁ-van»): Desid. «vivāsati, -te», to

attract, seek to win over Intens. (only «vāvanaḥ» and «vāvandhi»; but cf.

«vanīvan») to love, like ‘venia’, ‘Venus’; Got. ‘gawinnan’; Germ.

‘gewinnen’; Eng. ‘win’.]

van = «vana» (only in gen. and loc. pl. «vanām» «vaṁsu»), «wood» or, «a

wooden vessel» ; love, worship

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

van I. 1 P. (vanati)

(1) To honour, worship.

(2) To aid.

(3) To sound.

(4) To be occupied or engaged. —II. 8 U. (vanoti, vanute, usually

vanute only)

(1) To beg, ask, request (said to govern two acc.); toyadāditaraṁ

naiva cātako vanute jalam.

(2) To seek for, seek to obtain.

(3) To conquer, possess.

(4) Ved. To like, love.

(5) To wish, desire.

(6) To make ready, prepare for.

(7) To hurt, injure. —III. 1. P., 10 U. (vanati, vānayati-te)

(1) To favour, aid.

(2) To hurt, injure.

(3) To sound.

(4) To confide in.

वम् — vam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vam cl.1.P. ( xx, 19) «vamati» (Ved. also «vamiti» impf. «avamat» or

«avamīt»; pf. «vavāma» «vemuḥ» &c.; «vavamuḥ» ; 2. sg. «vemitha» or

«vavamitha» ; 3. sg. «uvāma» ; aor. «avān» ; fut. «vamiśā, vamiṣyati» Gr.;

inf. «vamitum» ; ind. p. «vamitvā» ; «vāntvā» , to vomit, spit out, eject (lit.

and fig.), emit, send forth, give out &c. &c.; to reject i.e. repent (a word)

Pass. «vamyate» (aor. «avāmi» Gr.), to be vomited &c.: Caus. «vāmayati,

vamayati» (cf. ; aor. «avīvamat» Gr.), to cause to vomit Desid.

«vivamiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «vaṁvamyate, vaṁvanti» ‘vomere’; Lith.

‘vemti’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vam 1 P. (vamati, vāṁta; caus. vāmayati, vamayati; but with prepositions

only vamayati)

(1) To vomit, spit out, eject from the mouth; raktaṁ

cāvamiṣurmukhaiḥ Bk. 15. 62, 9. 10, 14. 30.

(2) To send forth or out, pour out, give out, give off, give forth, emit

(fig. also); kimāgneyagrāvā vikṛta iva tejāṁsi vamati U. 6. 14; S. 2. 7; R.

16. 66; Me. 20: aviditaguṇāpi satkavibhaṇitiḥ karṇeṣu vamati

madhudhārāṁ Vās.

(3) To throw out or down; vāṁtamālyaḥ R. 7. 6.

(4) To reject.

वषट् — vaṣaṭ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vaṣaṭ ind. (accord. to some fr. 1. «vah»; cf. 2. «vaṭ» and «vauṣaṭ») an

exclamation uttered by the Hotṛi priest at the end of the sacrificial verse

(on hearing which the Adhvaryu priest casts the oblation offered to the

deity into the fire; it is joined with a dat. e.g. «pūṣṇe vaṣaṭ»; with «kṛ»,

«to utter the exclamation «vaṣaṭ»»)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vaṣaṭ ind. An exclamation used on making an oblation to a deity, (with

dat. of the deity); iṁdrāya vaṣaṭ, pūṣṇe vaṣaṭ &c.

— Comp.

—kartṛṁ m. the priest who makes the oblation with the

exclamation vaṣaṭ. —kāraḥ the formula or exclamation vaṣaṭ.

वस् — vas Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vas (encl.) acc. dat. gen. pl. of 2nd pers. pron. (cf.

vas (a Vedic root connected with 1. «uṣ» q.v.; not in cl.6.P., «ucchati»

(pf. «uvāsa, ūṣuḥ» &c.; aor. «avāt» [?] ; «avasran» ; Cond. «avatsyat» ;

Ved. Inf. «vastave, -uṣi»), to shine, grow bright (esp. applied to the

dawn) ; to bestow by shining upon (dat.) ; (with «dūre») to drive away by

shining Caus. «vāsayati», to cause to shine «vasar» in «vasar-han»; Gk.

[greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘ver’ &c.]

vas cl.10.P. «vāsayati» (aor. «avīvasat»), to love; to cut off; to accept,

take; to offer; to kill («ni-vāsita», killed) prep.; see «pari-vas»; but

accord. to some the Impv. «vasiṣva» [ viii, 70, 10] and «uṣa», «a lover» [x,

95, 5], and «vasiṣṭha» [ib. 17] belong also to this root, which has

developed an obscene meaning = Gk. [greek] futuere).

vas cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 13) «vaste» (Impv. «vasiṣva» ; «vaddhvam» ; p.

«vasāna», once «usāna» and «usamāna» ; pf. «vavase» ; «vāvase», p. «-

sāna» ; aor. «avasiṣṭa» ; fut. «vasitā» Gr.; «vasiṣyate» ; «vatsyati» 11206;

inf. «vasitum» ; ind. p. «vasitvā» ; «-vasya» , to put on, invest, wear,

(clothes &c.), assume (a form &c.), enter into &c. &c.: Caus. «vāsayati,

-te» (Pass. «vāsyate»), to cause or allow to put on or wear (clothes),

clothe (ā. «one’s self») with (instr.) Desid. «vivasiṣate» Gr.: Intens.

«vāvasyate, vāvasti» for [characters]; Lat. ‘vestis’; Goth. ‘wasjan’; Angl.

Sax. ‘werian’; Eng. ‘wear’.]

vas (ifc.), clothed in, wearing (e.g. «preta-cūvara-vas», «wearing the

garments of dead men»).

vas cl.1.P. ( xxiii, 36) «vasati» (m.c. also «-te»; pf. «uvāsa, ūṣuḥ» &c. &c.;

p. «vāvasāna» ; «-vāsāṁ cakre» ; aor. «avātsīt» ; «avāksam» [where it is

artificially connected with «vāc»]; «avāstam» ; fut. «vastā» Gr.; «vatsyati,

-te» &c.; «vasiṣyati» ; inf. «vastum, vasitum» &c.; ind. p. «uṣitvā» ;

«uṣṭvā» ; «-uṣya» &c.), to dwell, live, stop (at a place), stay (esp.

«overnight», with or without «rātrim» or «rātrīs») &c. &c.; to remain,

abide with or in (with loc. of pers.; loc. or acc. of place, esp. with

«vāsam» or «vasatim») &c. &c.; to remain or keep on or continue in any

condition (with a pp., e.g. with «channa», «to continue to be covered» ; or

with an acc., with «brahmacaryam», «to practise chastity» ; or with an

adv. e.g. with «sukham», «to live pleasantly or at ease»; with or without

«dūratas», «to keep aloof») &c. &c.; to have sexual intercourse with (loc.)

; to rest upon (loc.) ; to charge or entrust with (instr.) ; cl.10. P.

«vasayati», to dwell Pass. «uṣyate» (aor. «avāsi»), to be dwelt &c. &c.:

Caus. «vāsayati, -te» (cf. ; aor. «avīvasat» Pass. «vāsyate» , «-ti» , to

cause to halt or stay (overnight), lodge, receive hospitably or as a guest

&c.; to cause to have sexual intercourse with (loc.) ; to let anything

stand overnight (with «tisro», scil. «ratrīs», «three nights») ; to cause to

wait, keep in suspense ; to delay, retard ; to cause to exist, preserve ; to

cause to be inhabited, populate (a country) ; to put in, place upon (loc.)

(«anadhyāyam mukhe», to put restraint on the mouth, refrain from

speaking); to produce Desid. «vivatsati», to wish to dwell Intens.

«vāvasyate, vāvasti», to remain, be in, be engaged in ‘wisan’; Germ.

‘wesan’, ‘ge-wesen’, ‘war’ &c.; Angl. Sax. ‘wesan’; Eng. ‘was’, ‘were’.]

vas (only in gen. «vasām»), prob. either «an abode» or «a dweller»

vas (only «vasiṣva», [«anu»]»-vāvase, vāvasāna», and «vastos»), to rush

or aim at, attack (cf. under 3. «vas»); viii, 4, 8; i, 51, 3; vi, 11, 6 (?); i,

174, 3.

vas (also written «bas») cl.4.P. «vasyati», to be or make firm

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vas I. 1 P. (vasati, sometimes vasate, uvāsa, avātsati, vatsyati, vastuṁ,

uṣita)

(1) To dwell, inhabit, live, stay, abide, reside (usually with loc.; but

sometimes acc.); dhīrasamīre yamunātīre vasati vane vanamālī Gīt. 5.

(2) To be, exist, be found in; vasaṁti hi premṇi guṇā na vastuni Ki. 8.

37; yatrākṛtistatra guṇā vasaṁtiḥ bhūtiḥ śrīrhrīrdhṛtiḥ kīrtirdakṣe vasati

nālase Subhāṣ.

(3) To spend, pass (as time) (with acc.). —Caus.

(1) To cause to dwell to dwell, lodge, people.

(2) To receive hospitably.

(3) To dwell, inhabit. —Desid. (vivatsati) To wish to dwell. —II. 2 A.

(vaste) To wear, put on; vasane paridhūsare vasānā S. 7. 21, Śi. 9. 75; R.

12. 8; Ku. 3. 54, 7. 9; Bk. 4. 10. —Caus. (vāsayati-te) To cause to put on.

—III. 4 P. (va syati)

(1) To be straight.

(2) To be firm.

(3) To fix. —IV. 10 U. (vāsayati-te)

(1) To cut, divide, cut off.

(2) To love.

(3) To take, accept.

(4) To hurt, kill.

(5) To offer. —V. 10 U. (vasayati-te) To scent, perfume.

वह् — vah Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vah cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 35) «vahati, -te» (in later language ā. only m.c.;

Vedic forms which may partly belong to the aor. are «vakṣi, voḍham, —

ḍhām» or «voLham, -Lhām, uhīta, vakṣva, voḍhvam, ūḍhvam, uhāna»; pf.

«uvāha, ūhuḥ; ūhe» &c. &c.; «vavāha, -hatuḥ» ; aor. Ved. «avākṣīt» or

«avāṭ» Subj. «vakṣat, -ati», Prec. «uhyāt; avakṣi, avoḍha» Gr.; fut. «voḍhā»

; «vakṣyati, -te» &c.; «vahiṣyati» &c.; inf. «voḍhum» &c. &c. [Ved. also

«-ḍhave» and «-ḍhavai»]; «vāhe» ; «vahadhyai» ; ind. p. «ūḍhvā» ; «-uhya»

&c. &c.; cf. 1. «ūh»), to carry, transport, convey (with instr. of vehicle)

&c. &c.; to lead, conduct (esp. offerings to the gods, said of Agni) ; to

bear along (water, said of rivers) ; to draw (a car), guide (horses &c.) ;

to lead towards, to bring, procure, bestow ; to cause, effect ; to offer (a

sacrifice) ; to spread, diffuse (scent) ; to shed (tears) ; to carry away,

carry off, rob &c.; to lead home, take to wife, marry &c. &c.; to bear or

carry on or with (Inc. or instr.) &c.; to take or carry with or about one’s

self, have, possess ; to wear (clothes) ; (with «śiras») to bear one’s head

(«uccaiś-tarām», «igh») ; (with «vasuṁdharām» or «kṣmā-maṇḍālam») to

support i.e. rule the earth ; (with «garbham») to be with child ; to bear,

suffer, endure ; to forbear, forgive, pardon ; to undergo (with «agnim,

viṣam, tulām», «the ordeal of fire, poison, and the balance») ; to

experience, feel &c.; to exhibit, show, betray ; to pay (a fine) ; to pass,

spend (time) ; (intrans.) to drive, ride, go by or in (with instr. of the

vehicle), be borne or carried along, run, swim &c. &c. &c.; to draw (scil.

a carriage, said of a horse) ; to blow (as wind) ; to pass away, elapse

Pass. «uhyate» (ep. also «-ti»; aor. «avāhi»), to be carried («uhyamāna»,

«being carried») &c.; to be drawn or borne by (instr.) or along or off &c.

&c.: Caus. «vāhayati» (m.c. also «-te»; aor. «avīvahat»; Pass. «vāhyate»),

to cause to bear or carry or convey or draw (with two acc. 6 , drive (a

chariot), guide or ride (a horse), propel (a boat), go or travel by any

vehicle &c.; to cause to guide (two acc.) ; to cause any one (acc.) to

carry anything (acc.) on (loc.) ; to cause to take in marriage ; to cause to

be conveyed by (instr.) ; to traverse (a road) ; to accomplish (a journey)

; to employ, keep going or in work ; to give, administer (see «vāhita»); to

take in, deceive (see id.): Desid. «vivakṣati, -te» Gr.: Intens.

«vanīvāhyate», to carry hither and thither (cf. «vanīvāhana» and

«vanīvāhita»); «vāvahīti», to bear (a burden) ; «vāvahyate, vāvoḍhi» Gr.

([Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘vehere’, ‘vehiculum’; Slav. ‘vesti’;

Lith. ‘vezti’; Goth. ‘gawigan’; Germ. ‘wegan’, ‘bewegen’; Eng. ‘weigh’.])

vah (ifc.; strong form «vāh» weak form «ūk», which with a preceding «a»

coalesces into «au»; cf. carrying, drawing, bearing, holding (cf. «anaḍ-uh,

apsu-vah, indra-vah» &c.).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vah 1 U. (vahati-te, uvāha, ūhe, avākṣīt, avoḍha, vakṣayati-te, voḍhuṁ,

ūḍha; pass. uhyate) 1 To carry, lead, bear, convey, transport (oft. with

two acc.); ajāṁ grāmaṁ vahati; vahati vidhihutaṁ yā haviḥ S. 1. 1; na ca

havyaṁ vahatyagniḥ Ms. 4. 249.

(2) To bear along, cause to move onward, waft, propel; jalāni yā

tīranikhātayūpā vahatyayodhyāmanu rājadhānīṁ R. 13. 61; trisrotasaṁ

vahati yo gaganapratiṣṭhāṁ S. 7. 6; R. 11. 10.

(3) To fetch, bring; vahati jalamiyaṁ Mu. 1. 4.

(4) To bear, support, hold up, sustain; na gardabhā vajidhuraṁ

vahaṁti Mk. 4. 17; tāte cāpadvitīye vahati raṇadhurāṁ ko

bhayasyāvakāśaḥ Ve. 3. 5 ‘when my father is leading the van &c.’; vahati

bhuvanaśreṇīṁ śeṣaḥ phaṇāphalakasthitāṁ Bh. 2. 35, S. 7. 17; Me. 17.

(5) To carry off; take away; adreḥ śṛṁgaṁ vahati (v. l. for harati)

pavanaḥ kiṁsvid Me. 14.

(6) To marry; yadūḍhayā vāraṇarājahāryayā Ku. 5. 70; Ms. 3. 38.

(7) To have, possess, bear; vahasi hi dhanahāryaṁ paṇyabhūtaṁ

śarīraṁ Mk. 1. 31; vahati viṣadharān paṭīrajanmā Bv. 1. 74.

(8) To assume, exhibit, show; lakṣmīmuvāha sakalasya

śaśāṁkamūrteḥ Ki. 2. 59, 9. 2.

(9) To look to, attend to, take care of; mugdhāyā me jananyā

yogakṣemaṁ vahasva M. 4; teṣāṁ nityābhiyuktānāṁ yogakṣemaṁ

vahāmyahaṁ Bg. 9. 22. (10) To suffer, feel, experience; Bv. 1. 94; so

duḥkhaṁ, harṣaṁ, śokaṁ, toṣaṁ &c.

(11) (Intransitive in this and the following senses) To be borne or

carried on, move or walk on; vahataṁ balīvardau vahataṁ Mk. 6; utthāya

punaravahat K.; Pt. 1. 43, 291.

(12) To flow (as rivers); pratyagūhurmahānadyaḥ Mb.; paropakārāya

vahaṁti nadyaḥ Subhāṣ.

(13) To blow (as wind); maṁdaṁ vahati mārutaḥ Rām.; vahati

malayasamīre madanamupanidhāya Gīt. 5.

(15) To breathe. —Caus. (vāhayati-te) 1 To cause to bear or carry,

cause to be brought or led.

(2) To drive, impel, direct.

(3) To traverse, pass or go over; sa vāhyate rājapathaḥ śivābhiḥ R.

16. 12; bhavānvāhayedadhvaśeṣaṁ Me. 38.

(4) To use, carry; Bk. 14. 23.

(5) To place in a boat.

(6) To proceed, go.

(7) To carry out, complete, finish.

(8) To go to, visit. —Desid. (vivakṣati-te) To wish to carry &c.

वाश् — vāś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vāś cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 54) «vāśyate» (ep. also «vāśyati», Ved. and ep. also

«vāśati, -te»; pf. «vavāśe, -śire»; in also «vāvaśre» and p. «vāvaśāna»;

aor. «avāśiṣṭa» ; fut. «vāśitā, vāśiṣyate» Gr.; ind. «vāśitum» ; ind. p.

«vāśitvā, -vāśya» , to roar, howl, bellow, bleat, low (as a cow), cry,

shriek, sing (like a bird), sound, resound &c. &c.: Caus. «vāśayati» (aor.

«avavāśat», in also «avīvaśat, avīvaśanta»), to cause to roar or low or

resound or thunder ; (ā.) to roar or sound aloud Desid. «vivāśiṣate» Gr.:

Intens. «vāvāśyate» (v.l. «rārāśyate» , «vāvaṣṭi» (impf. aor. «avāvaśanta,

vāvaśanta, avāvaśītām»; p. «vāvaśat»), to roar or scream or sound aloud

([«vāś» is sometimes wrongly written «vās».])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vāś I. 4 A. (vāśyate, vāśita)

(1) To roar, cry, scream, shriek, howl; hum (as birds), sound in

general; (śivāḥ) tāṁ śritāḥ pratibhayaṁ vavāśire R. 11. 61, Śi. 18. 75, 76;

Bk. 14. 14, 76.

(2) To call.

विद् — vid Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vid cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 56) «vetti» («vidmahe» ; «vedati, -te» ; «vidati, -te» &c.;

«vindati, -te» &c.; Impv. «vidāṁ-karotu» [cf. ; 1. sg. impf. «avedam», 2.

sg. «avet» or «aves» [ 8-2, 75] &c. &c.; 3. pl. «avidus» [cf. ; «avidan»

&c.; pf. «veda» [often substituted for pr. «vetti» cf. pl. «vidus» or «vidre» ;

«viveda» &c.; «vidāṁcakāra» &c. [cf. ; accord. to also «vidām-

babhūva»]; aor. «avedīt» ; «vidām-akran» ; fut. «veditā» ; «vettā» fut.

«vediṣyati, -te» ; «vetsyati, -te» &c.; inf. «veditum, -tos» ; «vettum» &c.;

ind. p. «viditvā» &c.), to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be

acquainted with, be conscious of, have a correct notion of (with acc., in

older, language also with gen.; with inf. = to know how to) &c. &c.

(«viddhi yathā», «know that»; «vidyāt», «one should know», «it should be

understood»; «ya evam veda» [in , «who knows thus», «who has this

knowledge»); to know or regard or consider as, take for, declare to be,

call (esp. in 3. pl. «vidus», with two acc. or with acc. and nom. with «iti»,

e. g. «taṁ sthaviraṁ viduḥ», «they consider or call him aged»; «rājarṣir iti

māṁ viduḥ», «they consider me a Rājarṣi») &c.; to mind, notice, observe,

remember (with gen. or acc.) ; to experience, feel (acc. or gen.) &c. &c.;

to wish to know, inquire about (acc.) Caus. «vedayate» (rarely «-ti»; aor.

«avīvidat»; Pass. «vedyate»), to make known, announce, report, tell &c.

&c.; to teach, explain ; to recognize or regard as, take for (two acc.)

&c.; to feel, experience &c.: Desid. of Caus. in «vivedayiṣu» q.v.: Desid.

«vividiṣati» or «vivitsati», to wish to know or learn, inquire about (acc)

Intens. «vevidyate, vevetti» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters] for

[characters] = «veda»; Lat. ‘videre’; Slav. ‘vedeti’; Goth. ‘witan’, ‘wait’;

Germ. ‘wizzan’, ‘wissen’; Angl. Sax. ‘wat’; Eng. wot.])

vid mfn. knowing, understanding, a knower (mostly ifc.; superl. «vit-

tama») &c.

vid m. the planet Mercury (cf. 2. «jṇa»)

vid f. knowledge understanding

vid f. (pl.)

vid (originally identical with 1. «vid») cl.6.P. ā. ( xxviii, 138) «vindati, -te»

(Ved. also «vitte, vide»; p. «vidāna» or «vidāna» [q.v.]; ep. 3. pl. «vindate»

Pot. «vindyāt», often = «vidyāt»; pf. «viveda» [3. pl. «vividus» Subj.

«vividat»], «vividvas», 3. pl. «vividre, vidre» &c. &c.; p. «vividvas» ;

«vividivas» ; aor. «avidat, -data» [Ved. Subj. «vidāsi, -dāt»; Pot. «videt,

deta» ; 3. sg. «videṣṭa» ; ā. 1. sg. «avitsi» ; fut. «vettā, vediṣyati» Gr.;

«vetsyati, -te» &c.; inf. «vide» ; «vettum» &c.; «vettave» ; «-ttavai» [?]

and «-tos» ; ind. p. «vittvā» ; «-vidya» &c.), to find, discover, meet or fall

in with, obtain, get, acquire, partake of, possess &c. &c. (with «diśas», to

find out the quarters of she sky ; to get or procure for (dat.) ; to seek

out, look for, attend to &c. &c.; to feel, experience ; to consider as, take

for (two acc.) ; to come upon, befall, seize, visit ; to contrive,

accomplish, perform, effect, produce ; (ā. m.c. also P.) to take to wife,

marry (with or scil. «bhāryām») &c.; to find (a husband), marry (said of a

woman) ; to obtain (a son, with or scil. «sutam») Pass. or ā. «vidyate»

(ep. also «-ti»; p. «vidyamāna» [q.v.]; aor. «avedi»), to be found, exist, be

&c. &c.; (esp. in later language) «vidyate», «there is, there exists», often

with «na», «there is not»; with «bhoktum», «there is something to eat»;

followed by a fut., «is it possible that?» ; «yathā-vide», «as it happens» i.e.

«as usual», «as well as possible» Caus. «vedayati», to cause to find &c.

Desid. «vividiṣati» or «vivitsati, -te» Gr. (cf. «vivitsita»): Intens. «vevidyate,

vevetti» (for p. «vevidat»and»-dāna» see «vi-«and»saṁvid»).

vid (ifc.) finding, acquiring, procuring (see «anna-, aśva-, ahar-vid» &c.)

vid cl.7.ā. ( xxix, 13) «vintte», to consider as, take for (two acc.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vid I. 2 P. (vetti or veda, vivedavidāṁcakāra, avedīt, vetsyati, vettuṁ,

vidita; desid. vividiṣati)

(1) To know, understand, learn, find out, ascertain, discover; na

caitadvidmaḥ kataranno garīyo yadvā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ Bg. 2. 5;

ta mohāṁdhaḥ kathamayamamuṁ vettu devaṁ purāṇaṁ Ve. 1. 23, 3. 39;

S. 5. 27, R. 3. 43; Bg. 4. 34, 18. 1.

(2) To feel, experience; Mu. 3. 4.

(3) To look upon, regard, consider, know or take to be; ya enaṁ vetti

haṁtāṁra Bg. 2. 19; viddhi vyādhivyālagrastaṁ loka śokahataṁ ca

samastaṁ Moha M. 5; Bg. 2. 17; Ms. 1. 33; Ku. 6. 30. —Caus. (vedayati-

te)

(1) To make known, communicate, inform, apprise, tell.

(2) To teach, expound; vedārthaṁ svānavedayat Sk.

(3) To feel, experience; Ms. 12. 13. —II. 4 A. (vidyate, vitta)

(1) To be, to exist; apāpānāṁ kule jāte mayi pāpaṁ na vidyate Mk. 9.

37; nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ Bg. 2. 16; (cf. the root

(1) as).

(2) To happen. —III. 6 U. (viṁdati-te, vitta)

(1) To get, obtain, acquire, gain; ekamapyāsthitaḥ

samyagubhayorvidaṁte phalaṁ Bg. 5. 4; Y. 3. 192.

(2) To find, discover, recognise; yathā dhenusarhasreṣu vatso viṁdati

mātaraṁ Subhaṣ.; Ms. 8. 109.

(3) To feel, experience; R. 14. 56; Bg. 5. 21, 11. 24, 18. 45.

(4) To marry; Ms. 9. 69. —IV. 7 A. (viṁtte, vitta or vinna)

(1) To know, understand.

(2) To consider, regard, take for; na tṛṇehmīti lokoyaṁ viṁtte māṁ

niṣparākramaṁ Bk. 6. 39.

(3) To find, meet with.

(4) To reason, reflect.

(5) To examine, inquire into. —V. 10 A. (vedayate)

(1) To tell, declare, announce, communicate.

(2) To feel, experience.

(3) To dwell. (The following verse illustrates the root in some of its

conjugations: —vetti sarvāṇi śāstrāṇi garvastasya na vidyate . viṁtte

dharmaṁ sadā sadbhisteṣu pūjāṁ ca viṁdati ..; cf. also: —sattāyāṁ

vidyate jñāne vetti viṁtte vicāraṇe . viṁdate viṁdati prāptau śyanluk

śnamśeṣvidaṁ kramāt ..). [cf. L. video; A. S. witan; Goth. vait].

vid a. (At the end of comp.) Knowing, conversant with; vedavid &c. —m.

(1) The planet Mercury.

(2) A learned man, wise man. —f.

(1) Knowledge.

(2) Understanding, intellect.

विश् — viś Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899viś cl.6.P. ( xxvm, 130) «visati» (rarely, in later language mostly m.c. also

ā. «viśate»; pf. «viveśa, viviśe» &c. &c. [«viveśitha, viveśuḥ» ; «viviśyās» ;

p. «-viśivas» ; «viviśivas» or «viviśvas» «aviveśīs» ; aor. «aviśran,

avikṣmahi, veśīt» ; «avikṣat» &c.; «avikṣata» Gr.; Prec. «viśyāt» ; fut.

«veṣṭā» ; «vekṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «veṣṭum» &c.; «veṣṭavai» ; «viśam» ;

ind. p. «-viśya» &c. &c.), to enter, enter in or settle down on, go into

(acc. loc., or «antar» with gen.), pervade &c. &c. (with «punar» or

«bhūyas», to re-enter, return, come back); to be absorbed into (acc.) ; (in

astron.) to come into conjunction with (acc.) ; (with «agnim, jvalanam»

&c.) to enter the fire i.e. ascend the funeral pyre &c.; (with «apas») to

sink or be immersed in the water ; to enter (a house &c.) ; to appear (on

the stage) ; to go home or to rest ; to sit down upon (acc. or loc.) ; to

resort or betake one’s self to («agratas, agre», or acc.) ; to flow into

(and, join with,; applied to rivers and armies) ; to flow or redound to, fall

to the share of (acc.) &c.; to occur to (as a thought, with acc.) ; to

befall, come to (as death, with acc.) ; to belong to, exist for (loc.) ; to fall

or get into any state or condition (acc.) ; to enter upon, undertake, begin

; to mind (any business), attend to (dat.) Caus. «veśayati, -te» (aor.

«avīviśat»; Pass. «veśyate»), to cause to enter into (acc.) ; to cause to sit

down on (loc.) Desid. «vivikṣati», to wish to enter (acc.) ; (with «agnim»

or «vahnim») to wish to enter the fire i.e. to ascend the funeral pyre

Intens. «veviśyate, veveṣṭi», Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘vicus’; Lith.

‘veszeti’; Slav. ‘visi’; Goth. ‘weihs’; Angl.-Sax. ‘wic’; Germ, ‘wich’,

‘Weich-bild’.])

viś f. (m. only ; nom. sg. «viṭ»; loc. pl. «vikṣu») a settlement, homestead,

house, dwelling («viśas pati» «lord of the house» applied to Agni and

Indra)

viś f. (also pl.) a community, tribe, race (pl. also «subjects», «people»,

«troops»)

viś f. (sg. and pl.) the people [characters] (in the sense of those who

settle on the soil; sg. also «a man of the third caste», a Vaiśya; «viśām»

with «patiḥ» or «nāthaḥ» or «īśvaraḥ» &c., «lord of the people», a king,

sovereign) &c. &c.

f. with «sāma» N. of a Sāman

viś f. (pl.) property, wealth

f. entrance

viś m. or f. a man in general, person

viś f. or n. feces (w.r. for «viṣ»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

viś 6 P. (viśati, viveśa, avikṣat, vekṣyati, veṣṭuṁ, viṣṭa)

(1) To enter, go or enter into; viveśa kaścijjaṭilastapovanaṁ Ku. 5.

30; R. 6. 10, Me. 102; Bg. 11. 29; so dolāyamāneta cetasā viṁtāṁ viveśa

K. 199 ‘fell a-thinking’.

(2) To go or come to, come into the possession of, fall to the share

of; upadā viviśuḥ śaśvannātsekāḥ kośaleśvaraṁ R. 4. 70.

(3) To sit or settle down upon.

(4) To penetrate, pervade.

(5) To enter upon, undertake. —Caus. (veśayati-te) To cause to enter.

—Desid. (vipikṣati) To wish to enter.

viś m.

(1) A man of the third caste, a Vaiśya.

(2) A man in general.

(3) People. —f.

(1) People, subjects.

(2) A daughter.

(3) Ved. Entrance.

(4) A family, tribe, race.

— Comp.

—paṇyaṁ goods, merchandise.

—patiḥ (also viśāṁpatiḥ) 1. a king, lord of subjects. —2. a son-in-

law. —3. a head-merchant.

वृज् — vṛj Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vṛj cl.1.7. P. ( xxxiv, 7; xxix, 24) «varjati, vṛṇakti»; cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 19)

«vṛkte» (Ved. and also «varjate» and «vṛṅkte»; Impv. «vṛṅktām» [v.l.

«vṛktām»] ; «vṛṅgdhvam» ; pf. «vavarja, vavṛje» [Gr. also «vavṛṇje»

«vāvṛje; vavṛjyuḥ, vavṛktam» p. f. «-varjuṣī»]; aor. «avṛk» ; «vark» [2. 3.

sg.], «varktam, avṛjan» Pot. «vṛjyām» ; «avṛkta» ; «avṛkṣam, -ṣi» ;

«avārkṣīs» ; «avarjīt, avajiṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «varjitā» ; «varjiṣyati» ; «varkṣyati,

-te» ; inf. «vṛje, vṛṇjase, vṛjadhyai» ; «vajitum» or «vṛṇjitum» Gr.; ind. p.

«vṛktvī» ; «-vṛjya, -vargam» &c.), to bend, turn ; to twist off, pull up,

pluck, gather (esp. sacrificial grass) ; to wring off or break a person’s

(acc.) neck ; to avert, remove ; (ā.) to keep anything from (abl. or gen.),

divert, withhold, exclude, abalienate ; (ā.) to choose for one’s self, select,

appropriate Pass. «vṛjyate», to be bent or turned or twisted &c.: Caus.

«varjayati» ( xxiv, 7; m.c. also «-te»; Pot. «varjayīta» ; aor. «avavarjat»), to

remove, avoid, shun, relinquish, abandon, give up, renounce &c.; to

spare, let live ; to exclude, omit, exempt, except («-yitvā» with acc. =

excepting, with the exception of) &c.: Pass. of Caus. «varjyate», to be

deprived of. lose (instr.) (cf. «varjita»): Desid. «vivṛkṣate» (), «vivarjiṣati,

-te» (Gr.), to wish to bend or turn &c.: Intens. «varīvṛjyate, varvarkti»

(Gr.; p. «varīvṛjat» , to turn aside, divert: Caus. of Intens. «varīvarjayati»

(p. f. «-yantī»), to turn hither and thither (the ears)

vṛj = «bala» strength

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vṛj I. 2. A. (vṛkte) To avoid, shun, abandon. —II. 7 P. (vṛṇakti)

(1) To avoid, shun, give up, abandon.

(2) To choose; āsāmekatamāṁ vṛṁgdhi savarṇāṁ svargabhūṣaṇāṁ

Bhāg.

(3) To atone for, efface, purify; tanme retaḥ pitā

vṛṁktāmityasyaitannidarśanaṁ Ms. 9. 20.

(4) To turn away, avert.

(5) To remove, set aside.

(6) To give, bestow.

(7) To hurt, injure, kill. —III. 1 P., 10 U. (varjati, varjayati-te, varjita)

(1) To shun, avoid.

(2) To give up, abandon.

(3) To exclude, set aside, leave out, except; S. 6. 27.

(4) To abstain from.

(5) To cut to pieces.

(6) To take away, deprive (one) of.

(7) To discharge, pour or give out, emit. (The following verse from K.

R. illustrates the root in its different conjugations: —vṛṇakti vṛjinaiḥ

saṁgaṁ vṛkte ca vṛṣalaiḥ saha . varjatyanārjavopetaiḥ sa varjayati

durjanaiḥ ..).

वृध् — vṛdh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vṛdh cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 20) «vardhate» (Ved. and ep. also «-ti»; pf. «vavardha,

vavṛdhe» &c. &c. [Ved. also «vāvṛ-; vavṛdhāti, -dhītās, -dhasva» ;

«vāvṛdhete» ; p. «vāvṛdhat» ; aor. Ved. «avṛdhat, vṛdhātas, -dhātu»; p.

«vṛdhat, -dhāna»]; «avardhiṣṭa» &c.; Prec. «vardhiṣīmahi» ; fut. «vardhitā»

Gr.; «vartsyati» ; «vardhiṣyate» Gr.; inf. Ved. «vṛdhe» [«for increase», «to

make glad»], «vṛdhase, vāvṛdhadhyai»; Class. «vardhitum»; ind. p.

«vṛddhvā», or «vardhitvā» Gr.; in «vṛdh» is sometimes confounded with 1.

«vṛt»), trans. P., to increase, augment, strengthen, cause to prosper or

thrive ; to elevate, exalt, gladden, cheer, exhilarate (esp. the gods, with

praise or sacrifice) ; (intrans. ā.; in Ved. P. in pf. and aor.; in Class. P. in

aor. fut. and cond.; also P. m.c. in other forms), to grow, grow up,

increase, be filled or extended, become longer or stronger, thrive,

prosper, succeed &c. &c.; to rise, ascend (as the scale in ordeals) ; to be

exalted or elevated, feel animated or inspired or excited by (instr. loc.

gen.) or in regard to (dat.), become joyful, have cause for congratulation

(«vṛdhaḥ, -dhat» in sacrificial formulas = «mayest thou or may he

prosper»; in later language often with «diṣṭyā») &c. &c.: Caus.

«vardhayati, -te» (in later language also «vardhāpayati»; aor. Ved.

«avīvṛdhat, -dhata»), to cause to increase or grow, augment, increase,

make larger or longer, heighten, strengthen, further, promote (ā. «for

one’s self») &c. &c.; to rear, cherish, foster, bring up ; to elevate, raise

to power, cause to prosper or thrive &c.; to exalt, magnify, glorify (esp.

the gods), make joyful, gladden (ā. in Ved. also = to rejoice, be joyful,

take delight in [instr.], enjoy &c. &c.; with. or scil. «diṣṭyā») to

congratulate ; (cl. 10. accord. to «to speak» or «to shine» («bhāṣārthe» or

«bhāsārthe»): Desid. of Caus. see «vivardhayiṣu»: Desid. «vivardhiṣate» or

«vivṛtsati» Gr.: Intens. «varivṛdhyate, varivṛdhīti»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vṛdh I. 1 A. (but Paras, also in the Second Future, Aorist and Conditional,

also in the Desiderative) (vardhate, vavṛdhe, avṛdhat-avardhiṣṭa,

vardhi’yate varstyati, vṛddha; desid. vivṛtsati, or vivardhiṣate)

(1) To grow, increase, become larger, stronger, or greater, thrive,

prosper; anyonyajayasaṁraṁbho vavṛdhe vādinoriva R 12. 92, 10. 78;

dhanakṣaye vardhati jāṭharāgniḥ Subhāṣ.; Bk. 14. 13, 19. 26.

(2) To continue, last.

(3) To rise, ascend.

(4) To have cause for congratulation, usually with diṣṭyā; diṣṭyā

dharmapatnīsamāgamena putramukhadarśanena cāyuṣmān vardhate S. 7

‘your honour is to be congratulated upon your union’ &c. —Caus.

(vardhayati-te, also vardhāpayati-te)

(1) To cause to grow, increase, augment, heighten, amplify, enhance;

vardhayanniva tatkūṭānuddhūtairdhātureṇubhiḥ R. 4. 71.

(2) To cause to prosper or thrive, glorify, magnify, exalt; H. 3. 3.

(3) To congratulate, felicitate (vardhāpayāti in this sense); yadi kopi

tvāṁ sāṁprataṁ madayaṁtikālābhena vardhāpayati tadā kiṁ tasya

pāritoṣikaṁ karoṣi Māl. 8. —II. 10 U. (vardhayati-te)

(1) To speak.

(2) To shine.

वृष् — vṛṣ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vṛṣ cl.1.P. ( xvii, 56) «varṣati» (ep. also ā. «varṣate» and Ved. «vṛṣate»;

pf. «vavarṣa, vavṛṣe» &c.; 3. pl. P. ep. «vavṛṣus», or «vavarṣus»; p. P.

«vavarṣvas» ; ā. «vāvṛṣāṇa» ; Impv. «vāvṛṣasva» ; aor. «avarṣīt» &c. &c.;

fut. «vraṣṭā» ; «varṣitā» Gr.; «varṣiṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «varṣitum» &c.;

«varṣṭos» ; ind. p. «vṛṣṭvā» ; «-ṭvī» ; «varṣitvā» Gr.), to rain (either impers.,

or with Parjanya, Indra, the clouds &c., in nom.) &c. &c.; to rain down,

shower down, pour forth, effuse, shed (ā. = «to bestow or distribute

abundantly»; also with instr. = «to rain upon, or overwhelm with» e.g.

with arrows; «varṣati», «while it rains, during rain») ; to strike, hurt, vex,

harass Caus. «varṣayati» (aor. «avīvṛṣat» or «avavarṣat»), to cause to rain

(Parjanya &c.) or to fall down as rain (flowers &c.) ; (without acc.) to

cause or produce rain ; to rain upon (= overwhelm) with (a shower of

arrows instr.) ; ā. to have manly power, have generative vigour Desid.

«vivarṣiṣati» Gr. (cf. «vivarṣiṣu»): Intens. «varīvṛṣyate, varīvarṣṭi» &c.

«cognates» see under «varṣā» and 1. «vṛṣa».]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vṛṣ I. 1 P. (varṣati, vṛṣṭa)

(1) To rain (usually with words signifying ‘Indra’, ‘Parjanya’, ‘cloud’,

&c. as the subject of the verb, or sometimes used impersonally); dvādaśa

varṣaṇi na vavarṣa daśaśatākṣaḥ Dk.; kāle varṣaṁtu meghāḥ; garja vā

varṣa vā śakra Mk. 5. 31; meghā varṣaṁtu garjaṁtu

muṁcaṁtvaśanimeva vā 5. 16.

(2) To rain or pour down, shower down; varṣatīvāṁjanaṁ nabhaḥ Mk.

1. 34; so śaravṛṣṭiṁ, kusumavṛṣṭiṁ, varṣati &c.

(3) To pour forth, shed.

(4) To grant, bestow.

(5) To moisten.

(6) To produce, engender.

(7) To have supreme power.

(8) To strike, hurt.

(9) To drink. —II. 10 A. (varṣayate)

(1) To be powerful or eminent.

(2) To have the power of production.

वेवी — vevī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vevī (cf. Intens. of 1. «vī») cl.2.ā. «vevīte» (3. pl. «vevyate» , to go; to

pervade; to conceive; to desire; to throw; to eat

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vevī 2 A. (vevīte)

(1) To go.

(2) To obtain.

(3) To concieve, be pregnant.

(4) To pervade.

(5) To cast, throw.

(6) To eat.

(7) To wish, desire.

(8) To shine; (seldom used in classical literature).

व्यथ् — vyath Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vyath cl.1.ā. ( xix, 2) «vyathate» (ep. also «-ti»; pf. «vivyathe», 3. pl. «-

thuḥ» ; aor. «vyathiṣi» ; Subj «vyathiṣat» ; fut. «vyathitā, -thiṣyate» Gr.;

inf. «vyathitum» inf. «vyathiṣyai»), to tremble, waver, go astray, come to

naught, fail &c. &c. (with abl. = to be deprived of lose; wish «caritra-

tas», to abandon the path of virtue); to fall (on the ground) («to be dried

up» ; to cease, become ineffective (as poison) ; to be agitated or

disturbed in mind, be restless or sorrowful or unhappy &c. &c.; to be

afraid of (gen.) Caus. «vyathayati» (aor. «vivyathas» ; «vyathayīs» , to

cause to tremble or fall &c. &c.; to cause to swerve from (abl.) ; to

disquiet, frighten, agitate, Pain, afflict &c.: Pass. of Caus. «vyathyate», to

be set in restless motion Desid. «vivyathiṣate» Gr.: Intens. «vāvyathyate,

vāvyatti»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

vyath 1 A. (vyathate, vyathita)

(1) To be sorry, to be pained, vexed or afflicted, be agitated or

disquieted; viśvaṁbharāpi nāma vyathate iti jitamapatyasnehena U. 7; na

vivyathe tasya manaḥ Ki. 1. 2, 24.

(2) To be disturbed, be ruffled or agitated;

vyathitasiṁdhumanīraśanaiḥ śanaiḥ Ki. 5. 11.

(3) To tremble.

(4) To be afraid.

(5) To dry, become dry. —Caus. (vyathayati-te)

(1) To pain, distress, vex, annoy; U. 1. 28.

(2) To frustrate, mar.

(3) To frighten, terrify.

(4) To lead or turn away. —WITH pra to be excessively vexed; Bg. 11.

20.

शक् — śak Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śak cl.5.P. () «śaknoti» (pf. «śaśāka, śekuḥ» &c. &c.; aor «aśakat» &c.

[Ved. also Pot. «śakeyam» and «śakyām»; Impv. «śagdhi, śaktam»]; fut.

«śaktā», or «śakitā» Gr.; «śakṣyati, -te» &c.; «śakiṣyate, -te» Gr.; inf. «-

śaktave» ; «śaktum» or «śakitum» Gr.), to be strong or powerful, be able

to or capable of or competent for (with acc. dat. or loc., rarely acc. of a

verbal noun, or with an inf. in «am» or «tum»; or with pr. p.; e.g. with

«grahaṇāya» or «grahaṇe», «to be able to seize»; «vadha-nirṇekam» «a-

śaknuvan», «unable to atone for slaughter»; «śakema vājino yamam»,

«may we be able to guide horses»; «vīkṣitum» «na» «śaknoti», «e is not

able to see»; «pūrayan na śaknoti», «e is not able to fill») &c. &c. (in

these meanings ep. also «śakyati, -te», with inf in «tuṁ» cf. ; to be strong

or exert one’s self for another (dat.), aid, help, assist ; to help to (dat. of

thing) Pass. «śakyate» (ep. also «-ti»), to be overcome or subdued,

succumb ; to yield, give way ; to be compelled or caused by any one

(instr.) to (inf.) ; to be able or capable or possible or practicable (with an

inf. in pass. sense e.g. «tat kartuṁ śakyate», «that can be done»;

sometimes with pass. p. e.g. «na śakyate vāryamāṇaḥ», «e cannot be

restrained»; or used impers., with or with out instr. e.g. «yadi» [«tvayā»]

«śakyate», «if it can be done by thee», if it is possible») Caus. «śākayati»

(aor. «aśīśakat»), Gr.: Desid. see «śikṣ». ([Cf. accord. to some, Gk.

[greek] Germ. ‘Hag’ ‘Hecke’ ‘hegen’; ‘behagen’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śak I. 5. P. (śakroti, śakta)

(1) To be able, be competent for, have power to, effect (usually with

an inf. and translateable by ‘can’); adarśayan vaktumaśaknuvatyaḥ

śākhābhirāvarjitapallavāṁbhiḥ R. 13. 24, Bk. 3. 6; Me. 20; sometimes,

with acc. or dat.; Ms. 11. 139; with gen. also; see śakta.

(2) To bear, endure.

(3) To be powerful. —Pass. To be able, be possible or practicable

(giving a passive sense to a following infinitive); tatkartuṁ śakyate ‘it can

be done’. —Desid. (śikṣati)

(1) To wish to be able.

(2) To learn. —II. 4 U. (śakyati-te, śakta)

(1) To be able, have power to effect. To bear, endure.

(3) To give.

(4) To aid.

(5) To know (mostly Ved. in these senses).

शम् — śam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śam cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 92), «śāmyati» (rarely «-te», and ep. also «śanati, -te»;

Ved. «śamyati, śimyati», and cl.9. «śamnāti» [ ii, 9], «śamnīṣe, śamnīthās»

Impv. «śamnīṣva, śamīṣva, śamiṣva, śamīdhvam»; pf. «śaśāma, śemuḥ»

&c.; «śaśame» Subj. «śaśamate» ; p. «śaśamāna» [q.v.]; aor.

«aśamiṣṭhās» ; «aśamat» [cf. pres.]; Prec. «śamyāt» Gr.; fut. «śamiśā,

śamiṣyati» ; ind. p. «śamitvā, śāntvā, śāmam» , to toil at, fatigue or exert

one’s self (esp. in performing ritual acts) ; to prepare, arrange ; to

become tired, finish, stop, come to an end, rest, be quiet or calm or

satisfied or contented &c.; to cease, be allayed or extinguished &c.; cl.9.

(cf. above ) to put an end to, hurt, injure, destroy Pass. «śamyate» (aor.

«aśami») Caus. «śamayati» (m.c. also «śāmayati»; aor. «aśīśamat»; Pass.

«śāmyate»), to appease, allay, alleviate, pacify, calm, soothe, settle &c.

&c.; to put to an end or to death, kill, slay, destroy, remove, extinguish.

sup. press &c. &c.; to leave off, desist ; to conquer, subdue Desid.

«śiśamiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «śaṁśamīti» (), «śaṁśamyate, śaṁśanti» (Gr.),

to be entirely appeased or extinguished (pf. «śaṁśamāṁ cakruḥ» ([Cf.

Gk. [greek] ]),

śam ind. (g. «cādi» and «svar-ādi») auspiciously, fortunately, happily, well

(frequently used in the Veda, rarely in later language; often to be

translated by a subst., esp. in the frequent phrase «śaṁ yoḥ» or «śaṁ ca

yoś ca», «appiness and welfare», sometimes joined with the verbs «bhū»,

as, «kṛ, dāvah, yā», sometimes occurring without any verb; with dat. or

gen. [cf. ; in some cases corresponding to an adj. e.g. «śaṁ tad asmai»,

that is pleasant to him)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śam ind. A particle meaning welfare, happiness, prosperity, health, and

generally used to express a blessing or pious wish, (with dat. or gen.);

śaṁ devadattāya or devadattasya (often used in modern letters as an

auspicious conclusion; iti śam).

— Comp.

—kara see s. v.

—tāti a. conferring happiness, propitious, auspicious.

—pākaḥ 1. lac, red dye. —2. cooking, maturing.

—bhu see s. v.

śam I. 4 P. (śāmyati, śāṁta)

(1) To be calm, quiet or tranquil, be appeased or pacified; (as a

person); śāmyetpratyapakāreṇa nopakāreṇa durjanaḥ Ku. 2. 40;

kākutsthamuddiśya samatsaro’pi śaśāma teta kṣitipālalokaḥ R. 7. 3;

śāṁto lavaḥ U. 6. 7.

(2) To cease, stop, come to an end; ciṁtā śaśāma sakalā’pi

saroruhāṇāṁ Bv. 3. 7; na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānāmupabhogena śāmyati Ms.

2. 94 ‘is not satisfied’.

(3) To be quelled, be extinguished or quenched; śaśāma vṛṣṭryāpi vinā

davāgniḥ R. 2. 14, U. 5. 7.

(4) To desist, leave off (speaking &c.).

(5) To put an end to, destroy, kill (also 9 P. in this sense). —Caus.

(śamayati-te, but śāmayati-te in the sense of ‘seeing’, see śam II).

(1) To appease, allay, calm, tranquillize, pacify, soothe; kaḥ śītalaiḥ

śamayitā vacanaistavādhiṁ Bv. 3. 1; saṁraṁbhaṁ śamayāmāsa R. 15.

85, 17. 55; S. 5. 7.

(2) To put an end, to stop; Ku. 2. 56.

(3) To remove, avert; pratikūlaṁ daivaṁ śamayituṁ S. 1.

(4) To subdue, tame, defeat, conquer, vanquish; śamayati gajānanyān

gaṁdhadvipaḥ kalabho’pi san V. 5. 18; R 9. 12, 11. 59.

(5) To kill, destroy, slay; Ve. 5. 5.

(6) To quench, extinguish; sutaptamapi pānīyaṁ śamayatyeva

pāvakaṁ H. 1. 88, Me. 53.

(7) To leave off, desist, cease. —II. 10 U. śāmayati-te

(1) To see, look at, inspect.

(2) To show, display.

शस् — śas Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śas mfn. reciting (see «uktha-śas, -śasa»).

śas cl.1.P. ( xvii, 78) «śasati» (Ved. also «-śasti» and «-śāsti»; pf.

«śaśāsa» ; 3. pl. «śaśasuḥ» Gr.; fut. «śasitā» ; «śasiṣyati» ; Ved. inf. «-

śasas» ; ind. p. «-śasya» , to cut down, kill, slaughter (mostly «vi-śas»

q.v.)

śas see «sas».

śas (in gram.) the technical case-termination of the accusative plural ;

the Taddhita affix «śas» (forming adverbs from nouns, esp. from numerals

and words expressive of quantity) (cf. «alpa-śas, bahu-śas, śata-śas»

&c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śas I. 1 P. (śasati) To cut up, kill, destroy. —II. 2 P. (śasti) To sleep. Cf.

śaṁs also.

śas

(1) A technical name for the termination of the acc. plural.

(2) A Taddhita affix forming adverbs from nouns, especially from

numerals; as dviśaḥ, śataśaḥ, bahuśaḥ &c.

शी — śī Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śī cl.2.ā. «śete» (with Guṇa throughout the pr. stem: thus, «śaye» [in

also 3. sg.], «śeṣe» &c., 3. pl. «śerate» [in also «śere» and Class.

«śayire»]; Pot. «śayīta» &c.; Impv. «-śetām» and «śayām» ; impf. «aśeta»

&c., 3. pl. «aśerata» [in also «aśeran»], p. «śayāna» &c.; Ved. and ep.

also cl.1. «śayate, -ti»; impf. «aśayat» and «aśāyata» ; pf. «śiśye, śiśyire» ;

p. Ved. «śaśayāna», Class. «śiśyāna»; aor. «aśayiṣṭa» Subj. «śeṣan» ; fut.

«śayitā» sg. «-tāse» ; «śayiṣyate, -ti» ; «śeṣyate, -ti» ; inf. «śayadhyai» ;

«śayitum» ; ind. p. «śayitvā» &c.; «-śayya» , to lie, lie down, recline, rest,

repose &c. &c.; to remain unused (as Soma) ; to lie down to sleep, fall

asleep, sleep &c.; (with «patye») to lie down to a husband (for sexual

intercourse) ; («madanena-śī» = «to be impotent») Pass. «śayyate» Gr.

(aor. «aśāyi» «śīyat»): Caus. «śāyayati, -te» (aor. «aśīśayat»), to cause to

lie down, lay down, put, throw, fix on or in (loc.) &c.; to cause to lie

down, allow to rest or sleep Desid. «śiśayiṣate», to wish to rest or sleep

Intens. «śāśayyate, śeśayīti, śeśeti» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] «to lie»;

[characters] «a bed.»])

śī mfn. (ifc.) lying, resting(see «jihma-, madhyama-śī», &c.)

śī f. sleep, repose

śī f. devotion, tranquillity

śī (connected with 2. «śad»; cf. cl.4.ā. «śīyate», to fall out or away,

disappear, vanish

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śī 2 A. (śete, śayita; pass. śayyate; desid. śiśayiṣate)

(1) To lie, lie down, recline, rest; itaśca śaraṇarthinaḥ śikhariṇāṁ

gaṇāḥ śerate Bh. 2. 76.

(2) To sleep (fig. also); kiṁ niḥśaṁke śeṣe śeṣevayasaḥ samāgato

mṛtyuḥ . athavā sukhaṁ śayīthā nikaṭe jāgarti jāhavī jananī Bv. 4. 30; Bh.

3. 79; Ku. 5. 12.

(3) To rest, repose. —Caus. (śāyayati-te)

(1) To cause to sleep or lie down; pārśve śāyaya rāvaṇaṁ Bk. 8. 83.

(2) To allow to rest or repose.

śī

(1) Sleep, repose.

(2) Tranquillity.

शुभ् — śubh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śubh (or 1. «śumbh») cl.1.ā. or 6. P. ( xviii, 11; xxviii, 33) «śobhate,

śumbhati» or «śumbhati» (ep. also «śobhati», and Ved. «śumbhate»; 3. sg.

«śobhe» ; pf. «śuśobha, śuśubhe» &c.; «śuśumbha» Gr.; aor., «aśubhat,

aśobhiṣṭa, aśumbhīt» ; p. «śumbhāna, śubhāna» ; fut. «śobhitā» or

«śumbhitā» Gr.; «śobhiṣyati» ; «śumbhiṣyati» Gr.; inf. «śubhe, śobhāse» ;

«śobhitum» Gr.), to beautify, embellish, adorn, beautify one’s self. (ā.)

look beautiful or handsome, shine, be bright or splendid; (with «iva» or

«yathā», «to shine or look like»; with «na», «to look bad, have a bad

appearance, appear to disadvantage») &c. &c.; to prepare, make fit or

ready, (ā.) prepare one’s self. ; («śumbhate» accord. to some) to flash or

flit i.e. glide rapidly past or along (cf. «śubhāna, śumbhamāna», and

«pra-śumbh»); («śumbhati») wrongly for «śundhati» (to be connected with

«śudh», to purify) ; («śumbhati») to harm, injure (in this sense rather to

be regarded as a second «śumbh» cf. 2. «śumbh, ni-śumbh»): Pass. aor.

«aśobhi-tarām» Caus. «śbhayati» (aor. «aśūśubhat»; cf. «śobhita»), to

cause to shine beautify, ornament, decorate &c. &c.; («śubhayati, -te»)

to ornament, decorate, (ā.) decorate one’s self. ; (only pr. p.

«śubhayat»), to fly rapidly along Desid. «śuśobhiṣate» (accord. to Gr. also

«-ti», and «śuśubhiṣati, -te»), to wish to prepare or make ready Intens.

«śośubhyate» (Gr. also «śośobdhi»), to shine brightly or in tensely, be very

splendid or beautiful

śubh f. (dat. «śubhe» as inf.) splendour, beauty, ornament, decoration

f. flashing or flitting past, gliding along, rapid course or flight

f. readiness (?)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śubh f. Ved.

(1) Beauty, splendour.

(2) Radiance, lustre.

(3) Happiness.

(4) Victory.

(5) An ornament.

(6) An auspicious offering.

(7) Water.

(8) A brilliant chariot.

शृध् — śṛdh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śṛdh cl.1.P. ā. ( xviii, 21; xxxiii, 61) «śardhati, -te» (pr. p. Ved. «śardhat»

and «śardhamāna»; Gr. also pf. «śaśṛdhe»; aor. «aśṛdhat», or «aśardhiṣṭa»;

fut. «śartsyati» or «śardhiṣyate»; inf. «śardhitum»; ind. p. «śardhitvā» or

«śṛddhvā»), to break wind downwards (in «ava-» and «vi-śṛdh» q.v.); to

mock at, ridicule, defy (with gen.) ; to moisten, become moist or wet

Caus. «śardhayati» (only in «ati-praśardhayat») Desid. «śiśardhiṣate,

śiśṛtsati» Gr.: Intens. «śarīśṛdhyate, śarīśṛdhīti, śarīśarddhi»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śṛdh I.

(1) A. (but Paras. also in the Second Future, Aorist, and Conditional)

(śardhate) To break wind downwards. —II. 1. U. (śardhati-te)

(1) To moisten, wet.

(2) To cut off. —III. 10 U. (śardhayati te)

(1) To strive.

(2) To take, grasp.

(3) To insult (as by breaking wind), mock, ridicule.

शो — śo Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śo (cf. 1. «śi») cl.3.P. ā. «śiśāti, śiśīte» (accord to cl.4. P. «śyati» cf. «ni-

śo»; pf. «śaśau» Gr.; p. «śaśāna» ; aor. «aśīta» cf. «saṁ-śo; aśāt» or

«aśāsīt» Gr.; Prec. «śāyāt» ; fut. «śātā, śāśyati» ; ind. «śāya» , to whet,

sharpen (ā. «one’s own» weapons or horns) Pass. «śāyate» Gr.: Caus.

«śāyayati» ; Desid. «śiśāsati» Intens. «śāśāyate, śaśeti, śāśāti»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śo 4 P. (śyati, śāta or śita, pass. śāyate; caus. śāyayati; desid.

śiśāsātaṁ)

(1) To sharpen, whet.

(2) To make thin, attenuate.

श्रद्धा — śraddhā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śraddhā «śrad-dhā» f. see below

śraddhā «śrad-dhā» P. ā. «-dadhāti, -dhatte» (pr. p. «śraddadhat, śrad-

dadhāna»; Ved. inf. «śraddhe» cf. «śrat» above ), to have faith or

faithfulness, have belief or confidence, believe, be true or trustful (with

«na», «to disbelieve» &c.) &c. &c.; to credit, think anything true (two

acc.) &c.; to believe or have faith in or be true to (with dat., and in later

language with gen. of thing or person, or with loc. of thing) &c. &c.; to

expect anything (acc.) from (abl.) ; to consent, assent to, approve,

welcome (with acc.; with «na», «to disapprove») ; to be desirous of

(acc.), wish to (inf.) Caus. «-dhāpayati», to make faithful, render trustful,

inspire confidence

śraddhā f. faith, trust, confidence, trustfulness, faithfulness, belief in

(loc. or comp.; «śraddhayā-gam», «to believe in», with gen. , trust,

confidence, loyalty (Faith or Faithfulnesses is often personified and in ; in

she is the daughter of Prajā-pati, and in of the Sun; in she is the

daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma; in she is the mother of Kāma,

and in the daughter of Kardama and wife of Aṅgiras or Manu) &c. &c.

f. wish, desire («śraddhayā» ind. «willingly, gladly»), longing for (loc.

acc. with «prati» inf., or comp.) &c.

f. desire of eating, appetite

f. the longing of a pregnant woman

f. curiosity («śraddhām ākhyāhi nas tāvat», «just satisfy our curiosity

and tell us»)

f. purity

f. respect, reverence

f. calmness or composure of mind

f. intimacy

f. a term for the fem. nouns in «ā»

śraddhā f. (with «kāmāyanī») N. of the authoress of (cf. above )

śraddhā du. (with «prajā-pateḥ») N. of two Sāmans

śraddhā «śrad-dadhāna» &c. see P. 1095, col.3.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śraddhā 3 U. To confide, believe, put faith in (with acc. of thing); kaḥ

śraddhāsyati bhūtārthaṁ Mk. 3. 24; kāminyaḥ śradadhuranārjavaṁ

nareṣu Śi. 8. 11, 9. 69; U. 7. 6; śraddaye tridaśagopamātrake

dāhaśaktimiva kṛṣṇavartmani R. 11. 42.

śraddhā

(1) Trust, faith, belief, confidence.

(2) Belief in divine revelation, religious faith; śraddhā vittaṁ vidhiśceti

tritayaṁ tatsamāgataṁ S. 7. 29; R. 2. 16; Bg. 6. 37; 17. 3.

(3) Sedateness, composure of mind.

(4) Intimacy, familiarity.

(5) Respect, reverence.

(6) Strong or vehement desire; tathāpi vaicivyarahasyalubyāḥ

śraddhāṁ vidhāsyaṁti sacetaso’tra Vikr. 1. 13, yuddhaśraddhāpulakita iva

prāptasakhyaḥ kareṇa Mu. 6. 18.

(7) The longing of a pregnant woman.

श्रा — śrā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śrā or #śrai (cf. «śrī») cl.1. or 4. P. ( xxii, 21) «śrāyati» (accord. to xxiv,

45 also cl.2.P. «śrāti»; pf. «śaśrau»; aor. «aśrāsīt»; Prec. «śrāyāt» or

«śreyāt» inf. «śrātum» Gr.), to cook, boil, seethe, mature, ripen (only in ;

accord. to also «to sweat»): Pass. «śrāyate» (aor. «aśrāyi») Gr.: Caus.

«śrapayati, -te» (aor. «aśiśrapat»; Pass. «śrapyate»), to cause to cook or

boil, roast, bake &c. &c.; to make hot, heat, bake (earthenware) ; to

cause to sweat ([for «śrāpaya» see p.1098, col.1]): Desid. «śiśrāsati»

Gr.: Intens. «śāśrāyati, śāśrāti, śāśreti»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śrā 2 P. (śrāti, śrāṇa or śṛta; caus. śrapayati-te)

(1) To cook, boil, dress, mature, ripen.

(2) To sweat or cause to sweat, heat.

श्रि — śri Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śri cl.1.P. ā. ( xxi, 31) «śrayati, -te» (pf. «śiśrāya, śiśriye»; aor. «aśret,

āśriyan» ; «aśrait» ; «aśiśriyat» &c.; «aśrāyiṣṭa» Gr. [Ved. forms belonging

either to the pf. or aor. type are also «aśiśret, -śrema, -śrayuḥ, śiśrīta»];

fut. «śrayitā» Gr.; «śrayiṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «śrayitum» ; «śrayitavai» ; ind.

p. «śrayitvā» &c., «-śritya» &c.) P. to cause to lean or rest on, lay on or

in, fix on, fasten to, direct or turn towards, (esp.) spread or diffuse (light

or radiance or beauty) over (loc.) ; (ā. or Pass., rarely P.) to lean on, rest

on, recline against (acc.), cling to (loc.), be supported or fixed or depend

on, abide in or on (acc. loc. or adv.) ; (ā. P.) to go to, approach, resort or

have recourse to (for help or refuge), tend towards (acc.) &c.; (ā.) to go

into, enter, fall to the lot or take possession of (acc. or loc.) ; (ā. P.) to

attain, undergo, get into any state or condition (acc.) &c.; to assume

(with «śrāvikā-tvam», «to assume the form of a śrāvikā», q.v.) ; to show,

betray (heroism) ; to honour, worship Pass. «śrīyate» (aor. «aśrāyi»: cf.

above ) &c. &c.: Caus. «śrāpayati» (in «uc-chr-«) ; «śrāyayati» (aor.

«aśiśrayat»; for «aśiśriyat» see above ) Gr.: Desid. «śiśrayiṣati, -te» or

«śiśrīṣati, -te» Gr.: Intens. «śeśrīyate, śeśrayīti, śeśreti» ‘clino’, ‘clivus’;

Lith. ‘szlyti’, ‘szleti’, ‘szlaitas’; Goth. ‘hlains’; ‘hlaiw’; Germ. ‘hlinen’,

‘linen’, ‘lehnen’; Angl. Sax. ‘hlinian’; Eng. ‘lean’.]

śri in «antaḥ-» and «bahiḥ-śri» (q.v.)

śri light, lustre (= 3. «śrī» q.v.) at end of adj. comp.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śri 1 U. (śrayati-te, śiśrāya —śiśriye, aśiśriyat-ta, śrayiṣyati-te, śrayituṁ,

śrita; caus. śrāyayati-te; desid. śiśrīṣati-te, śiśrayiṣati-te)

(1) To go to, approach, resort to, have recourse to, approach for

protection; yaṁ daṁśaṁ śrayate tameva kurute bāhupratāpārjitaṁ H. 1.

171; R. 3. 70; 19. 1; śritāsi caṁdanabhrāṁtyā durvipākaṁ viṣadrupaṁ U.

1. 46.

(2) To go or attain to, reach, undergo, assume (as a state); parītā

rakṣābhiḥ śrayati vivaśā kāmapi daśāṁ Bv. 1. 83; dvipeṁdrabhāvaṁ

kalabhaḥ śrayanniva R. 3. 32.

(3) To cling to, lean or rest on, depend on; nīlaḥ snigdhaḥ śrayati

śikharaṁ nūtanastoyavāhaḥ U. 1. 33.

(4) To dwell in, inhabit.

(5) To honour, serve, worship.

(6) To use, employ.

(7) To devote oneself to, be attached to.

(8) To assist, help.

श्रु — śru Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śru cl.5.P. ( xxii, 44) «śṛṇoti» (Ved. and ep. also ā. «śṛṇute», and in 3. sg.

«śṛṇve», 2. sg. «-viṣe», 3. pl. «-vire» [cf. below]; Impv. «śṛṇu, -ṇudhī» and

«-ṇuhī» pl. «śṛṇutā, -ṇota» and «-ṇotana» ; pf. «śuśrāva» [once in with

pass. sense], «śuśruve» [2. sg. «śuśrotha», 1. pl. «śuśruma», in also «-

mas; śuśravat, śuśrūyās» «śuśruvas» q.v.]; aor. Ved. «aśravam, aśrot», 2.

sg. «śroṣi»; Subj. «śravat, -vathaḥ»; [?] «śruvam» ; Impv. «śrudhī, śrotu» ;

«aśrauṣīt» &c.; Subj. «śroṣan» Impv. «śroṣantu» [cf. «śroṣamāṇa»]; Prec.

«śrūyāsam» &c.; fut. «śrotā» ; «śroṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «śrotum» &c.; ind.

p. «śrutvā» &c.; «-śrutya» &c.; «śrāvam» &c.), to hear, listen or attend

to anything (acc.), give ear to any one (acc. or gen.), hear or learn

anything about (acc.) or from (abl. gen. instr., «mukhāt» or «śakāśāt»), or

that anything is (two acc.) &c. &c.; to hear (from a teacher), study,

learn &c.; to be attentive, be obedient, obey &c.: Pass. «śrūyate» (ep.

also «-ti»; and in «śṛṇve» &c. [cf. above] with pass. meaning; aor.

«aśrāvi, śrāvi»), to be heard or perceived or learnt about (acc.) or from

(gen. abl. or «mukhāt»; in later language often 3. sg. «śrūyate» impers. «it

is heard», «one hears or learns or reads in a book», = «it is said», «it is

written in (with loc.)»; Impv. «śrūyatām», «let it be heard» = «listen!»)

&c. &c.; to be celebrated or renowned, be known as, pass for, be called

(nom.) ; to be heard or learnt (from a teacher) ; to be taught or stated

(in a book) ; to be heard i.e. pronounced or employed (as a sound or

word) Caus. «śrāvayati» (ep. also «-te», in also «śravayati»; aor.

«aśuśravi, -vuḥ» ; «aśuśruvat» ; «aśiśravat» Gr.; Pass. «śrāvyate» see

below), to cause to be heard or learnt, announce, proclaim, declare &c.

&c.; to cause to hear, inform, instruct, communicate, relate, tell (with

acc. of thing, and acc. gen., or dat. of pers., or with instr. in sense of

«through») &c.: Pass. of Caus. «śrāvyate», to be informed of (acc.) &c.:

Desid. «śuśrūṣate» ( 1-3, 57; ep. or m.c. also «-ti»; Pass. «śuśrūṣyate»),

to wish or like to hear (acc.), desire to attend or listen to (dat.) &c. &c.;

to attend upon, serve, obey (acc., rarely gen.) &c.: Caus. of Desid.

«śuśrūṣayati», to wait upon, be at the service of (acc.) on Desid. of

Caus. «śiśrāvayiṣati» or «śuśrāvayiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «śośrūyate, śośravīti,

śośroti» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] = «śrudhi», [characters] = «śruta» &c.; Lat.

‘cluo’, ‘in-clutus’; Slav. ‘sluti’; Germ. ‘laut’; Eng. ‘loud’.])

śru (only in «śruvat»; generally an incorrect form of «sru»), to dissolve

into parts, burst asunder

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śru I. 1 P. (śravati) To go, move; cf. śu. —II. 5 P. (śṛṇoti, śuśrāva,

aśrauṣīt, śroṣyati, śretuṁ, śruta)

(1) To hear, listen to, give ear to; śṛṇu me sāvaśeṣaṁ vacaḥ V. 2;

rutāni cāśrīṣata ṣaṭpadānāṁ Bk. 2. 10; saṁdeśaṁ me tadanu jalada

śroṣyasi śrotrapeyaṁ Me. 13.

(2) To learn, study; dvādaśavarṣabhirvyākaraṇaṁ śrūyate Pt. 1.

(3) To be attentive, to obey. (iti śrūyate ‘it is so heard’, i. e. is

enjoined in the scriptures, such is the sacred precept). —Caus.

(śrāvayati-te) To cause to hear, communicate, tell, relate, inform;

śrāvito’mātyasaṁdeśaṁ stanakalasaḥ Mu. 4. —Desid. (śuśrūṣate)

(1) To wish to hear.

(2) To be attentive, or obedient, obey; bākyaṁ naiva karoti

bāṁdhavajano patnī na śuśrūṣate Pt. 4. 78 (where the word may have

the next sense also).

(3) To serve, wait or attend upon; śuśrūṣasva gurūn S. 4. 17; Ku. 1.

59; Ms. 2. 244.

श्वि — śvi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śvi (connected with «śū»; sometimes written «śvā») cl.1.P. ( xxiii, 41)

«śvayati» (pf. «śiśvāya», or «śuśāva» Gr.; aor. «aśvat» , «aśvayīt» ; Prec.

«śūyāt» Gr.; fut. «śvayitā, śvayiṣyati» ; inf. «śvayitum» , to swell, grow,

increase &c.: Pass. «śūyate» (aor. «aśvāyi») id. Caus. «śvāyayati» (aor.

«aśiśvayat» [] or «aśūśavat») id. Gr.: Desid. of Caus. «śiśvāyayiṣati» or

«śuśāvayiṣati» Desid. «śiśvayiṣati» Intens. «śeśvīyate» (), «śośūyate;

śeśvayīti, śeśveti», to swell much.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śvi 1 P. (śvayati, śiśvāya-śuśāva, aśvat-aśvayīt-aśiśviyat, śvayiṣyati,

śvayituṁ, śūna)

(1) To grow, increase (fig. also), to swell (as the eye);

rudato’śiśviyaccakṣurāsyaṁ hetostavāśvayīt Bk. 6. 19, 31; 14. 79, 15. 30.

(2) To thrive, prosper.

(3) To go, approach, move towards. —WITH ud 1. to swell, increase,

grow; prabalaruditocchūnanetraṁ (mukhaṁ) Me. 84. —2. to be proud, be

puffed up with pride.

श्वित् — śvit Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śvit cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 2) «śvetate» (occurring only in pr. p. «śvetamāna» aor.

«aśvait» or «aśvitat», p. «śvitāna» [q.v.] ; Gr. also pf. «śiśvite» fut.

«śvetitā, śvetiṣyate», and aor. «aśvetiṣṭa»), to be bright or white: Caus.

(only aor. «aśiśvitat»; but cf. «śvetaya» and «śvetita») id. ([Cf. Lith.

‘szvailyti’; Goth. ‘hweits’; Germ. ‘weiss’; Eng. ‘white’.])

śvit see «uda-śvit» and «sūrya-śvit».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

śvit 1 A. (śvetate) To become white, be white; vyatikaritadigaṁtāḥ

śvetamānairyaśobhiḥ Māl. 2. 9.

स — sa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sa the last of the three sibilants (it belongs to the dental class and in

sound corresponds to «s» in «sin»).

sa (in prosody) an anapest ([characters] -). -2.

sa (in music) an abbreviated term for «ṣaḍ-ja» (see p.1109, col.2).

sa (only m. a snake; air, wind; a bird; N. of Viṣṇu or śiva; («ā») f. N. of

Lakshmi or Gaurī; n. knowledge; meditation; a carriage road; a fence.

sa mfn. (fr. «san») procuring, bestowing (only ifc.; cf. «palu-ṣa» and

«priya-sa»).

sa the actual base for the nom. case of the 3rd pers. pron. «tad» q.v.

(occurring only in the nom. sg. mf. [«sa» or «sas, sā»], and in the Ved.

loc. [«sasmin» ; the final «s» of the nom. m. is dropped before all

consonants [except before «p» in «t» in ; «sa» occasionally blends with

another vowel [as in «saīṣaḥ»]; and it is often for emphasis connected

with another pron. as with «aham, tvam, eṣa, ayam» &c. [e.g. «so ‘ham»

«sa tvam», «I (or thou) that very person»; cf. under «tad», p.434], the

verb then following in the 1st and 2nd pers. even if «aham» or «tvam» be

omitted [e.g. «sa» «tvā pṛcchāmi» «I that very person ask you» ; «sa» «vai

no brūhi» «do thou tell us» ; similarly, to denote emphasis, with «bhavān»

[e.g. «sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām», «let your Highness set out for

victory» ; it sometimes [and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas] stands as the

first word of a sentence preceding a rel. pronoun or adv. such as «ya, yad,

yadi, yathā, ced»; in this position «sa» may be used pleonastically or as a

kind of ind., even where another gender or number is required [e.g. «sa

yadi» «sthāvarā āpo bhananti», «if those waters are stagnant» ; in the

Sāṁkhya «sa», like «eṣa, ka», and «ya», is used to denote Purusha, «the

Universal Soul») ‘ha’, ‘hA’; Gk. [greek]. ]

sa ind. (connected with «saha, sam, sama», and occasionally in standing

for «saha» with instr.) an inseparable prefix expressing «junction»,

«conjunction», «possession» (as opp. to «a» priv.), «similarity», «equality»;

(and when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it

may be translated by «with», «together or along with», «accompanied by»,

«added to», «having», «possessing», «containing», «having the same» [cf.

«sa-kopa, sāgni, sa-bhāya, sa-droṇa, sa-dharman, sa-varṇa»]; or it may =

«ly», as in «sa-kopam», «angrily», «sopadhi», «fraudulently») ‘a’ in

[characters]; Lat. ‘sim’ in ‘simplex’; ‘sem’ in ‘semel’, ‘semper’ Eng.

‘same’.]

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following).

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa see 5. «sa», p.1111, col.2.

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

sa (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sa ind. A prefix substituted for saha or sam, sama, tulya, or sadṛśa and

eka or samāna, and compounded with nouns to form adjectives and

adverbs in the sense of

(a) with, together with, along with, accompanied by, having,

possessed of; saputra, sabhārya, satṛṣṇa, sadhana, saroṣaṁ, sakopaṁ,

sahari &c.;

(b) similar, like; sadharman ‘of a similar nature’; so sajāti,

savarṇa;

(c) same; sodara, sapakṣa, sapiṁḍa, sanābhi &c. —m.

(1) A snake.

(2) Air, wind.

(3) A bird.

(4) short name for the musical note ṣaḍja q. v.

(5) N. of Śiva.

(6) Of Viṣṇu.

(7) (In prosody) A foot consisting of two short syllables followed by a

long one. —sā The goddess Lakṣmī. —saṁ

(1) Knowledge.

(2) Meditation.

(3) A carriage-road.

(4) A fence, an enclosure.

सच् — sac Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sac (connected with 2. «sajj, saṇj, sakh»; cf. «sap») cl.1.ā. ( vi, 2)

«sacate» (in also P. «sacati» and «siṣakti», 2. sg. «saścasi», 3. pl.

«saścati», 2. 3. pl. «saścata», 1. sg. ā. «saśce»; p. «sacamāna, sacāna»

and «saścat» or «saścat» [q.v.]; pf. Ved. «saścima, saścuḥ»; ā. «saścire» ;

«secire» ; aor. 3. pl. «asakṣata» ; «sakṣat, sakṣata, sakṣante, sakṣīmahi» ;

«asaciṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «sacitā, saciṣyate» ; inf. «sacadhyai» , to be associated

or united with, have to do with, be familiar with, associate one’s self with

(instr.) ; be possessed of. enjoy (instr. or acc.) ; to take part or

participate in, suffer, endure (instr.) ; to belong to, be attached or

devoted to, serve, follow, seek, pursue, favour, assist (acc.) ; to he

connected with (instr.) on ; to fall to the lot of (acc.) ; to be together ;

(«siṣakti»), to go after, follow, accompany, adhere or be attached to

(acc.) ; to help any one to anything (two dat.) ; to abide in (loc.) ; (3. pl.

«saścati» and «saścata»), to follow, obey ; to belong to (acc.) ; to be

devoted to or fond of (acc.) [characters]; Lat. ‘sequor’; Lith. ‘seku’.]

sac (ifc. strong form «sāc»), in «apatya-, ayajṇasac, āyu-ṣak» &c. (qq.vv.)

sac = «saṇj» in «ā-sac», to adhere to

sac in comp. for «sat».

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sac 1 A., 3 P. (sacate, siṣakti) Ved.

(1) To follow, pursue.

(2) To go to.

(3) To love, like.

(4) To be obedient.

(5) To honour, serve.

(6) To assist, aid.

(7) To be associated with.

सद् — sad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sad in comp. for «sat».

sad cl.1. or 6.P. ( xx, 24 and xxvii 133) «sīdati» (ep. also «-te»; Ved.

«sadati» or «sīdati, -te»; pf. «sasāda, sasattha, sedus, sedire» ; «sīdatus» ;

«sasadyāt». ; aor. «asadat» [cf. pres. «stem»] Gr.; 2. 3. sg. «satsi, satsat»

; «asādīt» ; fut. «sattā» Gr.; «satsyati» ; «sīdiṣyati» ; inf. «sade» ; «sattum»

; «sīditum» ; ind. p. «-sadya, -sadam» ; «-sādam» , to sit down (esp. at a

sacrifice), sit upon or in or at (acc. or loc.) ; to sit down before, besiege,

lie in wait for, watch (acc.) ; to sink down, sink into despondency or

distress, become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited, despond,

despair, pine or waste away, perish &c.: Pass. «sadyate» (aor. «asādi,

sādi» Caus. «sādayati, -te» (aor. «asīṣadat»), to cause to sit down or be

seated, place down, put upon or in (loc.) &c. &c.; to put in distress,

afflict, weary, exhaust, ruin, destroy &c.: Desid. «siṣatsati» Gr.: Intens.

«sāsadyate» (Gr. also «sāsatti»), to sit down in an indecent posture

‘sidere’, ‘sedere’; Lith. ‘sesti’, ‘sedeti’; Slav. ‘sesti’; Goth. ‘sitan’; Germ.

‘sitzen’; Angl. Sax. ‘sittan’; Eng. ‘sit’.]

sad mfn. (mostly ifc.; for 1. see p.1137, col.1) sitting or dwelling in (cf.

«adma-, antarikṣa-, apsu-sad» &c.)

sad m. covering (the female)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sad 1 P. (6 P. also according to some) (sīdati, sanna; the s of sad is

changed to ṣ after any preposition ending in i or u except prati)

(1) To sit, sit down, recline, lie, lie down, rest, settle; amadāḥ

sedurekasmin nitaṁbe nikhilā gireḥ Bk. 7. 58.

(2) To sink down, plunge into; tena tvaṁ viduṣāṁ madhye paṁke

gauriva sīdasi H. Pr. 24; (where the word has sense 4 also).

(3) To live, remain, reside, dwell.

(4) To be dejected or low-spirited, despond, despair, sink into

despondency; nātha hare jaya nātha hare sīdati rādhā vāsagṛhe Gīt. 6.

(5) To decay, perish, go to ruin, waste away, be destroyed;

vipannāyāṁ nītau sakalamavaśaṁ sīdati jagat H. 2. 77; taṁ sannaśatruṁ

dadṛśuḥ svayodhāḥ R. 7. 64; H. 2. 130.

(6) To be in distress, be pained or afflicted, be helpless; Ki. 13. 60;

Ms. 8. 21.

(7) To be impeded or hindered; Ms. 9. 94.

(8) To be languid, be wearied or fatigued, droop, sink; sīdati me

hṛdayaṁ K.; sīdaṁti mama gātrāṇi Bg. 1. 28.

(9) To go. —Caus. (sādayati-te)

(1) To cause to sit down, rest.

(2) To throw or cast down, place, put.

(3) To weary, exhaust.

(4) To cause to perish, destroy. —Desid. (siṣatsati) To wish to sit &c.

सम् — sam Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sam or #stam cl.1.P. «samati» or «stamati», to be disturbed (accord. to

some «to be undisturbed»; cf. «śam») ; cl.10. P. «samayati» or

«stamayati», to be agitated or disturbed

sam ind. (connected with 7. «sa» and 2. «sama», and opp. to 3. «vi» q.v.)

with, together with, along with, together, altogether (used as a

preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives, like Gk. [greek] Lat.

‘con’, and expressing «conjunction», «union», «thoroughness», «intensity»,

«completeness» e.g. «saṁyuj», «to join together»; «saṁ-dhā», «to place

together»; «saṁ-dhi», «placing together»; «saṁ-tap», «to consume utterly

by burning»; «sam-uccheda», «destroying altogether, complete

destruction»; in Ved. the verb connected with it has sometimes to be

supplied, e.g. «āpo agnim yaśasaḥ saṁ hi pūrvīih», «for many glorious

waters surrounded Agni»; it is sometimes prefixed to nouns in the sense

of 2. «sama», «same»; cf. «samartha»)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sam I. 1 P. (samati)

(1) To be confused or agitated.

(2) Not to be confused or agitated. —II. 10 U. (samayati-te) To be

agitated.

sam ind.

(1) As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means

(a) with, together with, together; as in saṁgam, saṁbhāṣaṇa,

saṁdhā, saṁyuj &c.

(b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and

may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’;

saṁtuṣ, saṁtoṣa, saṁnyas, saṁnyāsa, saṁtāpa &c.

(c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty.

(2) As prefixed to nouns to form comp. it means ‘like, same, similar,’

as in samartha.

(3) Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’; as in samakṣa.

(4) In the Vedas it is sometimes used as a separable preposition

(with instr.).

सर्व — sarva Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sarva mf («ā») n. (perhaps connected with «sāra» q.v.; inflected as a

pronoun except nom. acc. sg. n. «sarvam», and serving as a model for a

series of pronominals cf. «sarva-nāman») whole, entire, all, every (m. sg.

«every one»; pl. «all»; n. sg. «everything»; sometimes strengthened by

«viśva» [which if alone in appears in the meaning «all», «every», «every

one»] and «nikhila; sarve’pi», «all together»; «sarvaḥ ko» pi», «every one so

ever»; «gavāṁ sarvam», «all that comes from cows»; «sarva» with a

negation = «not any», «no», «none» or «not every one», «not everything»)

&c. &c.

mf («ā») n. of all sorts, manifold, various, different &c.

sarva mf («ā») n. (with another adjective or in comp.; cf. below)

altogether, wholly, completely, in all parts, everywhere &c.

sarva mf («ā») n. («am») ind. (with «sarveṇa») completely

sarva m. (declined like a subst.) N. of śiva

sarva m. of Kṛiṣṇa

sarva m. of a Muni

sarva pl. N. of a people

sarva n. water for [characters] Lat. ‘salvus’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sarva pron. a. [sṛtamanena viśvamitisarvaṁ Uṇ. 1. 151] (nom. pl. sarve

m.) 1 All, every; uparyupari paśyaṁtaḥ sarva eva daridrati H. 2. 2; riktaḥ

sarvo bhavati hi laghuḥ pūrṇatā gauravāya Me. 20, 63.

(2) Whole, entire, complete. —rvaḥ

(1) N. of Viṣṇu.

(2) Of Śiva.

— Comp.

—aṁgaṁ 1 the whole body. —2. all the Vedāṅgas. (

—gaḥ or -rūpaḥ) N. of Śiva.

—aṁgīṇa a. pervading or thrilling through the whole body;

sarvaṁgīṇaḥ sparśaḥ sutasya kila V. 5. 11.

—adhikārin m.,

—adhyakṣaḥ a general superintendent.

—anukramaṇikā, —kramaṇī a general index.

—annīna a. eating every kind of food; so sarvānnabhojin &c.

—abhisaṁdhin m. 1. a traducer, calumniator. —2. a religious

hypocrite.

—abhisāraḥ a complete army (of elephants, chariots, cavalry, and

infantry).

—arthasādhikā N. of Durgā.

—aryasiddhaḥ the great Buddha or Śākyamuni.

—avasaraḥ midnight.

—ākāra (in comp.) entirely, thoroughly, completely;

sarvākārahṛdayaṁgamāyāstasyāḥ Māl. 1, 7; 1. 14.

—ātman m. 1. the whole soul; (sarvātmanā entirely, completely,

thoroughly.) —2. N. of Śiva.

—āśayaḥ, —āśrayaḥ N. of Śiva.

—īśaḥ, -īśvaraḥ 1. the Supreme Being. —2. a paramount lord.

—uttama a. best of all, excellent, supremely good.

—oghaḥ =sarvābhisāra above.

—karaḥ, —karman m. N. of Śiva.

—kartṛ m. N. of Brahman. —2. the Supreme Being.

—karmīṇa a. performing everything.

—kāmaḥ, -kāmadaḥ, -kāmavaraḥ N. of Śiva.

—kālīna a. for all time, perpetual.

—keśin m. an actor.

—kṣāraḥ impure carbonate of soda or potash.

—gata a. all-pervading, omnipresent. (

—gaḥ) 1. Śiva. —2. the Supreme Being. —3. Brahman. —4. the

spirit, soul. (

—gaṁ) water.

—gā the plant called priyaṁgu. —gāmin, —gati a. all-pervading,

omnipresent.

—graṁthiḥ, —graṁthikaṁ the root of long pepper.

—cārin m. N. of Śiva.

—janīna a. world-wide, famous.

—jit a. 1. excellent, incomparable. —2. all-conquering, invincible.

—jña, -vid a. all-knowing, omniscient. (—m.) 1. an epithet of Śiva.

—2. of Buddha. —3. the Supreme Being.

—jñā N. of Durgā.

—taṁtraḥ one who has studied all the Tantras. -siddhāṁtaḥ a

doctrine admitted by all the schools.

—tāpanaḥ the god of love.

—daḥ N. of Śiva.

—dama -damana a. all-subduing, irresistible. (—m.) N. of Bharata,

son of Dushyanta; ihāyaṁ sattvānāṁ prasabhadamanāt sarvadamanaḥ S.

7. 33.

—darśanasaṁgrahaḥ a compendium of all the schools or systems

of philosophy by Mādhavāchārya.

—darśin m. 1. a Buddha. —2. the Supreme Being.

—devamaya a. comprising all the gods. (

—yaḥ) N. of Śiva.

—devamukhaḥ an epithet of Agni.

—dhanaṁ (in arith.) the total of a sum in progression.

—dhārin m. N. of Śiva.

—nāman n. a class of pronominal words. -sthānaṁ N. for the nom.

(all numbers) and acc. sing. and dual of masculine and feminine nouns

and nom. and acc. pl. of neuter nouns; cf. suṭ also.

—priya a. popular, liked by all.

—bhakṣā a female goat.

—bhāvaḥ all-being or nature; (sarvabhāvena ‘with all one’s heart,

sincerely, heart and soul’).

—bhāvakaraḥ. bhāvanaḥ N. of Śiva.

—maṁgalā an epithet of Pārvatī.

—mūṣakaḥ ‘allstealing’, time.

—yogin m. N. of Śiva.

—rasaḥ 1. the resinous exudation of the Sāla tree, resin. —2. salt,

saltness. —3. a kind of musical instrument. —4. a learned man. -uttamaḥ

salt.

—lālasaḥ N. of Śiva.

—liṁgin m. an impostor.

—lokaḥ the universe.

—lohaḥ an iron arrow.

—vallabhā an unchaste woman.

—yāsaḥ, —vāsin m., vikhyātaḥ —vigrahaḥ N. of Śiva.

—vedaḥ a man who has studied the four Vedas.

—vedas m. one who performs a sacrifice by giving away all his

wealth.

—veśin m. an actor.

—vyāpin a. all-pervading.

—śak a. omnipotent, all-powerful.

—saṁgataḥ a kind of quick-growing rice.

—saṁgrahaḥ a general or universal collection.

—saṁnahanaṁ-saṁnāhaḥ assembling of a complete army, a

complete armament; see -abhisāra m.

—saha a. all-forbearing, very patient. (

—haḥ) bdellium. (

—hā, also sarvaṁsahā) the earth.

—sākṣin a. all-witnessing. (—m.) 1. N. of the Supreme Being. —2.

N. of wind. —3. of Agni.

—sādhanaḥ Śiva.

—siddhiḥ f. universal success. (—m.) the Bilva tree.

—syaṁ 1. everything, the whole of one’s possessions; as in

sarvasvadaṁḍaḥ, sarvasvaharaṇaṁ ‘confiscation of the whole property.’

—2. the very essence, the all-in-all of anything: sarvasvaṁ tadaho

mahākavigirāṁ kāmasya cāṁbhoruha Subhāṣ., see S. 1. 24; 6. 1; Māl. 8.

6; Bv. 1. 63.

—haraḥ death.

—hitaṁ black pepper.

सह् — sah Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sah cl.1.ā. ( xx, 22) «sahate» (Ved. and ep. also «-ti» and exceptionally

«sāhati», once in 1. sg. «sahyāmi»; p. «sahat» «sahamāna» [q.v.]; pf.

«sehe, sasāha»; Ved. also «sasāhe» and «sāsāhat; sāsahat; sāsahīṣṭāḥ»,;

«sāsahyāma»,; p. «sehāna, sāsahāna, sāsahvas» and «sāhvas» [q.v.]; aor.

«asākṣi, sākṣi, sākṣate» ; «sākṣīt» ; «sakṣati» ; «sakṣat, sākṣāma» ; Impv.

«sakṣi, sākṣva» ; p. «sakṣat» ; «asahisṭa» ; Prec. «sahyās, sāhyāma» ;

«sākṣīya». ; «sāhiṣīmahi» ; fut. «soḍhā» &c.; «sahitā» Gr.; «sakṣyati» , «-

te» ; «sākṣye» [?] ; «-sahiṣyati, -te» ; Cond. «asahisyat» ; inf «sahadhyai» ;

«sāḍhyai» ; «soḍhum, sahitum» ; ind. p. «soḍhvā» ; «sādhvā, sahitvā» Gr.;

«sahya» &c.; «saham» , to prevail, be victorious; to overcome, vanquish,

conquer, defeat (enemies), gain, win (battles) ; to offer violence to (acc.)

; to master, suppress, restrain &c.; to be able to or capable of (inf. or

loc.) ; to bear up against, resist, with. stand &c. &c.; to bear, put up

with, endure, suffer, tolerate (with «na», «to grudge») &c.; to be lenient

towards, have patience with any one (gen.) ; to spare any one ; to let

pass, approve anything ; (with «kalam, kala-kṣepam» &c.) to bide or wait

patiently for the right time Caus. or cl.10. «sāhayati» (aor. «asīṣahat»), to

forbear Desid. of Caus. «sisāhayiṣati» Desid. «sīkṣate» (p. «sīkṣat»;

accord. to «sisahiṣa»), to wish to overcome Intens. «sāsaṣyate, sāsoḍhi»

(cf «sāsahi») Gr. ([Cf. «sahas» and [characters] for [characters];

[characters]. ])

sah (strong form «sāh») mfn. bearing, enduring, overcoming (ifc.; see

«abhimāti-ṣāh» &c.)

sah cl.4.P. «sahyati», to satisfy, delight ; to be pleased ; to bear, endure

(cf. 1. «sah»)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sah I. 4 P. (sahyati)

(1) To satisfy.

(2) To be pleased.

(3) To endure, bear. —II. 1 A. (sahate epic Paras. also; soḍha; the s

of sah is changed to ṣ after prepositions ending in i, as ni, pari, vi, except

when h is changed to ḍh)

(1)

(a) To bear, endure, suffer, put up with; khalollāpāḥ soḍhāḥ Bh. 3.

6; padaṁ saheta bhramarasya pelavaṁ śirīṣapuṣpaṁ na punaḥ

patatriṇaḥ Ku. 5. 4; so duḥkhaṁ, saṁtāpaṁ, kleśaṁ &c.; R. 12. 63; 11.

52; Bk. 17. 59.

(b) To tolerate, allow; prakṛtiḥ khalu sā mahīyasaḥ sahate

nānyasamunnatiṁ yayā Ki. 2. 21; Me. 105; R. 14. 63.

(2) To forgive, forbear; vāṁravāraṁ mayaitasyāparādhaḥ soḍhaḥ H.

3; Bg. 11. 44.

(3) To wait, be patient; dvitrāṇyahānyarhasi soḍhumarhan R. 5. 25,

15. 45.

(4) To bear, support, bear up; ka idānīṁ sahakāramaṁtareṇa

pallavitāmatimuktalatāṁ saheta S. 3.

(5) To conquer, defeat, oppose, be able to resist.

(6) To suppress, stop.

(7) To be able (with inf.). —Caus. (sāhayati-te)

(1) To cause to bear or suffer.

(2) To make bearable or supportable; gurvapi

virahaduḥkhamāśābaṁdhaḥ sāhayati S. 4. 15. —Desid. (sisahiṣate) To

wish to bear &c.

सह — saha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899saha mf («ā») n. powerful, mighty

saha mf («ā») n. (ifc.) overcoming, vanquishing

mf («ā») n. bearing, enduring, withstanding, defying, equal to, a match

for (gen. or comp.) &c.

mf («ā») n. causing, effecting, stimulating, exerting

mf («ā») n. able to, capable of (inf. cr comp.)

saha m. the month Mārgaśīrṣa (see «sahas»)

saha m. a partic. Agni

saha m. a species of plant

saha m. N. of a son of Manu

saha m. of a son of Prāṇa and ūsjasvatī

saha m. of a son of Dhṛitarāṣīra

saha m. of a son of Kṛiṣṇa and Mādrī

saha mf («ā») n. («ā») f. the earth

saha m. (with Buddhists) N. of a division of the world (with «loka-dhātu»,

«the world inhabited by men»)

saha m. N. of various plants (accord. to = Aloe Perfoliata, «daṇḍopatā,

rāsnā» &c.)

saha m. Unguis Odoratus

saha n. = «bala»

saha n. kind of salt

saha ind. (prob. fr. 7. «sa+dhā», which in Veda may become «dha»; cf. 1.

«sadha») together with, along with, with (with «grah» and «ā-dā», «to take

with one»; with «dā», «to give to take away with one»; with «kṛtvā» and

acc., «taking with one», «in the company of»; often as a prep. governing

instr. case, but generally placed after the governed word e.g. «tena

saha», «along with him»; exceptionally with abl. e.g. «aiśvaryāt saha»,

«with sovereignty» 104); in common, in company, jointly, conjointly, in

concert (often used as a prefix in comp., expressing «community of

action», e.g. «sahādhyayana» q.v.; or forming adjectives expressing «the

companion of an action», e.g. «saha-cara» q.v.); at the same time or

simultaneously with (prefixed to adverbs of time e.g. «saha-pūrvāhṇam»

q.v.; rarely ifc. e.g. «vainateya-s-«, «with Vainateya» &c. &c.; m. a

companion ; («ā») f. a female companion

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

saha a. [sahate sah-ac]

(1) Bearing, enduring, suffering.

(2) Patient.

(3) Able; see asaha. —haḥ The month mārgaśīrṣa.

(2) N. of Śiva. —haḥ, haṁ Power, strength.

saha ind.

(1) With, together with, along with, accompanied by (with instr.);

śaśinā saha yāti kaumudī saha meghena taḍitpralīyate Ku. 4. 33.

(2) Together, simultaneously, at the same time; astodayau

sahaivāsau kurute nṛpatirdviṣāṁ Subhāṣ. (The following senses are given

of this word: —sākalya, sādṛśya, yaugapadya, vidyamānatva, samṛddhi,

saṁbaṁdha, and sāmarthya.)

— Comp.

—adhyayanaṁ 1. studying together; U. 2. —2. fellow-studentship.

—adhyāyin m. a fellow-student.

—artha a. 1. having the same object. —2. synonymous. (

—rthaḥ) the same or common object.

—āsanaṁ sitting on the same seat,

—uktiḥ f. a figure of speech in Rhetoric; sā sahoktiḥ sahārthasya

balādekaṁ dvivācakaṁ K. P. 10; e. g. papāta bhūmau saha sainikāśrubhiḥ

R. 3. 61.

—uṭajaḥ a hut made of leaves.

—udaraḥ a uterine brother, brother of whole blood; Vikr. 1. 21.

—upamā a kind of Upamā.

—ūḍhaḥ, —ūḍhajaḥ the son of a woman pregnant at marriage; (one

of the 12 kinds of sons recognized in old Hindu law).

—kāra a. having the sound ha Nalod. 2. 14. (

—ra) 1. co-operation. —2. a mango; tree: ka idānīṁ

sahakāramaṁtareṇa pallavitāmatimuktalatāṁ sahate S. 3. -bhaṁjikā a

kind of game.

—kārin, —kṛt, —kṛtvan a. co-operating. (—m.) a co-adjutor,

associate, colleague.

—kṛta a. co-operated with, assisted or aided by.

—gamanaṁ 1. accompanying. —2. a woman’s burning herself with

her deceased husband’s body, self-immolation of a widow.

—cara a. accompanying, going or living with; U. 3. 8. (

—raḥ) 1. a companion, friend, associate. —2. a follower, servant.

—3. a husband.

(4) a surety. (—rī f.) 1. a female companion. —2. a wife, mate. —carita

a. accompanying, attending, associating with. —cāraḥ 1. accompaniment.

—2. agreement, harmony. —3. (in logic) the invariable accompaniment of

the hetu (middle term) by the sadhya (major term). —4. right course

(opp. vyabhicāra). —cārin see sahacara. —ja a. 1. inborn, natural, innate.

—2. hereditary; S. 6. 1. (—jaḥ) 1. a brother of whole blood. —2. the

natural state or disposition. -ariḥ a natural enemy. -udāsīnaḥ a born

neutral. -mitraṁ a natural friend. —jāta a. natural; see sahaja. —2. born

together, twin-born. —dāra a. 1. with a wife. —2. married. —devaḥ N. of

the youngest of the five Paṇḍavas; the twin brother of Nakula, born of

Mādrī by the gods Aśvins. He is regarded as the type of manly beauty. —

dharmaḥ same duties. -cārin m. a husband. -cāriṇī 1. a lawful wife, one

legally married (also sahadharmiṇī in this sense). —2. a fellow-worker. —

pathin m. —paṁthāḥ m. f. a fellow-traveller. —pāṁśukrīḍin, —pāṁśukila

m. a friend from the earliest childhood. —bhāvin m. a friend, partisan,

follower. —bhū a. natural, innate; Ratn. 1. 2. —bhojanaṁ eating in

company with friends. —maraṇaṁ see sahagamana. —mṛtā a woman who

has burnt herself with her husband. —yudhvan m. a brother in arms. —

rakṣas m. one of the three kinds of sacrificial fires. —vasatiḥ —vāsaḥ

dwelling together; sahavasatimupetya yaiḥ priyāyāḥ kṛta iva

mugdhavilokitopadeśaḥ S. 2. 3. —vāsin m. a fellow-lodger.

साध् — sādh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sādh (connected with 2. «sidh») cl.1.P. ā. «sādati, -te»; accord. to

«sādhyati», cl.5. «sādhnoti» (in also «sadhnoti»; pf. «sasādha»; aor.

«asātsīt»; fut. «sāddhā, sātsyati»; inf. «sāddhum», in later language

«sādhitum»; Ved. inf. «sadhase» q.v.), to go straight to any goal or aim,

attain an object, to be successful, succeed, prosper ; to being straight to

an object or end, further, promote, advance, accomplish, complete, finish

; to submit or agree to, obey ; («sādhyati») to be completed or

accomplished Caus. «sādhayati» (m.c. also «-te»; aor. «asīṣadhat»; Ved.

also «sīṣadhati, -dhaḥ, -dhema, -dhātu»; Pass. «sādhyate» &c.), to

straighten, make straight (a path) ; to guide straight or well, direct or

bring to a goal ; to master, subdue, overpower, conquer, win, win over

&c. &c.; to summon, conjure up (a god or spirit) ; (in law) to enforce

payment, recover (a debt), collect (taxes) &c.; to subdue a disease, set

right, heal, cure ; to bring to an end or conclusion, complete, make

perfect, bring about, accomplish, effect, fulfil, execute, practice (with

«vākyam», «to execute any one’s [gen.] order»; with «naiṣkarmyam», «to

practise inactivity»; with «marum», «to practise abstinence»; with

«mantram», «to practise the recitation of spells») &c.; to attain one’s

object, be successful ; to produce, make, render (two acc.) ; to establish

a truth, substantiate, prove, demonstrate ; to make ready, prepare ; to

gain, obtain, acquire, procure &c.; to find out (by calculation), Gaiṇt.; to

grant, bestow, yield &c.; to put or place in (loc.) ; to set out, proceed, go

(in dram. accord. to = «gam») &c.: Desid. of Caus. «siṣādhayisati» or

«sisādhayirhati», to desire to establish or prove Desid. «siṣātsati» Gr.:

Intens., «sāsādhyate, sāsdidhi»

sādh (ifc.) accomplishing, performing (see «yajṇa-sādh»).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sādh I. 5 P. (sādhnoti)

(1) To complete, finish, accomplish.

(2) To conquer. —II. 4 P. (sādhyati) To be completed or accomplished.

—Caus.

(1) To accomplish, effect, bring about, perform; api sādhaya

sādhayepsitaṁ N. 2. 62; yāvadyate sādhayituṁ tavārthaṁ R. 5. 25, Ku. 2.

33.

(2) To complete, finish, conclude.

(3) To gain, secure, obtain; R. 17. 38, Ms. 6. 75.

(4) To prove, substantiate.

(5) To subdue, overpower, conquer (as a foe &c.), win over; na hi

sāmnā na dānena na bhedena ca pāṁḍavāḥ . śakyāḥ sādhayituṁ Mb.

(6) To kill, destroy; sugrīvāṁtakamāseduḥ sādhayiṣyāma ityariṁ Bk.

7. 31.

(7) To learn, understand.

(8) To cure, heal.

(9) To go, depart, go one’s way; sādhayāmyahamavighnamastu te R.

11. 91; S. 1. 7; prāyeṇa ṇyaṁtakaḥ sādhirgamerarthe prayujyate S. D.

(10) To recover (as a debt).

(11) To make perfect.

सु — su Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899su cl.1.P. ā. «savati, -te», to go, move ( «sru»).

su (= 1. «sū») cl.1.2. P. ( xxii, 43 and xxiv, 32; «savati, sauti», only in 3.

sg. pr. «sauti» and 2. sg. Impv. «suhi») to urge, impel, incite ; to possess

supremacy

su cl.5.P. ā. ( xxvii, 1) «sunoti, sunute» (in 3. pl. «sunvanti, sunvire»

[with pass. sense] and «suṣvati»; p. «sunvat» or «sunvāna» [the latter

with act. and pass. sense] ; pf. «suṣāva, suṣuma» &c. ; p. in Veda

«suṣuvas» and «suṣvāṇa» [the later generally with pass. sense; accord. to

on «suṣuvāṇa» with act. sense]; aor. accord. to Gr. «asāvīt» or «asauṣīt,

asoṣṭa» or «asaviṣṭa»; in also Impv. «sotu, sutam», and p. [mostly pass.]

«suvāna» [but the spoken form is «svāna» and so written in , «suv-» in ;

and 3. pl. «asuṣavuḥ» ; fut. «sotā» ; «soṣyati» ; «saviṣyati» ; inf. «sotave,

sotos» ; «sotum» Gr.; ind. p. «-sutya» ; «-sūya» , to press out, extract

(esp. the juice from the Soma plant for libations) ; to distil, prepare

(wine, spirits &c.) on Pass. «sūyate» (in also ā. 3. sg. «sunve» and 3. pl.

«sunvire» with pass. sense; aor. «asāvi» Caus. «-sāvayati» or «-ṣāvayati»

(see «abhi-ṣu» and «pra-su»; aor. «asūṣavat» accord. to some «asīṣavat»)

Gr.: Desid. of Caus. «suṣāvayiṣati» Desid. «susūṣati, -te» Iutens.

«soṣūyate, soṣavīti, soṣoti»

su (= 2. «sū»), (only in 3. sg. «sauti» see «pra-sū») to beget, bring forth.

su ind. (opp. to «dus» and corresponding in sense to Gk. [greek];

perhaps connected with 1. «vasu», and, accord. to some, with pron. base

«sa», as «ku» with «ka»; in Veda also «sū» and liable to become «ṣu» or

«ṣū» and to lengthen a preceding vowel, while a following «na» may

become «ṇa»; it may be used as an adj. or adv.), good, excellent, right,

virtuous, beautiful, easy, well, rightly, much, greatly, very, any, easily,

willingly, quickly (in older language often with other particles; esp. with

«u», = «forthwith, immediately»; with «mo» i.e. «mā u», = «never, by no

means»; «su kam» often emphatically with an Impv. e.g. «tiṣṭhā su kam

maghavan mā parā gāḥ», «do tarry O Maghavan, go not past» ; «su»

always qualifies the meaning of a verb and is never used independently at

the beginning of a verse; in later language it is rarely a separate word,

but is mostly prefixed to substantives, adjectives, adverbs and participles,

exceptionally also to an ind. p. e.g. «su-baddhvā», «having well bound» ;

or even to a finite verb e.g. «su-nirvavau»

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following).

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following, in which the initial «ṣ» stands

for an orig. «s»):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

su I. 1 U. (suvati-te) To go, move. —II. 1. 2. P. (savati, sauti) To possess

power or supremacy. —III. 5. U. (sunoti, sunute, suta; the s of su is

changed to ṣ after any preposition ending in i or u)

(1) To press out or extract juice.

(2) To distil.

(3) To pour out, sprinkle, make a libation.

(4) To perform a sacrifice, especially the Soma sacrifice.

(5) To bathe.

(6) To churn. —Desid. (suṣūsati-te) —WITH ud to excite, agitate. —pra

to produce, beget.

su ind. A particle often used with nouns to form Karmadhāraya and

Bahuvrīhi compounds, and with adjectives and adverbs. It has the

following senses:

(1) Well, good, excellent; as in suṁgadhi.

(2) Beautiful, handsome; as in sumadhyamā, sukeśī &c.

(3) Well, perfectly, thoroughly, properly; sujīrṇamannaṁ suvicakṣaṇaḥ

sutaḥ suśāsitā strī nṛpatiḥ susevitaḥ &c … sudīrghakāle’pi na yāti vikriyāṁ

H. 1. 22.

(4) Easily, readily, as in sukara or sulabha q. v.

(5) Much, very much, exceedingly; sudāruṇa, sudīrgha &c.

(6) Worthy of respect or reverence.

(7) It is also said to have the senses of assent, prosperity, and

distress.

— Comp.

—akṣa a. 1. having good eyes. —2. having keen organs, acute.

—aṁga a. well-shaped, handsome, lovely.

—accha a. see s. v.

—aṁta a. having a happy end, ending well.

—alpa, -alpaka a. see s. v.

—asti, —astika see s. v.

—ākāra, —ākṛti a. well-formed, handsome, beautiful.

—āgata see s. v.

—ādānaṁ taking justly or properly; Ms. 8. 172.

—ābhāsa a. very splendid or illustrious; Ki. 15. 22.

—iṣṭa a. properly sacrificed. -kṛt m. a form of fire.

—ukta a. well-spoken, well-said; athavā sūktaṁ khalu kenāpi Ve. 3.

(

—ktā) a kind of bird (sārikā. (—ktaṁ) 1. a good or wise saying;

netuṁ vāṁchati yaḥ khalān pathi satāṁ sūktaiḥ sudhāsyaṁdibhiḥ Bh. 2.

6, R. 15. 97. —2. a Vedic hymn, as in puruṣasūkta &c. -darśin m. a

hymnseer, Vedic sage. -vāc f. 1. a hymn. —2. praise, a word of praise.

—uktiḥ f. 1. a good or friendly speech. —2. a good or clever saying.

—3. a correct sentence.

—uttara a. 1. very superior. —2. well towards the north.

—utthāna a. making good efforts, vigorous, active. (

—naṁ) vigorous effort or exertion.

—unmada, —unmāda a. quite mad or frantic.

—upasadana a. easy to be approached.

—upaskara a. furnished with good instruments.

—kaṁṭakā the aloe plant.

—kaṁḍuḥ itch.

—kaṁdaḥ 1. an onion. —2. a yam. —3. a sort of grass.

—kaṁdakaḥ onion.

—kara a. (rā or rī f.) 1. easy to be done, practicable, feasible;

vaktuṁ sukaraṁ kartuṁ (adhyavasātuṁ) duṣkaraṁ Ve. 3 ‘sooner said

than done.’ —2 easy to be managed. (

—rā) a tractable cow. (

—raṁ) charity, benevolence.

—karman a. 1. one whose deeds are righteous, virtuous, good. —2.

active, diligent. (—m.) N. of Viśvakarman.

—kala a. one who has acquired a great reputation for liberality in

giving and using (money &c.).

—kāṁḍaḥ the Kāravella plant.

—kāṁḍikā the Kāṇḍīra creeper.

—kāṁḍin a. 1. having beautiful stems. —2. beautifully joined. (—m.)

a bee.

—kāṣṭhaṁ firewood.

—kuṁdakaḥ an onion.

—kumāra a. 1. very delicate or soft, smooth. —2. beautifully young

or youthful. (

—raḥ) 1. a beautiful youth. —2. a kind of sugar-cane. —3. a kind of

grain (śyāmāka). —4 a kind of mustard. —5. the wild Champaka. (

—rā) 1. the double jasmine. —2. the plantain. —3. the great-

flowered jasmine.

—kumārakaḥ 1. a beautiful youth. —2. rice (śāli). (—kaṁ) the

Tamālapatra.

—kumārī the Navamallikā jasmine.

—kṛt a. 1. doing good, benevolent. —2. pious, virtuous, righteous.

—3. wise, learned. —4. fortunate, lucky. —5. making good sacrifices or

offerings (—m.) 1. a skilful worker. —2. N. of Tvaṣṭṛ.

—kṛta a. 1. done well or properly. —2. thoroughly done. —3. well-

made or constructed. —4. treated with kindness, assisted, befriended. —

5. virtuous, righteous, pious. —6. lucky, fortunate. (

—taṁ) 1. any good or virtuous act, kindness, favour, service;

nādatte kasyacitpāpaṁ kasyacitsukṛtaṁ vibhuḥ Bg. 5. 15, Me. 17. —2.

virtue, moral or religious merit; svargābhisaṁdhisukṛtaṁ vaṁcanāmiva

menire Ku. 6. 47; tacciṁtyamānaṁ sukṛtaṁ taveti R. 14. 16. —3. fortune,

auspiciousness. —4. recompense, reward.

—kṛtiḥ f. 1. well-doing, a good act. —2. kindness, virtue. —3.

practice of penance. —4. auspiciousness.

—kṛtin a. 1. acting well or kindly. —2. virtuous, pious, good,

righteous; saṁtaḥ saṁtu nirāpadaḥ sukṛtināṁ kīrtiściraṁ vardhatāṁ H. 4.

132; Bg. 7. 16. —3. wise, learned. —4. benevolent. —5. fortunate, lucky.

—kṛtyaṁ a good action; Pt. 2. 41.

—keśa(sa)raḥ the citron tree.

—kratuḥ 1. N. of Agni. —2. of Śiva. —3. of Indra. —4. of Mitra and

Varuṇa. —5. of the sun. —6. of Soma.

—gaṁ a. 1. going gracefully or well. —2. graceful, elegant. —3. easy

of access; Pt. 2. 144. —4. intelligible, easy to be understood (opp. durga).

(

—gaṁ) 1. ordure, feces. —2. happiness.

—gata a. 1. well-gone or passed. —2 well-bestowed. (

—taḥ) an epithet of Buddha.

—gaṁdhaḥ 1. fragrance, odour, perfume. —2. sulphur. —3. a trader.

(

—dhaṁ) 1. sandal. —2. small cumin seed. —3. a blue lotus. —4. a

kind of fragrant grass. (

—dhā) sacred basil.

—gaṁdhakaḥ 1. sulphur. —2. the red Tulasī1. —3. the orange. —4. a

kind of gourd.

—gaṁdhāraḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—gaṁdhi a. 1. sweet-smelling, fragrant, redolent with perfumes.

—2. virtuous, pious. (

—dhiḥ) 1. perfume, fragrance. —2. the Supreme Being. —3. a kind

of sweet-smelling mango. (

—dhi n.) 1. the root of long pepper. —2. a kind of fragrant grass. —

3. coriander seed. -triphalā 1. nutmeg. —2. areca nut. —3. cloves. -mūlaṁ

the root Uśīra. -mūṣikā the musk-rat.

—gaṁdhikaḥ 1. incense. —2. sulphur. —3. a kind of rice. (

—kaṁ) the white lotus.

—gama a. 1. easy of access, accessible. —2. easy. —3. plain,

intelligible.

—gahanā an enclosure round a place of sacrifice to exclude profane

access. -vṛttiḥ f. the same as above.

—gṛha a. (hī f.) having a beautiful house or abode, welllodged;

sugṛhī nirgṛṁhīkṛtā Pt. 1. 390.

—gṛhīta a. 1. held well or firmly, grasped. —2. used or applied

properly or auspiciously. -nāman a. 1. one whose name is auspiciously

invoked, one whose name it is auspicious to utter (as Bali, Yudhiṣṭhira), a

term used as a respectful mode of speaking; sugṛhītanāmnaḥ

bhaṭṭagopālasya pautraḥ Māl. 1.

—grāsaḥ a dainty morsel.

—grīva a. having a beautiful neck. (

—vaḥ) 1. a hero. —2. a swan. —3. a kind of weapon. —4. N. of one

of the four horses of Kṛṣṇa. —5. of Śiva. —6. of Indra. —7. N. of a

monkeychief and brother of Vāli. [By the advice of Kabandha Rāma went

to Sugrīva who told him how his brother had treated him and besought

his assistance in recovering his wife, promising at the same time that he

would assist Rāma in recovering his wife Sīta. Rāma, therefere, killed

Vāli, and installed Sugrīva on the throne. He then assisted Rāma with his

hosts of monkeys in conquering Rāvaṇa, and recovering Sīta.]. -īśaḥ N. of

Rāma.

—gla a. very weary or fatigued.

—cakṣus a. having good eyes, seeing well. (—m.) 1. a discerning or

wise man, learned man. —2. the glomerous fig-tree.

—carita, caritra a. well-conducted, well-behaved. (

—taṁ, -traṁ) 1. good conduct, virtuous deeds. —2. merit; tava

sucaritamaṁgulīya nūnaṁ pratanu S. 6. 10. (

—tā, —trā) a well-conducted, devoted, and virtuous wife.

—carman m. the Bhūrja tree.

—citrakaḥ 1. a king-fisher. —2. a kind of speckled snake.

—citrā a kind of gourd.

—ciṁtā, —ciṁtanaṁ deep thought, deep reflection or

consideration.

—ciram ind. for a very long time, very long.

—cirāyus m. a god, deity.

—cūṭī a pair of nippers or tongs.

—celakaḥ a fine cloth.

—chatraḥ N. of Śiva. (

—trā) the river Sutlej.

—jana a. 1. good, virtuous, respectable. —2. kind, benevolent. (

—naḥ) 1. a good or virtuous man, benevolent man. —2. a

gentleman. —3. N. of Indra’s charioteer.

—janatā 1. goodness, kindness, benevolence, virtue; aiśvaryasya

vibhūṣaṇaṁ sujanatā Bh. 2. 82. —2. a number of good men. —3. bravery,

—janman a. 1. of noble or respectable birth; yā kaumudī

nayanayorbhavataḥ sujanmā Māl. 1. 34. —2. legitimate, lawfully born.

—jalaṁ a lotus.

—jalpaḥ 1. a good speech. —2. a kind of speech thus described by

Ujjvalamaṇi; yatrārjavāt sagāṁbhīryaṁ sadainyaṁ sahacāpalam .

sotkaṁṭhaṁ ca hariḥ spṛṣṭaḥ sa sujalpo nigadyate … —jāta a. 1.

wellgrown, tall. —2. well made or produced. —3. of high birth. —4.

beautiful, lovely; Māl. 1. 16, R. 3. 8.

—tanu a. 1. having a beautiful body. —2. extremely delicate or

slender, very thin. —3. emaciated. (

—nuḥ, —nūḥ f.) a lovely lady; etāḥ sutanu mukha te sakhyaḥ

paśyaṁti hemakūṭagatāḥ V. 1. 10.

—taṁtrī a. 1. well-stringed. —2. (hence) melodious.

—tapas a. 1. one who practises austere penance. —2. having great

heat. (—m.) 1. an ascetic, a devotee, hermit, an anchorite. —2. the sun.

(—n.) an austere penance.

—tamāṁ ind. most excellently, best.

—tarāṁ ind. 1. better, more excellently. —2. exceedingly, very, very

much, excessively; tayā duhitrā sutarāṁ savitrī sphuratprabhāmaṁḍalayā

cakāśe Ku. 1. 24; sutarāṁ dayāluḥ R. 2. 53, 7. 21, 14. 9, 18. 24. —3. more

so, much more so; mayyapyāsthā na te cettvayi mama sutarāmeṣa rājan

gatosmi Bh. 3. 30. —4. consequently.

—tardanaḥ the (Indian) cuckoo.

—talaṁ 1. ‘immense depth’, N. of one of the seven regions below

the earth; see pātāla. —2. the foundation of a large building.

—tiktakaḥ the coral tree.

—tīkṣṇa a. 1. very sharp. —2. very pungent. —3. acutely painful. (

—kṣṇaḥ) 1. the Śigru tree. —2. N. of a sage; nāmnā

sutīkṣṇaścaritena dāṁtaḥ R. 13. 41. -daśanaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—tīrthaḥ 1. a good preceptor. —2. N. of Śiva.

—tuṁga a. very lofty or tall. (

—gaḥ) the cocoa-nut tree.

—tejas a. 1. very sharp. —2. very bright, or splendid. —3. very

mighty. (—m.) a worshipper of the sun.

—dakṣiṇa a. 1. very sincere or upright. —2. liberal or rich in

sacrificial gifts; Pt. 1. 310. (

—ṇā) N. of the wife of Dilīpa; tasya dākṣiṇyarūḍhena nāmnā

magadhavaṁśajā . patnī sudakṣiṇetyāsīt R. 1. 31, 3. 1

—daṁḍaḥ a cane, ratan.

—dat a. (tī f.) having handsome teeth.

—daṁtaḥ 1. a good tooth. —2. an actor, a dancer. (

—tī) the female elephant of the north-west quarter.

—darśana a. (nā or nī f.) 1. good-looking, beautiful, handsome. —2.

easily seen. (

—naḥ) the discus of Viṣṇu; as in kṛṣṇopyasudarśanaḥ K. —2. N. of

Śiva. —3. of mount Meru. —4. a vulture. (

—nī —naṁ) N. of Amarāvatī, Indra’s capital. (

—naṁ) N. of Jambudvīpa.

—darśanā 1. a handsome woman. —2. a woman. —3. an order, a

command. —4. a kind of drug.

—dā a. very bountiful.

—dāṁtaḥ a Buddhist.

—dāman a. one who gives liberally. (—m.) 1. a cloud. —2. a

mountain. —3. the sea. —4. N. of Indra’s elephant. —5. N. of a very poor

Brāhmaṇa who came to Dvāraka with only a small quantity of parched

rice as a present to his friend Kṛṣṇa, and was raised by him to wealth and

glory.

—dāyaḥ 1. a good or auspicious gift. —2. a special gift given on

particular solemn occasions. —3. one who offers such a gift.

—dinaṁ 1. a happy or auspicious day. —2. a fine day or weather

(opp. durdina); so sudināhaṁ in the same sense.

—dīrgha a. very long or extended. (

—rghā) a kind of cucumber.

—durlabha a. very scarce or rare.

—dvara a. very distant or remote. (sudūraṁ means 1. to a great

distance. —2. to a very high degree, very much. sudūrāt ‘from afar, from a

distance’).

—ṭṭaḍha a. very firm or hard, compact.

—dṛś a. having beautiful eyes. (—f.) a pretty woman.

—dhanvan a. having an excellent bow. (—m.) 1. a good archer or

bowman. —2. Ananta, the great serpent. —3. N. of Viśvakarman.

—dharman a. attentive to duties. (—f.) the council or assembly of

gods. (—m.) 1. the hall or palace of Indra. —2. one diligent in properly

maintaining his family.

—dharmā —rmī the council or assembly of gods (devasabhā);

yayāvudīritālokaḥ sudharmānavamāṁ sabhāṁ R. 17. 27.

—dhita a. Ved. 1. perfect, secure. —2. kind, good. —3. happy,

prosperous. —4. well-aimed or directed (as a weapon).

—dhī a. having a good understanding, wise, clever, intelligent. (

—dhīḥ) a wise or intelligent man, learned man or pandit. (—f.) a

good understanding, good sense, intelligence. -upāsyaḥ 1. a particular

kind of royal palace. —2. N. of an attendant on Kṛṣṇa. (

—syaṁ) the club of Balarama. -upāsyā 1. a woman. —2. N. of Umā,

or of one of her female companions. —3. a sort of pigment.

—dhūmravarṇā one of the seven tongues of fire.

—naṁdā N. of a woman.

—nayaḥ 1. good conduct. —2. good policy.

—nayana a. having beautiful eyes. (

—naḥ) a deer. (

—nā) 1. a woman having beautiful eyes. —2. a woman in general.

—nābha a. 1. having a beautiful navel. —2. having a good nave or

centre. (

—bhaḥ) 1. a mountain. —2. the Maināka mountain q. v.

—nibhṛta a. very lonely or private. (

—taṁ) ind. very secretly or closely, very narrowly, privately.

—niścalaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—nīta 1. well-conducted, well-behaved. —2. polite, civil. (

—taṁ) 1. good conduct or behaviour. —2. good policy or prudence.

—nītiḥ f. 1. good conduct, good manners, propriety. —2. good

policy. —3. N. of the mother of Dhruva, q. v.

—nītha a. well-disposed, well-conducted, righteous, virtuous, good.

(

—thaḥ) 1. a Brāhmaṇa. —2. N. of Śiśupāla q. v. —3. Ved. a good

leader.

—nīla a. very black or blue. (

—laḥ) the pomegranate tree. (

—lā) common flax. (—laṁ), —nīlakaḥ a blue gem.

—netra a. having good or beautiful eyes.

—nau n. water (?).

—pakva a. 1. well-cooked. —2. thoroughly matured or ripe. (

—kvaḥ) a sort of fragrant mango.

—patnī a woman having a good husband.

—pathaḥ 1. a good road. —2. a good course. —3. good conduct.

—pathin m. (nom. sing. supaṁthāḥ) a good road.

—padmā orris root.

—parṇa a. (rṇā or rṇī f.) 1. wellwinged. —2. having good or

beautiful leaves. (

—rṇaḥ) 1. a ray of the sun. —2. a class of bird-like beings of a

semi-divine character. —3. any supernatural bird. —4. an epithet of

Garuḍa. —5. a cock. -ketuḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

—parṇakaḥ = suparṇa. —parṇā, —parṇī f. 1. a number of lotuses.

—2. a pool abounding with lotuses. —3. N. of the mother of Garuḍa.

—paryāpta a. 1. very spacious. —2. well-fitted.

—parvan a. well-jointed, having many joints or knots. (—m.) 1. a

bamboo. —2. an arrow. —3. a god, deity. —4. a special lunar day (as the

day of full or new moon, and the 8th and 14th day of each fortnight). —5.

smoke. (—f.) white Dūrvā grass.

—palāyita a. 1. completely fled or run away. —2. skilfully retreated.

—pātraṁ 1. a good or suitable vessel, worthy receptacle. —2. a fit

or competent person, any one well-fitted for an office, an able person.

—pād (pād or padī f.) having good or handsome feet.

—pārśvaḥ 1. the wavedleaf fig-tree (plakṣa). —2. N. of the son of

Sampāti, elder brother of Jaṭāyu.

—pītaṁ a carrot. (

—taḥ) the fifth Muhūrta.

—puṁsī a woman having a good husband.

—puṣpa a. (ṣpā or ṣpī f.) having beautiful flowers. (

—ṣpaḥ) 1. the coral tree. —2. the Śirīṣa tree. (

—ṣpī) the plantain tree. (

—ṣpaṁ) 1. cloves. —2. the menstrual excretion.

—puṣpita a. 1. well blossomed, being in full flower. —2. having the

hair thrilling or bristling.

—pūra a. 1. easy to be filled; Pt. 1. 25. —2. well-filling. (

—raḥ) a kind of citron (bījapūra). —pūrakaḥ the Baka-pushpa tree.

—prakāśa a. 1. manifest, apparent. —2. public, notorious.

—pratarkaḥ a sound judgment

—pratibhā spirituous liquor.

—pratiṣṭha a. 1. standing well. —2. very celebrated, renowned,

glorious, famous. (

—ṣṭhā) 1. good position. —2. good re putation, fame, celebrity. —3.

establishment, erection. —4. installation, consecration.

—pratiṣṭhita a. 1. well-established. —2. consecrated —3.

celebrated. (

—taḥ) the Udumbara tree.

—pratiṣṇāta a. 1. thoroughly purified. —2. well-versed in. —3. well-

investigated, clearly ascertained or determined.

—pratīka a. 1. having a beautiful shape, lovely, handsome. —2.

having a beautiful trunk. (

—kaḥ) 1. an epithet of Kāmadeva. —2. of Śiva. —3. of the elephant

of the north-east quarter.

—prapāṇaṁ a good tank.

—prabha a. very brilliant, glorious. (

—bhā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

—prabhātaṁ 1. an auspicious dawn or day-break; diṣṭyā

suprabhātamadya yadayaṁ devo ṭṭaṣṭaḥ U. 6 —2. the earliest dawn.

—prayuktaśaraḥ a skilful archer.

—prayogaḥ 1. good management or application. —2. close contact.

—3. dexterity.

—prasannaḥ N. of Kubera.

—prasāda a. very gracious or propitious. (

—daḥ) N. of Śiva.

—priya a. very much liked, agreeable. (

—yaḥ) (in prosody) a foot of two short syllables. (

—yā) 1. a charming woman. —2. a beloved mistress.

—phala a. 1. very fruitful, very productive. —2. very fertile. (

—laḥ) 1. the pomegranate tree. —2. the jujube. —3. the Karṇikara

tree. —4. a kind of bean. (

—lā) 1. a pumpkin, gourd. —2. the plantain tree. —3. a variety of

brown grape. —4. colocynth.

—phenaḥ a cuttlefish bone.

—baṁdhaḥ sesamum.

—bala a. very powerful. (

—laḥ) 1. N. of Śiva. —2. N. of the father of Śakuni.

—bāṁdhavaḥ N. of Śiva.

—bāhu a. 1. handsome-armed. —2. strong-armed. (

—huḥ) N. of a demon, brother of Mārīcha, who had become a

demon by the curse of Agastya. He with Mārīcha began to disturb the

sacrifice of Viśvāmitra, but was defeated by Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa; see R.

11. 29.

—bodha a. 1. easily apprehended or understood. (

—dhaḥ) good information or advice.

—brahmaṇyaḥ 1. an epithet of Kārtikeya. —2. N. of one of the

sixteen priests employed at a sacrifice.

—bhaga a. 1. very fortunate or prosperous, happy, blessed. highly

favoured. —2. lovely, charming, beautiful, pretty; na tu grīṣmasyaivaṁ

subhagamaparāddhaṁ yuvatiṣu S. 3. 9; Ku. 4. 34, R. 11. 80; Māl. 9. —3.

pleasant, grateful, agreeable, sweet; śravaṇasubhaga M. 3. 4, S. 1. 3. —4.

beloved, liked, amiable, dear; sumukhi subhagaḥ paśyan sa tvāmupaitu

kṛtārthatāṁ Gīt. 5. 5. illustrious. (

—gaḥ) 1. borax. —2. the Aśoka tree. —3. the Champaka tree. —4.

red amaranth. (

—gaṁ) good fortune. -mānin, subhagaṁmanya a. —1. considering

oneself fortunate, amiable, pleasing; vācālaṁ māṁ na khalu

subhagaṁmanyabhāvaḥ karoti Me. 94. —2. vain, flattering oneself.

—bhagā a woman beloved by her husband, a favourite wife. —2. an

honoured mother —3. a kind of wild jasmine. —4 turmeric. —5. the

Priyangu creeper. —6 the holy basil. -sutaḥ the son of a favourite wife.

—bhaṁgā the cocoa-nut tree.

—bhadra a. very happy or fortunate. (

—draḥ) N. of Viṣṇu. (

—drā) N. of the sister of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa, married to Arjuna q.

v. She bore to him a son named Abhimanyu.

—bhadrakaḥ 1. a car for carrying the image of a god. —2. the Bilva

tree.

—bhāṣita a. 1. spoken well or eloquent. (

—taṁ) 1. fine speech, eloquence, learning; jīrṇamaṁge

subhāṣitaṁ Bh. 3. 2. —2. a witty saying, an apophthegm, an apposite

saying; subhāṣitena gītena yuvatīnāṁ ca līlayā . mano na bhidyate yasya

sa vai mukto’thavā paśuḥ Subbish. —3. a good remark; bālādapi

subhāṣitaṁ (grāhyaṁ). —bhikṣaṁ 1. good alms, successful begging. —2.

abundance of food, an abundant supply of provisions, plenty of corn &c.

—bhīrakaḥ the Palāśa tree.

—bhūtikaḥ the Bilva tree.

—bhrū a. having beautiful eyebrows. (

—bhrūḥ f.) a lovely woman. (N. B. The vocative singular of this

word is strictly subhrūḥ; but subhru is used by writers like Bhaṭṭi,

Kālidāsa, and Bha vabhūti; hā pitaḥ kvāsi he subhru Bk. 6. 17; so V. 3. 22;

Ku. 5. 43; Māl. 3. 8.

—maṁgala a. 1. very auspicious. —2. abounding in sacrifices.

—mati a. very wise. (

—tiḥ f.) 1. a good mind or disposition, kindness, benevolence,

friendship. —2. a favour of the gods. —3. a gift, blessing. —4. a prayer,

hymn. —5. a wish or desire. —6. N. of the wife of Sagara and mother of

60,000 sons.

—madanaḥ the mango tree.

—madhuraṁ a very sweet or gentle speech, agreeable words.

—madhya, -madhyama a. slender-waisted.

—madhyā, -madhyamā a graceful woman.

—mana a. very charming, lovely, beautiful. (

—naḥ) 1. wheat. —2. the thorn-apple. (

—nā) the great-flowered jasmine.

—manas a. 1. good-minded, of a good disposition, benevolent. —2.

well-pleased, satisfied. (—m.) 1. a god, divinity. —2. a learned man. —3. a

student of the Vedas. —4. wheat. —5. the Nimba tree. (—f., n.; said to be

pl. only by some) a flower; ramaṇīya eṣa vaḥ sumanasāṁ saṁniveśaḥ

Māl. 1 (where the adjectival sense in 1 is also intended); kiṁ sevyate

sumanasāṁ manasāpi gaṁdhaḥ kastūrikājananaśaktibhṛtā mṛgeṇa R. G.;

Śi. 6. 66. (—f.) 1. the great-flowered jasmine. —2 the Mālatī creeper. —

phalaḥ the wood-apple. -phalaṁ nutmeg.

—maṁtu a. 1. advising well. —2. very faulty or blameable. (—m.) a

good adviser.

—maṁtraḥ N. of the charioteer of Daśaratha.

—mitrā 1. N. of one of the wives of Daśaratha and mother of

Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna

—mukha a. (khā or khī f.) 1. having a beautiful face, lovely. —2.

pleasing. —3. disposed to, eager for; Ki. 6. 42. (

—khaḥ) 1. a learned man. —2. an epithet of Garuḍa. —3. of Gaṇeśa.

—4. of Śiva. (

—khaṁ) the scratch of a finger-nail. (

—khā, —khī) 1. a handsome woman. —2. a mirror.

—mūlakaṁ a carrot.

—mekhalaḥ the Munja grass.

—medhas a. having a good understanding, wise, intelligent. (—m.)

a wise man. (—f.) heart-pea.

—meruḥ 1. the sacred mountain Meru, q. v. —2. N. of Śiva.

—yavasaṁ beautiful grass, good pasturage.

—yāmunaḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

—yuktaḥ N. of Śiva.

—yodhanaḥ an epithet of Duryodhana q. v.

—raktakaḥ 1. a kind of red chalk. —2 a kind of mango tree.

—raṁgaḥ 1. good colour. —2. the orange. —3. a hole cut in a house

(suraṁgā also in this sense). (

—gaṁ) 1. red sanders. —2. vermilion. -dhātuḥ red chalk. -yuj m. a

house-breaker.

—raṁgikā the Mūrvā plant.

—rajaḥphalaḥ the jackfruit tree.

—raṁjanaḥ the betel-nuttree.

—rata a. 1. much sported. —2. playful. —2. much enjoyed. —4.

compassionate, tender. (

—taṁ) 1. great delight or enjoyment. —2. copulation, sexual union

or intercourse, coition; suratamṛditā bālavanitā Bh. 2. 44. -tālī 1. a

female-messenger, a go-between. —2. a chaplet, garland for the head. —

prasaṁgaḥ addiction to amorous pleasures; Ku. 1. 19.

—ratiḥ f. great enjoyment or satisfaction.

—rasa a. 1. well-flavoured, juicy, savoury. —2. sweet. —3. elegant

(as a composition). (

—saḥ, —sā) the plant siṁdhuvāra. (—sā) N. of Durgā. (

—sā, -saṁ) the sacred basil. (

—saṁ) 1. gummyrrh. —2. fragrant grass.

—rājan a. governed by a good king; surājñi deśe rājanvān Ak. (—

m.) 1. a good king. —2. a divinity.

—rāṣṭraṁ N. of a country on the western side of India (Surat). —

jaṁ a kind of poison. -brahmaḥ a Brāhmaṇa of Surāṣṭra.

—rūpa a. 1. well-formed, handsome, lovely; surūpā kanyā. —2.

wise, learned. (

—paḥ) an epithet of Śiva.

—rebha a. finevoiced; Ki. 15. 16. (

—bhaṁ) tin.

—lakṣaṇa a. 1. having auspicious or beautiful marks. —2. fortunate.

(

—ṇaṁ) 1. observing, examining carefully, determining,

ascertaining. —2. a good or auspicious mark.

—labha a. 1. easy to be obtained, easy of attainment, attainable,

feasible; na sulabhā sakaleṁdumukhī ca sā V. 2. 9;

idamasulabhavastuprārthanādurnivāraṁ 2. 6. —2. ready for, adapted to,

fit, suitable; niṣṭhyūtaścaraṇopabhogasulabho lākṣārasaḥ kenacit S. 4. 4.

—3. natural to, proper for; mānuṣatāsulabho laghimā K. -kopa a. easily

provoked, irascible.

—locana a. fineeyed. (

—naḥ) a deer. (

—nā) 1. a beautiful woman. —2. N. of the wife of Indrajit.

—lohakaṁ brass.

—lohita a. very red. (

—tā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

—vaktraṁ 1. a good face or mouth. —2 correct utterance. (

—ktraḥ) N. of Śiva.

—vacanaṁ, —vacas n. eloquence.

—varcakaḥ, —varcikaḥ —kā, —varcin m. natron, alkali.

—varcalaṁ linseed.

—varcasaḥ N. of Śiva.

—varṇa see s. v.

—vasaṁtaḥ 1. an agreeable vernal season. —2. the day of full

moon in the month of Chaitra, or a festival celebrated in honour of

Kāmadeva in that month (also suvasaṁtakaḥ in this sense).

—vaha a. 1. bearing well. patient. —2. patient, enduring. —3. easy

to be borne. (

—hā) a lute.

—vāsaḥ 1. N. of Śiva. —2. a pleasant dwelling. —3. an agreeable

perfume or odour.

—vāsinī 1. a woman married or single who resides in her father’s

house. —2. a married woman whose husband is alive.

—vikrāṁta a. very valiant or bold, chivalrous. (

—taḥ) a hero. (

—taṁ) heroism.

—vid m. a learned man, shrewd person. (—f.) a shrewd or clever

woman.

—vidaḥ 1. an attendant on the women’s apartments. —2. a king.

—vidat m. a king.

—viditraṁ 1. a household, family —2. wealth.

—vidallaḥ an attendant on the women’s apartments (wrongly for

sauvidalla q. v). (

—llaṁ) the women’s apartments, harem.

—vidallā a married woman.

—vidha a. of a good kind.

—vidham ind. easily.

—vinīta a. well-trained, modest. (

—tā) a tractable cow.

—vihita a. 1. well-placed, well-deposited. —2. well-furnished,

wellsupplied, well-provided, well-arranged; suvihitaprayogatayā āryasya

na kimapi parihāsyate S. 1; kalahaṁsamakaraṁdapraveśāvasare

tatsuvihitaṁ Māl. 1. —3. well done or performed.

—vī (bī) ja a. having good seed. (

—jaḥ) 1. N. of Śiva. —2. the poppy. (

—jaṁ) good seed.

—vīrāmlaṁ sour rice-gruel.

—vīrya a. 1. having great vigour. —2. of heroic strength, heroic,

chivalrous. (

—ryaṁ) 1. great heroism. —2. abundance of heroes. —3. the fruit of

the jujube. (

—ryā) wild cotton.

—bṛkti f. 1. a pure offering. —2. a hymn of praise.

—vṛtta a. 1. well-behaved, virtuous, good; mayi tasya suvṛtta

vartate laghusaṁdeśapadā sarasvatī R. 8. 77. —2. well-rounded,

beautifully globular or round; mṛdunātisuvṛttena sumṛṣṭenātihāriṇā .

modakenāpi kiṁ tena niṣpattiryasya sevayā; or sumukho’pi suvṛttopi

sanmārgapatito’pi ca . mahatāṁ pādalagno’pi vyathayatyeva kaṁṭakaḥ

(where all the adjectives are used in a double sense). (

—ttaṁ) a good or virtuous conduct; Pt. 1. 69.

—vela a. 1. tranquil, still. —2. humble, quiet. (

—laḥ) N. of the Trikūṭa mountain.

—vrata a. strict in the observance of religious vows, strictly

religious or virtuous. (

—taḥ) a religious student. (

—tā) 1. a virtuous wife. —2. a tractable cow, one easily milked.

—śaṁsa a. wellspoken of, famous, glorious, commendable.

—śaka a. capable of being easily done.

—śalyaḥ the Khadira tree.

—śākaṁ undried ginger.

—śāradaḥ N. of Śiva.

—śāsita a. kept under control, well-controlled.

—śikṣita a. well-taught trained, well-disciplined.

—śikhaḥ fire. (

—khā) 1. a peacock’s crest. —2. a cock’s comb.

—śītaṁ yellow sandal-wood.

—śīma a. cold, frigid. (

—maḥ) coldness.

—śīla a. good-tempered, amiable. (

—lā) 1. N. of the wife of Yama. —2. N. of one of the eight favourite

wives of Kṛṣṇa.

—śrīkā the gum olibanum tree.

—śruta a. 1. well heard. —2. versed in the Vedaś. (

—taḥ) N. of the author of a system of medicine, whose work,

together with that of Charaka, is regarded as the olddest medical

authority, and held in great esteem in India even to this day.

—śliṣṭa 1. well-arranged or united. —2. well-fitted; Māl. 1.

—śleṣaḥ close union or embrace.

—satyā N. of the wife of Janaka.

—saṭṭaś agreeable to look at.

—sannata a. welldirected (as an arrow).

—saraṇa. N. of Śiva.

—saha a. 1. easy to be borne. —2. bearing or enduring well. (

—haḥ) an epithet of Śiva.

—sāra a. having good sap or essence. (

—raḥ) 1. good sap, essence, or substance. —2. competence. —3.

the red-flowering Khadira tree.

—sāravat n. crystal.

—sikatā 1. good sand. —2. gravel. —3. sugar.

—stha a. 1. well-suited, being in a good sense. —2. in health,

healthy, faring well. —3. in good or or prosperous circumstances,

prosperous. —4. happy, fortunate. (

—sthaṁ) a happy state, well-being; susthe ko vā na paḍitaḥ H. 3.

121. (susthita in the same sense).

—sthatā —sthitiḥ f. 1. good condition, wellbeing, welfare,

happiness. —2. health, convalescence.

—smita a. pleasantly smiling. (

—tā) a woman with a pleased or smiling countenance.

—svapanaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

—svara a. 1. melodious, harmonious. —2. loud.

—hita a. 1. very fit or suitable, appropriate. —2. beneficial, salutary.

—3. friendly, affectionate. —4. satisfied. (

—tā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

—hṛda a. having a kind heart, cordial, friendly, loving, affectionate.

(—m.) 1. a friend; suhṛdaḥ paśya vasaṁta kiṁ sthitaṁ Ku. 4. 27;

maṁdāyaṁte na khalu suhṛdāmabhyupetārthakṛtyāḥ Me. 38. —2. an ally.

-bhedaḥ the separation of friends. -vākyaṁ the counsel of a friend.

—hṛdaḥ a friend.

—hṛdaya a. 1. good-hearted. —2. dear, affectionate, loving.

सू — sū Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sū (not separable in all forms fr. 2. «sū»; cf. 1. «su-ṣū, asu-sū», and 4.

«su») cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 115) «suvati» (in also «-te», and accord. to «savati»

and «-sauti»; pf. «suṣuve» ; p. «suṣuvāṇa» q.v.; aor. «asāvīt, sāviṣat»

Pass. «sūyate» &c.), to set in motion, urge, impel, vivify, create, produce

&c. &c.; to hurl upon ; to grant, bestow (esp. said of Savitṛi) ; to appoint

or consecrate to (ā. «to let one’s self be consecrated») ; to allow,

authorize Intens. «soṣavīti», to urge or impel violently (said of Savitṛi)

sū (cf. 1. «sū» and 5. «su») cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 21) «sūte» (1. sg. pr. «suve», 3.

sg. impf. «asūta»; in later language also «sūyate» [xxvi, 31] and in comp.

with «pra» also «-savati» and «-sauti» [cf. xxiv, 31]; pf. «sasūva» ;

«suṣuve» &c.; «susāva» &c.; aor. «asuṣot» ; «-ṣavuḥ» ; «asoṣṭa» ;

«asauṣīt» and «asaviṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «sotā, savitā» ; «soṣyati, -te» &c.;

«saviṣyati, -te» &c.; p. f. «sūṣyantī» ; _ «soṣyantī» [s. v.] ; inf. «sūtave» ;

«sūtavai» ; «savitave» ; «sotum» or «savitum» Gr.; ind. p. «sūtvā» ; «-sūya»

&c.; «-sutya» , to beget, procreate, bring forth, bear, produce, yield &c.

&c.: Pass. «sūyate» (aor. «asāvi»), to be begotten or brought forth &c.:

Caus. «sāvayati» Gr.: Desid. «-susūṣati»

sū mfn. begetting, procreating, bringing forth, producing (mostly ifc.; see

«a-, ambhaḥ-, karṇa-sū» &c.)

sū m. one who begets, a father

sū m. a mother

sū m. child-bearing, parturition ‘sus’; Angl. Sax. ‘su’; Eng. ‘sow’; Germ.

‘Sau’.]

sū ind., Ved. and in some comp. = «su», well, good &c. (cf. «sū-nara,

sū-nṛta» &c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sū I. 2. 4. A. (sūte, sūyate, sūta) To bring forth, produce, beget, yield

(fig. also); asūta sā nāgavadhūpabhogyaṁ Ku. 1. 20; kīrti sūte duṣkṛtaṁ

yā hināsti U. 5. 31. —WITH pra to bring forth, beget, produce. —II. 6 P.

(suvati)

(1) To excite, incite, impel.

(2) To remit (as debt).

sū a. (At the end of comp.) Bringing forth, producing, yielding &c. —f.

(1) Birth.

(2) A mother.

सृ — sṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sṛ (cf. «sal») cl.1.3. P. ( xxii, 37; xxv, 17) «sarati» (ep. also «-te» and

accord. to «dhāvati»), and «sisarti» (the latter base only in Veda; 3. du.

«sisratuḥ», 3. pl. «sisrate» ; p. «sisrat» [q.v.] ; pf. «sasāra, sasre» &c.; 1.

du. «sasriva» ; p. «sasṛvas, sasrāṇa» and «sasṛmāṇa» ; aor. «asārṣīt» Gr.;

Subj. «sarṣat» ; Prec. «sriyāt» Gr.; fut. «sartā» ; «sariṣyati» &c.; inf.

«sartum» &c.; «sartave, -tavai» ; ind. p. «sṛtvā» ; «-sṛtya, -sāram» &c.),

to run, flow, speed, glide, move, go (with «uccakais», «to spring up»; with

«vājam», or «ājim», «to run a race» i.e. «exert one’s self») c. &c.; to blow

(as wind) ; to run away, escape ; to run after, pursue (acc.) ; to go

towards, betake one’s self to (acc. or «tatra» &c.) ; to go against, attack,

assail ; to cross, traverse (acc.) ; (ā.) to begin to flow (said of the fluid

which surrounds the fetus) Pass. «sriyate» (aor. «asāri» , to be gone &c.,

Gr.: Caus. «sārayati» or cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 107) to cause to run ; to set in

motion, strike (a lute) ; to remove, push aside (a braid of hair) ; put in

array, to arrange (with «dyūtam», «the men on a chess-board») ; to make

visible, show, manifest ; to nourish, foster (gen.) ; ā. «sārayate» (for

«sarayate» see «saraya», p.1182, col.1), to cause one’s self to be driven,

drive (in a carriage) pass. «sāryate», to be made to flow, discharge

(excrement) Desid. «sisīrṣati», to wish to run («vājam», «a race») Intens.

(cf. «sarisrara») «sarsṛte» (p. «sarsrāṇa» see «pra-sṛ») or «sarīṣarti», to

stride backwards and forwards ; to blow violently (as the wind) ;

[characters]; Lat. ‘salire’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sṛ 1. 3. P. (sarati, sasarti, also dhāvati; sasāra, asārṣīt-asarat, sariṣyati,

sartuṁ, sṛta) To go; move, proceed; mṛgāḥ pradakṣiṇaṁ sasruḥ Bk. 14.

14.

(2) To go towards, approach; niṣpādya harayaḥ setuṁ pratītāḥ

sasrurarṇavaṁ Rām.

(3) To rush upon, assail; (taṁ) sasārābhimukhaḥ śūraḥ śādūrla iva

kuṁjaraṁ Mb.

(4) To run, go fast, slip away from; sarati sahasā bārhvormadhyaṁ

gatāpyabalā satī M. 4. 11.

(5) To blow (as wind); taṁ cedvāyau sarati

saralaskaṁdhasaṁghaṭṭajanmā Me. 53.

(6) To flow. —Caus. (sārayati-te)

(1) To cause to go or move.

(2) To extend.

(3) To rub, touch gently (with the fingers); taṁtrīmārdrāṁ

nayanasalilaiḥ sārayitvā kathaṁcit Me. 86.

(4) To push back or away, remove; sārayaṁtiṁ

gaṁḍābhogātkrīṭhanaviṣamāmekaveṇīṁ kareṇa Me. 92. —Desid.

(sisīrṣati) To wish to go &c.

स्तन् — stan Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899stan (cf. 2. «tan») cl.1.P. ( xiii, 18) «stanati» (once in «-stanase»; in 3.

sg. «stan» and 2. Impv. «stanihi»; pf. «tastāna, tastanuḥ» Gr.; aor.

«astānīt» ; fut. «stanitā, -niṣyati» Gr.), to resound, reverberate, roar,

thunder &c. &c.; to utter inarticulate sounds Caus. «stanayati» (aor.

«atiṣṭanat») id. («stanayati», «it thunders») &c. &c.; crackle (as fire)

Desid. «tistaniṣati» Gr.: Intens. «taṁstanyate, taṁstanti» (2. sg. Impv.

«taṁstanīhi» see «abhi-ṣṭan»). ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Slav. ‘stenja’; Angl. Sax.

‘stunian’; Germ. ‘stohnen’.])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

stan 1 P., 10 U. (stanati, stanayatite, stanita)

(1) To sound, make a sound, resound, reverberate.

(2) To groan, breathe hard, sigh.

(3) To thunder, roar loudly; tastanurjajvalurmaglurjaglurluluṭhire

kṣatāḥ Bk. 14. 30. —WITH. ni 1. to sound. —2. to sigh. —3. to mourn. —vi

to roar.

स्तम्भ् — stambh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899stambh or #stabh (connected with «skambh» q.v.; in native lists written

«stanbh») cl.5.9. P. ( xxxi, 7) «stabhnoti, stabhnāti» (cf. , or cl.1.ā. (x, 26)

«stambhate» (pr. p. also «stambhat» , «stabhamāna» [q.v.] ; pf.

«tastambha, -mbhat, tastabhuḥ», p. «tastabhvas, -vānd» ; «tastabhāna,

tastambhe» ; aor. «astambhīt; astāmpsīt» ; «astabhat» Gr.; fut.

«stambhitā, -bhiṣyati» ; inf. «stabdhum» ; ind. p. «stabdhvā» &c.;

«stambhitvā» ; «-stabhya» and «-stambham» , to fix firmly, support,

sustain, prop (esp. the heavens) ; to support or hold up by contact with,

reach up to (acc.) ; to stop, stop up, arrest, make stiff or immovable,

paralyze &c. &c.; (ā.) to rest or lean on (loc.) ; to become stiff or

immovable ; to become solid Pass. «stabhyate» (aor. «astambhi»), to be

firmly fixed or supported or propped &c. &c.: Caus. «stabhāyati», to make

firm, support ; to stop, arrest ; «stambhayati, -te» (aor. «atastambhat»),

to fix, establish, erect &c.; to make stiff or rigid, paralyze ; to make solid

; to stop, arrest (also by magic), suppress, check, restrain Desid.

«tistambhiṣati» Gr.: Intens. «tāstabhyate» ‘stambras’, ‘stimbras’; Germ.

‘stampfon’, ‘stampfen’; Eng. ‘stamp’, ‘stump’.]

स्तु — stu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899stu cl.2.P. ā. ( xxiv, 34; cf. «stauti» or «stavīti, stute» or «stuvīte» (in

also «stavate», 3. sg. «stave» [with pass. sense], 1. 3. sg. «stuṣe» Impv.

«stoṣi», p. [mostly with pass. sense] «stuvāna, stavāna» or «stavāna,

stavamāna»; in «stunvanti», in p. «stunvāna»; pf. «tuṣṭāva, tuṣṭuvus,

tuṣṭuve» &c. &c.; aor. «astāvīt» or «astauṣīt» &c.; «stoṣat, stoṣāṇi» ;

«astoṣṭa» &c.; Prec. «stūyāt» Gr.; fut. «stavitā» or «stotā» ; fut.

«staviṣyati, -te» ; «stoṣyati, -te» &c.; Cond. «astoṣyat» ; inf. «stotum»

&c.; «stavitum» ; «stotave, stavadhyai» ; ind. p. «stutvā» &c.; «-stutya»

&c.; «-stūya» &c.), to praise, laud, eulogize, extol, celebrate in song or

hymns (in ritual, «to chant», with loc. of the text from which the Sāman

comes) &c. &c.: Pass. «stūyate» (aor. «astāvi»), to be praised or

celebrated; «stāyamāna» mfn. being praised Caus. «stāvayati» (aor.

«atuṣṭavat» ; «-ṭuvat» , to praise, celebrate; («stāvayate»), to cause to

praise or celebrate Desid. «tuṣṭūṣati, -te» (p.p. «tuṣṭūṣita»), to wish to

celebrate Intens. «toṣṭūyate, toṣṭoti» Gr.

stu see «su-ṣṭu» p.1238, col.1.

stu (prob. invented to serve as a root for the words below), to be clotted

or conglomerated; to trickle.

stu (= «stukā») in «pṛthu-ṣṭu» q.v.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

stu 2 U. (stauti-stavīti, stute-stuvīte; tuṣṭāva-tuṣṭuve, astāvīt-astoṣṭa,

stoṣyati-te, stotuṁ, stuta; desid. tuṣṭūṣati-te; the s of stu is changed to ṣ

after a preposition ending in i or u)

(1) To praise, laud, eulogize, extol, glorify, celebrate; Bv. 1. 41; Mu. 3.

16; Bk. 8. 92, 15. 70, 3.

(2) To celebrate or praise in song, to hymn, worship by hymns.

स्तुभ् — stubh Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899stubh (connected with 1. «stu» and «stumbh») cl.1.P. ( iii, 14) «stobhati»

(only in pres. base; 3. sg. «stobdhi» ; p. ā. «-stubhāna» ; Gr. also pf.

«tuṣṭubhe»; fut. «stobhitā» &c.), to utter a joyful sound, hum, make a

succession of exclamations, shout (esp. applied to the chanted

interjections in a Sāman) ; cl.1. ā. «stobhate», to pause, stop, cause to

stop, paralyze &c. («stambhe») Caus. «stobhayati» (aor. «atuṣṭubhat»),

to praise in successive exclamations, celebrate ‘stop’.]

stubh (ifc.) uttering joyful sounds, praising (cf. «anu-, tri-ṣṭubh, vṛṣa-

stubh» &c.; accord. to some «stubh» in the first two comp. means

«stopping, pausing», the metre requiring regular stoppages or pauses; but

see, «anu-ṣṭubh»); f. joyful exclamation or cry, praise ; m. a praiser

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

stubh I. 1 P. (stobhati)

(1) To praise.

(2) To celebrate, extol, worship. —II. 1 A. (stobhate)

(1) To stop, suppress.

(2) To paralyse, benumb, stupefy.

स्था — sthā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sthā cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii, 30) «tiṣṭhati, -te» (pf. «tasthau, tasthe» &c. &c.;

aor. «asthāt, asthita» ; 3. pl. «asthiran» ; «āsthat» [?] ; «asthiṣi, -ṣata»

&c.; Subj. «sthāti, sthāthaḥ» ; Prec. «stheyāt» ; «stheṣam, -ṣuḥ» [?] ;

«sthāsīṣṭa» Gr.; fut. «sthātā» &c.; «sthāsyati, -te» ; inf. «sthātum» ; «-tos»

; «-sthitum» ; ind. p. «sthitvā» &c.; «-sthāya» &c. &c.; «-sthāyam» , to

stand, stand firmly, station one’s self stand upon, get upon, take up a

position on (with «pādābhyām», «to stand on the feet»; with «jānubhyām»,

«to kneel»; with «agre» or «agratas» and gen., «to stand or present one’s

self before»; with «puras» and with or without gen., «to stand up against

an enemy &c.») &c. &c.; to stay, remain, continue in any condition or

action (e.g. with «kanyā», «to remain a girl or unmarried»; with «tūṣṇīm»

or with «maunena» instr. «to remain silent»; with «sukham», «to continue

or feel well») &c. &c.; to remain occupied or engaged in, be intent upon,

make a practice of, keep on, persevere in any act (with loc.; e.g. with

«rājye», «to continue governing»; with «śāsane», «to practise obedience»;

with «bale», «to exercise power»; with «sva-dharme», «to do one’s duty»;

with «sva-karmaṇi», «to keep to one’s own business»; with «saṁśaye», «to

persist in doubting»; also with ind. p. e.g. «dharmam āśritya», «to practise

virtue») &c.; to continue to be or exist (as opp. to «perish»), endure, last

&c.; to be, exist, be present, be obtainable or at hand &c. &c.; to be with

or at the disposal of, belong to (dat. gen., or loc.) &c.; (ā. m.c. also P. cf.

to stand by, abide by, be near to, be on the side of, adhere or submit to,

acquiesce in, serve, obey (loc. or dat.) &c. &c.; to stand still, stay quiet,

remain stationary, stop, halt, wait, tarry, linger, hesitate (see under

«sthitvā» below) &c. &c.; to behave or conduct one’s self (with «samam»,

«to behave equally towards any one» loc.); to be directed to or fixed on

(loc.) ; to be founded or rest or depend on, be contained in (loc.) ; to rely

on, confide in (loc. e.g. «mayi sthitvā», «confiding in me») ; to stay at,

resort to (acc.) ; to arise from (abl. or gen.) ; to desist or cease from

(abl.) ; to remain unnoticed (as of no importance), be left alone (only

Impv. and Pot.) Pass. «sthīyate» (aor. «asthāyi»), to be stood &c.

(frequently used impers. e.g. «mayā sthīyatām», «let it be abided by me»

i.e. «I must abide») &c. &c.: Caus. «sthāpayati, -te» (aor. «atiṣṭhipat»;

ind. p. «sthāpayitvā» [q.v.] and «-sthāpam»: Pass. «sthāpyate»), to cause

to stand, place, locate, set, lay, fix, station, establish, found, institute

&c. &c.; to set up, erect, raise, build ; to cause to continue, make

durable, strengthen, confirm &c.; to prop up, support, maintain ; to

affirm, assent ; to appoint (to any office loc.) &c.; to cause to be,

constitute, make, appoint or employ as (two acc.; with «dhātrīm», «to

employ any one as a nurse»; with «rakṣārtham», «to appoint any one as

guardian»; with «sajjam», «to make anything ready»; with «su-rakṣitam»,

«to keep anything well guarded»; with «svīkṛtya», «to make anything one’s

own»; with «pariśeṣam», «to leave anything over or remaining») &c.; to

fix, settle, determine, resolve &c.; to fix in or on, lead or being into,

direct or turn towards (loc., rarely acc.; with «hṛdi», «to impress on the

heart»; with «manas», «to fix the mind on») &c. &c.; to introduce or

initiate into, instruct in (loc. e.g. with «naye», «to instruct in a plan or

system») ; to make over or deliver up to (loc. or «haste» with gen., «into

the hands of») ; to give in marriage ; to cause to stand still, stop, arrest,

check, hold, keep in, restrain (with «baddhvā», «to keep bound or

imprisoned») &c. &c.; to place aside, keep, save, preserve Desid. of

Caus. «-sthāpayiṣati» (see «saṁ-sthā»): Desid. «tiṣṭhāsati», to wish to

stand &c. Intens. «teṣṭhīyate; tāstheti, tāsthāti» Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek];

Lat. ‘stare’; Lith. ‘stoti’; Slav. ‘stati’; Germ. ‘stan’, ‘stehen’; Eng. ‘stand’.])

sthā (or «ṣṭhā») mfn. (nom. m. n. «sthās») standing, stationary (often ifc.

= «standing, being, existing in or on or among» cf. «agni-ṣṭhā, ṛtasthā»

&c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sthā 1 P. (Atm. also in certain senses; tiṣṭhati-te, tasthau-tasthe,

asyātasthita, sthāsyati-te, sthātuṁ, sthita; pass. sthīyate; the s of this

root is changed to ṣ after a preposition ending in i or u)

(1) To stand; calatyekena pādena tiṣṭhatyekena buddhimān Subhāṣ.

(2) To stay, abide, dwell, live; grāme or gṛhe tiṣṭhati.

(3) To remain, be left; eko gaṁgadattastiṣṭhati Pt. 4.

(2) To delay, wait; kimiti sthīyate S. 2.

(5) To stop, cease, desist, stand still; tiṣṭhatyeṣa

kṣaṇamadhipatirjyotiṣāṁ vyomamadhye V. 2. 1.

(6) To be kept aside; tiṣṭhatu tāvat patralekhāgamanavṛttāṁtaḥ K.

‘never mind the account of’ &c.

(7) To be, exist, be in any state or position; often with participles;

merau sthite dogdhari dohadakṣe Ku. 1. 2; vyāpya sthitaṁ rodasī V. 1. 1;

yā sthitā vyāpya viśvaṁ S. 1. 1; kālaṁ nayamānā tiṣṭhati Pt. 1; Ms. 7. 8.

(8) To abide by, conform to, obey (with loc.); śāsane tiṣṭha bhartuḥ V.

5. 17, R. 11. 65.

(9) To be restrained; yadi te tu na tiṣṭheyurupāyaiḥ prathamaistribhiḥ

Ms. 7. 108. (10) To be at hand, be obtainable; na vipraṁ sveṣu tiṣṭhatsu

mṛtaṁ śūdreṇa nāyayet Ms. 5. 104.

(11) To live, breathe; āḥ ka eṣa mayi sthite

caṁdraguptamabhibhavitumicchati Mu. 1.

(12) To stand by or near, stand at one’s side, help; utsave vyasane

caiva durbhikṣe śatrusaṁkaṭe . rājadvāre śmaśāne ca yastiṣṭhati sa

bāṁdhavaḥ .. H. 1. 73.

(13) To rest or depend on.

(14) To do, perform, occupy oneself with.

(14) (Atm.) To resort or go to (as an umpire), be guided by the advice

of; saṁśayya karṇādiṣu tiṣṭhate yaḥ Ki. 3. 14.

(16) (Atm.) To offer oneself to (for sexual embrace), stand as a

prostitute (with dat.); gopī smarāt kṛṣṇāya tiṣṭhate Sk. on P. I. 4. 34. —

Caus. (sthāpayati-te)

(1) To cause to stand.

(2) To lay, set, place, put.

(3) To found, establish.

(4) To stop.

(5) To arrest, check.

(6) To raise, erect.

(7) To cause to last or continue, make durable.

(8) To give in marriage; Māl. 10. 5.

(9) To instruct in, initiate into. —Desid. (tiṣṭhāsati) To wish to stand

&c.

स्ना — snā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899snā (cf. «snu») cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 44) «snāti» cl.4. P. ( vii, 12) «snāyati» (ep.

also ā. «snāyate» Pot. «snāyāt»; ep. also «snāyīta»; pf. «sasnau», 3. pl.

«sasnuḥ» ; fut. «snātā» Gr.; «snāsyati, -te» &c.; aor. «asnāsīt» Gr.; Prec.

«snāyāt» [cf. above] or «sneyāt» ; inf. «snātum» &c.; ind. p. «snātvā, —

snāya» &c.; Ved. also «snātvī» , to bathe, perform the ceremony of

bathing or certain prescribed oblations (esp. on returning home from the

house of a religious preceptor, or on concluding certain vows &c., also

with «avabhṛtham») &c. &c.; to smear one’s self with (instr.) Pass.

«snāyate» (aor. «asnāyi» impers.) Caus. «snāpayati» or «snapayati», (with

prep. only «snāp-«), to cause to bathe, wash, cleanse &c. &c.; to wash

away ; to steep or soak in (loc.) ; to bathe with tears, weep for(?)

Desid. «sisnāsati» cf. «siṣṇāsu»): Intens. «sāsnāyate, sāsnāti, sāsneti»

Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nare’.])

snā (or «ṣṇā») mfn. bathing, bathed or immersed in (cf. «ghṛta-, su-snā»

&c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

snā 2 P. (snāti, snāta)

(1) To bathe, perform ablution; mṛgatṛṣṇāṁbhasi snātaḥ.

(2) To perform the ceremony of bathing at the time of leaving the

house of one’s spiritual preceptor. —Caus. (snāpayati-te, snapayati-te) To

cause to bathe, wet, moisten, sprinkle; (toyaiḥ) satūryamenāṁ

snapayāṁbabhūvuḥ Ku. 7. 10; smitasnapitādharā Gīt. 12, U. 3. 23, Ki. 5.

44. 47; Śi. 2. 7, Me. 43. —Desid. (sisnāsati) To wish to bathe. -WITH apa

to bathe after mourning. —ni to plunge deep into; i. e. to be perfect or

thoroughly versed in; see niṣṇāta.

स्फुर् — sphur Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sphur (cf. «sphar») cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 95) «sphurati» (m.c. also «-te»; p.

«sphurat» and «sphuramāṇa» [qq.vv.]; only in pres. base, but see «apa-

sphur»; Gr. also pf. «pusphora, pusphure»; fut. «sphuritā, sphuriṣyati»;

aor. «asphorīt»; Prec. «sphūryāt»; inf. «sphuritum»), to spurn ; to dart,

bound, rebound, spring ; to tremble, throb, quiver, palpitate, twitch (as

the nerves of the arm , struggle &c.; to flash, glitter, gleam, glisten,

twinkle, sparkle &c.; to shine, be brilliant or distinguished ; to break

forth, burst out plainly or visibly, start into view, be evident or manifest,

become displayed or expanded &c.; to hurt, destroy Caus. «sphorayati»

(aor. «apusphurat» or «apuspharat»), to stretch, draw or bend (a bow) ;

to adduce an argument ; to cause to shine, eulogize, praise excessively ;

«sphurayati», to fill with (inser.) Desid. «pusphuriṣati» Gr.: Intens.

«posphuryate, posphorti». ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘sperno’; Lith. ‘spirti’;

Germ. ‘sporo’, ‘spor’, ‘Sporn’; Eng. ‘spur’, ‘spurn’.])

sphur (ifc.) quivering, trembling, throbbing

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sphur 6 P. (sphurati, sphurita)

(1)

(a) To throb, palpitate (as eyes &c.); śāṁtamidamāśramapadaṁ

sphurati ca bāhuḥ kutaḥ phalamihāsya S. 1. 16; sphuratā vāmakenāpi

dākṣiṇyamavalaṁbyate Māl. 1. 8; abhimataphalaśaṁsī cāru pusphora

vāhuḥ Bk. 1. 27

(b) To shake, tremble, quiver, vibrate in general;

sphuradadharanāsāpuṭatayā U. 1. 29, 6. 33.

(2) To twitch, struggle, become agitated; hataṁ pṛthivyāṁ karuṇaṁ

sphuraṁtaṁ Rām.

(3) To start, dart, spring forward; pusphururvṛṣabhāḥ paraṁ Bk. 14. 6.

(4) To spring back, rebound (as a bow.)

(5) To spring or break forth, shoot out, spring up, rise forth;

dharmataḥsphurati nirmalaṁ yaśaḥ; Ku. 3. 68.

(6) To start into view, become visible or manifest, appear clearly,

become displayed; mukhātsphuraṁtīṁ ko hartumicchati hareḥ paribhūya

daṁṣṭrāṁ Mu. 1. 8; racitarucirabhūṣāṁ ṭṭaṣṭimoṣe pradoṣe sphurati

niravasādāṁ kāpi rādhāṁ jagāda Gīt. 11.

(7) To flash, scintillate, sparkle, glitter, gleam, shine; sphuratu

kucakuṁbhayorupari maṇimaṁjarī raṁjayetu tava hṛdayaśa Gīt. 10;

(tayā) sphuratprabhāmaṁḍalayā ca, kāśe Ku. 1. 24, R. 3. 60, 5 51 Me.

15, 27.

(8) To shine, distinguish oneself, become eminent; Pt. 1. 27.

(9) To flash on the mind, rush suddenly into memory. (10) To go

tremulously.

(11) To bruise, destroy. —Caus. (sphārayati-te, sphorayatite)

(1) To cause to throb or vibrate.

(2) To cause to shine, irradiate.

(3) To throw, cast. —WITH apa to shine forth or out. —abhi 1. to

spread or be diffused, expand. —2. to become known.

स्म — sma Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sma «smā», (or «ṣma, ṣmā») ind. a particle perhaps originally equivalent

to «ever», «always»; and later to «indeed», «certainly», «verily», «surely» (it

is often used pleonastically, and in earlier language generally follows a

similar particle [esp. «ha, na»], or relative, or prep. or verb, while in later

language it frequently follows «iti, na» and «nā» [cf. 1. «mā»]; it is also

joined with a pres. tense or pres. participle to give them a past sense

[e.g. «praviśanti sma», «they entered»]; this use of «sma» is also found in

the Brāhmaṇas and is extended to «veda» and «āha» cf.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sma ind.

(1) A particle added to the present tense of verbs (or to present

participles) and giving them the sense of the past tense; bhāsurako nāma

siṁhaḥ prativasati sma Pt. 1; krīṇaṁti sma prāṇamūlyairyaśāṁsi Śi. 18.

15.

(2) A pleonastic particle (generally added to the prohibitive particle

mā q. v.); bharturviprakṛtāpi roṣaṇatayā māsma pratīpaṁ gamaḥ S. 4.

17; māsma sīmaṁtinī kācijjatayetputramīdṛśaṁ H. 2. 7.

स्मि — smi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899smi cl.1.ā. ( xxii, 51) «smayate» (m.c. also «-ti»; pf. «sismiye», or

«siṣmiye» [p. «siṣmiyāṇa» cf. «upa-smi»], ep. also «-smayām-āsa»; aor.

«asmeṣṭa» 259; «asmayiṣṭhās» ; fut. «smetā, smeṣyate» Gr.; inf.

«smetum» ; ind. p. «smitvā» ; «-smitya, -smayitya» , to smile, blush,

become red or radiant, shine ; to smile, laugh &c.; to expand, bloom (as

a flower) ; to be proud or arrogant Pass. «smīyate» (aor. «asmāyi»), Gr.:

Caus. «smāyayati, -te» (aor. «asismayat»; also «smāpayati» in «vi-smi»

q.v.), to cause to smile or laugh &c.; (ā.) to laugh at, mock, despise (v.l.

for «smiṭ» q.v.): Desid. «sismayiṣate» Gr.: Intens. «seṣmīyate» (p. «-

yamāṇa» , «seṣmayīti, seṣmeti» ‘mirus’, ‘mirari’; Slav. ‘smijati’; Eng.

‘smile’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

smi 1 A. (smayate, smita)

(1) To smile, laugh (gently); kākutstha īṣatsmayamāna āsta Bk. 2. 11,

15. 8; smayamānaṁ vadanāṁbujaṁ smarāmi Bv. 2. 27.

(2) To bloom, expand; Pt. 1. 136. —Caus. (smāyayati-te)

(1) To cause a smile by, cause to smile.

(2) To laugh at, deride.

(3) To astonish (smāpayate in this sense). —Desid. (sismayiṣate) To

wish to smile.

स्यन्द् — syand Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899syand (or «syad»; often confounded with «spand») cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 22)

«syandate» (ep. and m.c. also «-ti»; pf. «siṣyanda, siṣyaduḥ» ; «sasyande,

-dire» Gr.; aor. 2. 3. sg. «-asyān» ; «asyandiṣṭa, asyantta, asyadat» Gr.;

fut. «syanttā, syanditā» ; «syantsyati» ; «syandiṣyate, syantsyate» Gr.; inf.

«syade» ; «syanttum» ; ind. p. «syanttvā, syattvā, -syadya» ; «syanditvā»

Gr.), to move or flow on rapidly, flow, stream, run, drive (in a carriage),

rush, hasten, speed &c. &c.; to discharge liquid, trickle, ooze, drip,

sprinkle, pour forth (acc.) &c.; to issue from (abl.) Caus. «syandayati»

(aor. «asiṣyadat»; Ved. inf. «syandayādhyai»), to stream, flow, run &c.; to

cause to flow or run Desid. «sisyandiṣate, sisyantsate, sisyantsati» Gr.:

Intens. see «acchā-syand», under 3. «accha», and next.

स्रंस् — sraṁs Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sraṁs (or «sras»; sometimes written «śraṁś» or «śraṁs») cl.1.ā. ( xviii,

15) «sraṁsate» (ep. and m.c. also «-ti»; pf. «sesraṁsa, -ṁsuḥ» ; 3. pl. «-

sraṁsire» ; aor. «asrat» ; «asrasat, srasema» ; «asraṁsiṣṭa» ; fut.

«sraṁsitā, sraṁsiṣyate» Gr.; Ved. inf. «-srasas; sraṁsitum» Gr.; ind. p.

«sraṁsitvā, srastvā» ; «-sraṁsya, -srasya» &c.), to fall, drop, fall down,

slip off, get loose from (abl.) &c. &c.; to fall asunder or to pieces ; to

hang down, dangle, droop ; to be broken, perish, cease ; to go Pass.

«srasyate» (aor. «asraṁsi») Gr.: Caus. «sraṁsayati» (aor. «asisrasat»;

Pass. «sraṁsyate»), to cause to fall down, loosen &c.; to let hang (the

belly) ; to disturb, remove, destroy Desid. «sisraṁsiṣate» Gr.: Intens.

«sanīsrasyate, sanīsraṁsti» (cf. next).

sraṁs v.l. for «śrambh» (q.v.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

sraṁs 1 A. (sraṁsate, srasta)

(1) To fall fall or drop down, slip off or down; nāsrasatkariṇāṁ

graivaṁ tripadīcchedināmapi R. 4. 48; gāṁḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt Bg. 1.

30; Bk. 14. 72, 15. 61.

(2) To sink, drop, fall asunder; hāhā devi sphuṭati hṛdayaṁ sraṁsate

dehabaṁdhaḥ U. 3. 38; Māl. 9. 20 v. l.

(3) To hang down,

(4) To go.

(5) To be pleased. —Caus. (sraṁsayati-te)

(1) To cause to fall or slip down, move, disturb; vātopi

nāsraṁsayadaṁśukāni R. 6. 75.

(2) To relax, loosen, slacken; Māl. 3. 8.

स्वद् — svad Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899svad or #svād (prob. fr. 5. «su» + «ad») cl.1.ā. ( ii, 17) «svadate» (Ved.

also P. «svadati»; pf. «sasvade» ; «sasvāde» Gr.; fut. «svāditā, svādiṣyate»

; Ved. inf. «-sude»; ind. p. «-svādya» , to taste well, be sweet or pleasant

to (dat. or gen.) &c. &c.; to taste with pleasure, relish, enjoy, like (acc.),

delight in (loc.) ; (P.) to make palatable, season ; to make sweet or

pleasant or agreeable ; to be pleasant or wholesome ; P. ā. «svādati, -te»

(cf. , to taste, relish, enjoy (generally v.l. «khād» q.v.) Caus. «svadayati,

-te» (aor. «asiṣvadat»), to make savoury or palatable, sweeten, season,

prepare, cook ; to propitiate, conciliate ; «svādayati» (cf. , to eat, relish,

taste, enjoy Desid. of Caus. «sisvādayiṣati» Gr.: Desid. «sisvādiṣate»

Intens. «sāsvādyate, sāsvātti» ‘suadeo’, and under ‘svAdu’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

svad I. 1 A. (svadate, svadita)

(1) To be liked, be sweet, be pleasant to the taste (with dat. of

person); yajñadattāya svadate’pūpaḥ Kāśikā; apāṁ hi tṛptāya na

vāridhārā svāduḥ sugaṁdhiḥ svadate tuṣārā N. 3. 93; sasvade

mukhasuraṁ pramadābhyaḥ Śi. 10. 23.

(2) To taste, relish, eat.

(3) To please.

(4) To sweeten. —II. 10 U. or Caus. (svādayati-te)

(1) To cause to taste or eat.

(2) To taste.

(3) To sweeten.

स्वप् — svap Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899svap cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 60) «svapiti» (Ved. and ep. also «svapati, -te»; Impv.

«svaptu» ; Pot. «svapīta» ; pf. «suṣvāpa» [3. pl. «suṣupuḥ»; p. «suṣupvas»

and «suṣupāṇa», qq.vv.] &c. &c.; apr. «asvāpsīt»; Prec. «supyāt» fut.

«svaptā» ; «svapiṣyati» ; «-te» ; «svapsyati» &c.; «-te» &c.; inf. «svaptum»

&c.; ind. p. «suptvā» &c., «-svāpam» , to sleep, fall asleep (with «varṣa-

śatam», «to sleep for a hundred years, sleep the eternal sleep») &c. &c.;

to lie down, recline upon (loc.) &c.; to be dead ; Pass. «supyate» (aor.

«asvāpi») &c.; Caus. «svāpayati», or (m.c.) «svapayati» (aor. «asūṣupat»;

in also «siṣvapaḥ, siṣvap»; Pass. «svāpyate»), to cause to sleep, lull to

rest ; to kill Desid. of Caus. «suṣvāpayiṣati» Gr.: Desid. «suṣupsati», to

wish to sleep Intens. «soṣupyate, sāsvapīti, sāsvapti, soṣupīti, soṣopti»

Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘somnus’ for ‘sop-nus’, ‘sopor’, ‘sopire’; Slav.

‘supati’; Lith. ‘sapnas’; Angl. Sax. ‘swefan’, «to sleep.»])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

svap 2 P. (svapiti, supta; pass. suṣyate; desid. suṣupsati) (rarely 1 U.

svapati-te)

(1) To sleep, fall asleep, go to sleep; asaṁjātakiṇaskaṁdhaḥ sukhaṁ

svapiti gaurgaḍiḥ K. P. 10; itaḥ svapiti keśavaḥ Bh. 2. 76.

(2) To recline, repose, lie down, rest.

(3) To be absorbed in; Bv. 4. 19. —Caus. (svāpayati-te) To cause to

sleep, rock to sleep. —WITH ava, —ni, pra, or saṁ to sleep, lie down;

prasuptalakṣaṇaḥ Māl. 7; Ku. 2 42; R. 11. 44.

स्वर् — svar Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899svar (= «sur») cl.10.P. «svarayati», to find fault, blame, censure

svar (prob. = a lost «sur»; cf. «svṛ») cl.1.P. «svarati», Caus. «svarayati»,

to shine.

svar (in Yajur-veda also «suvar») ind. (used in Veda as nom acc. loc., or

gen., in abl.; from the weak base «sūr» the forms the gen. «sūras» and

the dat. «sūre» [iv, 3, 8]), the sun, sunshine, light, lustre ; bright space or

sky, heaven (as distinguished from «div», which is regarded as the vault

above it; often «eaven» as a paradise and as the abode of the gods and

the Blest, in also of the Asuras; «svaḥ prayātaḥ», «gone to heaven» i.e.

«departed this life») &c. &c.; the space above the sun or between the

sun and the polar star, the region of the planets and constellations

(regarded as the 3rd of the 7 worlds [see «loka»] and the 3rd of the three

Vyāhṛitis [i.e. «bhur bhuvaḥ svaḥ»]; «svar» is pronounced after «om» and

before the Gāyatrī by every Brāhman on beginning his daily prayers) &c.;

water ; N. of śiva ‘sol’; Lith. ‘saule’; Goth. ‘sauil’; Angl. Sax. ‘sol’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

svar 10 U. (svarayati-te) To find fault, blame, reprove, censure.

svar ind.

(1) Heaven, paradise; as in svarloka, svarveśyā, svarbhānuḥ, &c.

(2) The heaven of Indra and the temporary abode of the virtuous after

death.

(3) The sky, ether.

(4) The space above the sun or between the sun and the polar star.

(5) The third of the three Vyāhṛtis, pronounced by every Brāhmaṇa in

his daily prayers, see vyāhṛti.

(6) Radiance, splendour.

(7) Water.

— Comp.

—āpagā, —gaṁgā 1. the celestial Ganges. —2. the galaxy or milky

way.

—gatiḥ f.

—gamanaṁ 1. going to heaven, future felicity. —2. death.

—giriḥ Sumeru.

—taruḥ (svastaruḥ) a tree of paradise.

—ṭṭaś m. 1. an epithet of Indra. —2. of Agni. —3. of Soma.

—nadī (forming svarṇadī) the celestial Ganges.

—bhānavaḥ a kind of precious stone.

—bhānuḥ N. of Rāhu; tulye’parādhe svarbhānurbhānumaṁtaṁ

cireṇa yat . himāṁśumāśu grasate tanmradimnaḥ sphuṭaṁ phalaṁ Śi. 2.

49. -sūdanaḥ the sun.

—madhyaṁ the cen. tral point of the sky, the zenith,

—lokaḥ the celestial world, heaven.

—vadhūḥ f. a celestial damselan apsaras.

—vāpī the Ganges.

—veśyā ‘a courtezan of heaven’, a celestial nymph, an apsaras.

—vaidya m. pl. an epithet of the two Aśvins.

—ṣā 1. an epithet of Soma. —2. of the thunderbolt of Indra.

—siṁdhu = svargaṁgā q. v.

स्वृ — svṛ Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899svṛ (also written «svar») cl.1.P. () «svarati» (pf. «sasvāra»; 3. sg. Subj.[?]

«sasvar» ; aor. «asvār, asvārṣṭām» ; «asvārīḥ» ; «asvārīt» and «asvārṣīt»

Gr.; fut. «svaritā, svartā, svariṣyati» ; inf. «svaritos» ; «svaritum, svartum»

Gr.; ind. p. «-svāram» , to utter a sound, sound, resound ; to make (acc.)

resound ; to sing, praise ; to shine Caus. «svarayati» (aor. «asisravat»;

Pass. «svaryate»), to pronounce or mark with the Svarita accent Desid.

«sisvariṣati, susvūrṣati» Gr.: Intens. «sāsvaryate, sāsvarti» Lat.

‘susurrus’; Germ. ‘schwirren’, ‘Schwarm’; Eng. ‘swarm’.]

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

svṛ 1. P. (svarati; desid. sisvariṣati, susvūrṣati)

(1) To sound, recite.

(2) To praise.

(3) To pain or be pained.

(4) To go. —WITH abhi, —pra to sound. —saṁ to pain (Atm.); Bk. 9.

28.

ह — ha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ha the thirty-third and last consonant of the Nāgarī alphabet (in Pāṇini’s

system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the

English «h» in «hard»; it is not an original letter, but is mostly derived from

an older «gh», rarely from «dh» or «bh»).

ha (only m. a form of śiva or Bhairava (cf. «nakulīśa»); water; a cipher

(i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation,

auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; fear; knowledge; the

moon; Viṣṇu; war, battle; horripilation; a horse; pride; a physician;

cause, motive; = «pāpa-haraṇa»; = «sakopa-vāraṇa»; = «śuṣka»; (also «ā»

f.) laughter; («ā») f. coition; a lute («am») n. the Supreme Spirit;

pleasure, delight; a weapon; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to the

sound of a lute; (ind.) = «aham» (?). ; mfn. mad, drunk.

ha ind. (prob. orig. identical with 2. «gha», and used as a particle for

emphasizing a preceding word, esp. if it begins a sentence closely

connected with another; very frequent in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras, and

often translatable by) indeed, assuredly, verily, of course, then &c. (often

with other particles e.g. with «tv eva, u, sma, vai» &c.; «na ha», «not

indeed»; also with interrogatives and relatives e.g. «yad dha», «when

indeed»; «kad dha», «what then?» sometimes with impf. or pf. [cf. ; in

later language very commonly used as a mere expletive, esp. at the end

of a verse)

ha mf («ā») n. (fr. «han») killing, destroying, removing (only ifc.; see

«arāti-, vṛtra-, śatruha» &c.)

ha mf («ā») n. (fr. 3. «hā») abandoning, deserting, avoiding (ifc.; see

«an-oka-» and «vāpī-ha»)

ha mf («ā») n. («ā») f. abandonment, desertion

ha see 4. «ha», p.1286, col.1.

ha see 5. «ha», p.1286, col.1.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

ha ind. An emphatic particle used to lay stress on the preceding word and

translateable by ‘verily’, ‘indeed’, ‘certainly’, &c.; but it is often used

expletively without any particular signification, especially in Vedic

literature; tasya ha śataṁ jāyā babhūvuḥ; tasya ha parvatanāradau gṛha

ūṣatuḥ &c. Ait. Br. It is sometimes used as a vocative particle and rarely

of disdain or laughter. —haḥ

(1) A form of Śiva.

(2) Water.

(3) Sky.

(4) Blood.

(5) A cipher.

(6) Meditation.

(7) Auspiciousness.

(8) Paradise.

(9) Heaven. (10) Drying.

(11) Fear.

(12) Knowledge.

(13) The moon.

(14) N. of Viṣṇu.

(15) War, battle.

(16) A horse.

(17) Pride.

(18) Horripilation.

(19) A physician. (20) Cause, motive. —haṁ

(1) The Supreme Spirit.

(2) Pleasure, delight.

(3) A weapon.

(4) The sparkling of a gem.

(5) The sound of a lute (—m. also according to some in these senses).

हन् — han Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899han mfn. only f. «-ghnī» q.v.

han m. «killer of Makha», N. of Agni or Indra or Rudra

han cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 2) «hanti» (3. du. «hataḥ», 3. pl. «ghnanti»; rarely ā.

«hate», 3. pl. «ghnate»; and cl.1. «hanati», Ved. also «jighnate, -ti»; Pot.

«hanyāt» also «hanīta, ghnīta»; Impv. «jahi» «handhi»; impf. «ahan», Ved.

and ep. also «ahanat, ahanan, aghnanta»; p. «jaghnat, ghnamāna» ; pf.

«jaghāna, jaghnuḥ» ep. also «jaghne, -nire» Subj. «jaghanat» ; p.

«jaghnivas», Ved. also «jaghanvas»; aor. «ahānīt» [cf. «vadh»]; fut.

«hantā» ; «haṁsyati» ; «haniṣyati, -te» &c.; inf. «hantum», Ved. also

«hantave, -tavai, -toḥ»; ind. p. «hatvā», Ved. also «-tvī, -tvāya, -hatya; —

hanya» ; «-ghātam» &c.), to strike, beat (also a drum), pound, hammer

(acc.), strike &c. upon (loc.) &c. &c.; to smite, slay, hit, kill, mar, destroy

; to put to death, cause to be executed ; to strike off ; to ward off, avert ;

to hurt, wound (the heart) ; to hurl (a dart) upon (gen.) ; (in astron.) to

touch, come into contact ; to obstruct, hinder ; to repress, give up,

abandon (anger, sorrow &c.) ; (?) to go, move Pass. «hanyate» (ep. also

«-ti»; aor. «avadhi» or «aghāni»), to be struck or killed &c. &c.: Caus.

«ghātayati, -te» (properly a Nom. fr. «ghāta» q.v.; aor. «ajīghatat» or

«ajīghanat»), to cause to be slain or killed, kill, slay, put to death, punish

&c.; to notify a person’s death («kaṁsaṁ ghātayati» = «kaṁsa-vadham

ācaṣṭe») 6 ; to mar, destroy (v.l.): Desid. «jighāṁsati, -te» (Pot.

«jighāṁsīyat» ; impf. «ajighāṁsīḥ» , to wish to kill or destroy &c. &c.:

Intens. «jaṅghanti» (; p. «jaṅghanat, jaṅghnat» or «ghanighnat»),

«jaṅghanyate» (with pass. sense , «jeghnīyate» ( 7-4, 31), to strike =

tread upon (loc. or acc.) ; to slay, kill ; to dispel (darkness), destroy (evil,

harm) ; to hurt, injure, wound ‘de-fendere’, ‘of-fendere’; Lit. ‘genu’, ‘giti’;

Slav. ‘gunati’.]

han mf («ghnī») n. killing, a killer, slayer (only ifc.; see «ari-, tamo-han»

&c.)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

han 2 P. (haṁti, jaghāna, avadhīt, avadhiṣṭa-ahata; haniṣyati, haṁtuṁ,

hata; pass. hanyate; caus. ghātayati-te; desid. jighāṁsati)

(1) To kill, slay, destroy, strike down; trayaśca

dūṣaṇakharatrimūrdhāno raṇe hatāḥ U. 2, 15; hatamapi ca haṁtyeva

madanaḥ Bh. 3. 18.

(2) To strike, beat; caṁḍī caṁḍa haṁtumabhyudyatā māṁ

vidyuddāmnā megharājīva viṁdhyaṁ M. 3. 20, Śi. 7. 56.

(3) To hurt, injure, afflict, torment; as in kāmahata.

(4) To put down, abandon; tṛṣṇāṁ chiṁddhi bhaja kṣamāṁ jahi

madaṁ Bh. 2. 77.

(5) To remove, take away, destroy; aṁbhojinīvananivāsavilāsameva

haṁsasya haṁti nitarāṁ kupito vidhātā Bh. 2. 18.

(6) To conquer, overthrow, defeat, overcome; vighnaiḥ

sahasraguṇitairapi hanyamānāḥ prārabdhamuttamajanā na parityajaṁti

Subhaṣ.

(7) To hinder, obstruct.

(8) To mar, spoil; Ki. 2. 37.

(9) To raise; turagakhurahatastathā hi reṇuḥ S. 1. 32. (10) To multiply

(in math.).

(11) To go (rarely used in classical literature in this sense; and when

used it is regarded as a fault of composition); e. g. kuṁjaṁ haṁti

kṛśodarī S. D. 7; or tīrthāṁtareṣu snānena samupārjitasatkṛtiḥ .

surasrotasvinīmeṣa haṁti saṁprati sādaraṁ K. P. 7 (given as an instance

of the doṣa called asamarthatpa). —Caus.

(1) To cause to be killed, kill, slay.

(2) To destroy, ruin, mar, spoil; Pt. 1. 363. —WITH ati to injure

excessively. —aṁtar to strike in the middle.

han a. Killing, slaying, destroying (at the end of comp.); as in vṛtrahan,

pitṛhan, mātṛhan, brahmahan &c.

हर्य् — hary Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899hary in comp. for «hari».

hary cl.1. P. ( xv, 7) «haryati» (rarely «-te»; pr. p. P. «haryat», or «haryat»

[see below] «haryamāṇa»), to like, delight in, be fond of or pleased with,

yearn after, long for (acc. or loc.) ; to go ; to threaten Intens. «jāharyīti,

jāharti, jāharyati»

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

hary 1 P. (haryati)

(1) To go.

(2) To worship.

(3) To take.

(4) To threaten.

(5) To be weary or fatigued.

हा — hā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899hā ind. an exclamation expressive of pain, anger, astonishment,

satisfaction &c. (= ah! alas! oh! ha! often before or after a voc. case,

also repeated «hā-hā» cf. 1. «hahā» above, or followed by other particles,

esp. «dhik, hanta, kaṣṭam» &c.) ,

hā (not always separable fr. 3. «hā») cl.3.ā. ( xxv, 7) «jihīte» (p. «jihāna»

[q.v.]; pf. «jahire» ; aor. «ahāsta» &c.; fut. «hātā» Gr.; «hāsyate» ; inf. «-

hātum» ; ind. p. «hātvā» Gr.; «-hāya» , to start or spring forward, bound

away, give way to (dat.) ; to spring or leap upon (?) ; to go or depart or

betake one’s self to have recourse to (acc.) ; to fall or come into any

state Pass. «hāyate» (aor. «ahāyi») Gr.: Caus. «hāpayati» (aor.

«ajīhapat») Desid. «jihāsate» Intens. «jahāyate, jāhāti, jāheti»

hā cl.3.P. ( xxv, 8) «jahāti» (rarely cl.1. «jahati» 3. du. «jahltaḥ» Impv.

«jahihi» [or «jahāhi» ; «jahītāt» ; Pot. «jahyāt» &c.; pf. «jahau, jahuḥ» &c.;

«jahe» ; aor. «ahāt» &c.; «ahāsīt» Gr.; 3. sg. «ahās» ; «ahāsi» ; «hāsiṣṭa» ,;

fut. «hātā» Gr.; «hāsyati, -te» &c, «jahiṣyati» &c.; inf. «hātum» ; ind. p.

«hitvā». [q.v.] &c.; «hitvī» «-tvāya» ; «-hītvā» Gr.; «-hāya» , «hīyam» , to

leave, abandon, desert, quit, forsake, relinquish (with «śarīram, deham,

prāṇān, asūn, jvitam» &c. — «to die») &c, &c.; to discharge, emit ; to put

away, take off, remove, lay aside, give up, renounce, resign, avoid, shun,

abstain or refrain from &c.; to disregard, neglect ; to lose, be deprived

of. ; to get rid of. escape from &c.; to cause to emit (with «śardham», «to

cause to break wind») Pass. «hīyate» or «hīyate» (ep. also «hīyati»; aor.

«ahāyi»), to be left or abandoned or deserted &c.; to be left behind, fall

short of (abl.) &c. &c.; to be excluded from or bereft of (abl. or instr.;

with «prāṇaiḥ», «to die») &c.; to be overtaken by (instr.) ; to be deficient

or wanting, suffer loss or injury, fail (also in a lawsuit), decrease, wane,

decline, come to an end &c.; to weigh less (at the ordeal of the balance)

; to be given up or avoided (v.l.); to be subtracted ; to become detached

from (with abl. or instr.), fall out (as hair) Caus. «hāpayati» (m.c. also «-

te» aor. «ajīhapat; -jīhipaḥ» , to cause to leave or abandon &c.; to omit,

neglect &c.; to fall short of. be wanting in (acc.) ; to give up («asūn»,

«life») ; to lose («kālam», «time») ; to abandon («pratijṇām», «a thesis»)

Desid. «jihāsati», to wish to leave or abandon ; to wish to reject or

disdain ; to wish to escape Intens. «jehīyate, jāhāti, jāheti» Gr.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

hā ind. A particle expressing

(1) Grief, dejection, pain, as expressed by ‘ah’, ‘alas!,’ ‘woe me’, in

English; hā priye jānaki U. 3; hā hā devi sphuṭati hṛdayaṁ U. 3. 38; hā

pitaḥ kvāsi he subhru Bk. 6. 11; hā vatse mālati kvāsi Māl. 10. &c.; (in

this sense hā is often used with the acc. of person; hā kṛṣṇābhaktaṁ

Sk.).

(2) Surprise; hā kathaṁ mahārājadaśarathasya dharmadārāḥ

priyasakhī me kausalyā U. 4.

(3) Anger or reproach.

hā I. 3 A. (jihīte, hāna; pass. hāyate; desid. jihāsate)

(1) To go, move; jihīthā vikhyātāṁ sphuṭamiha

bhavadbāṁdhavarathaṁ H. D. 28; Ki. 13. 23; Nalod. 1. 38.

(2) To get, attain. —II. 3 P. (jahāti, hīna)

(1) To leave, abandon, quit, give up, forsake, relinquish, dismiss;

mūḍha jahīhi dhanāgamatṛṣṇāṁ kuru tanubuddhe manasi vitṛṣṇāṁ Moha

M. 1; sā strīsvabhāvādasahā bharasya tayordvayorekataraṁ jahāti Mu. 4.

13, R. 5. 72, 8. 52, 12. 24, 14. 61, 87, 15. 59; S. 4. 13, Bg. 2. 50; Bk. 3.

53, 5. 91, 10. 71, 20. 10; Me. 49, 60; Bv. 2. 129; Rs. 1. 38.

(2) To resign, forego.

(3) To let fall.

(4) To omit, disregard, neglect.

(5) To remove.

(6) To avoid, shun. —Pass. (hīyate)

(1) To be left or forsaken; Ki. 12. 12.

(2) To be excluded from, be deprived of, lose (with instr. or abl.);

virūpākṣo jahe prāṇaiḥ Bk. 14. 35; janayitvā sutaṁ tasyāṁ

brāhmaṇyādeva hīyate Ms. 3. 17, 5. 161, 9. 211.

(3) To be deficient or wanting in; usually with pari q. v.; dhairyaṁ

yasya na hīyate Pt. 1. 103.

(4) To diminish, decrease, decay, decline, wane (fig. also); pravṛddho

hīyate caṁdraḥ samudro’pi tathāvidhaḥ R. 17. 71; H. Pr. 42.

(5) To fail (as in a law-suit); bhūtamapyanupanyastaṁ hīyate

vyavahārataḥ Y. 2. 19.

(6) To be left out or omitted.

(7) To be weakened. —Caus. (hāpayati-te)

(1) To cause to leave, abandon &c.

(2) To drive away, expel.

(3) To lose.

(4) To neglect, omit, delay the performance of; Śi. 16. 33, Ms. 3. 71;

4. 21; Y. 1. 121. —Desid. (jihāsati) To wish to leave &c.

हिरुक् — hiruk Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899hiruk ind. (cf. «huruk») off, away, out of sight of (abl.) ; aside, apart,

without ; in the midst of, amongst ; near ; below

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

hiruk ind. Ved.

(1) Without, except

(2) Amongst, in the midst of.

(3) Near.

(4) Below.

हु — hu Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899hu cl.3.P. ( xxv, 1) «jhoti» (Ved. and ep. also ā. «juhute» 3. p. pr. «juh» 3.

pl. pr. «jilhvati, -te» &c.; 2. sg. Impv. «juhudhi» &c.; «hoṣi» ; p. P.

«juhvat»; ā. «juhvāna» [also with pass. sense]; 3. pl. impf. «ajuhavuḥ» ;

pf. P. «juhāva, juhuvuḥ» ; ā. «juhuve» ; «juhve, juhure» ; «juhvire» ;

«juhavāṁ-cakāra» ; «juhavām-āsa» ; aor. «ahauṣīt» &c.; Prec. «hūyāt»

Gr.; fut. «hotā» ; «hoṣyati, -te» &c.; Cond. «ahoṣyat» ; inf. «hotum, -tos, —

tavai», and ind. p. «hutvā» &c.), to sacrifice (esp. pour butter into the

fire), offer or present an oblation (acc. or gen.) to (dat.) or in (loc.),

sacrifice to, worship or honour (acc.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to sprinkle on

(loc.) ; to eat Pass. «hūyate» (aor. «ahāvi»), to be offered or sacrificed

&c. &c.: Caus. «hāvayati» (aor. «ajūhavat»), to cause to sacrifice or to be

sacrificed or to be honoured with sacrifice &c.: Desid. «juhūṣati», to wish

to sacrifice Intens. «johavīti» (impf. «ajohavīt» or «ajuhavīt» , «johūyate,

johoti» (Gr.), to offer oblations repeatedly or abundantly. [Cf. Gk. [greek]

in [characters] (for [characters] ), [characters]; Lat. ‘futis’, «water-pot.»]

hu ind. an exclamation in «huṁ hu, hūṁ hu» &c.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :

1890

hu 3 P, (juhoti, huta; pass. hūyate; caus. hāvayati-te, desid. juhūṣati)

(1) To offer or present (as an oblation to fire); make an offering to or

in honor of a deity (with acc.); sacrifice; yo maṁtrapūtāṁ

tanumapyahauṣīt R. 13. 45; jaṭādharaḥ san juhudhīha pāvakaṁ Ki. 1. 44;

havijurhudhi pāvake Bk. 20. 11; Ms. 3. 87; Y. 1. 99.

(2) To perform a sacrifice.

(3) To eat.

ह्वे — hve Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

hve 1 U. (hvayati-te, juhāva, juhuve, ahvat-ta, ahvāsta, hvāsyati-te,

hvātuṁ, hūta; pass. hūyate; caus. hvāyayati-te; desid. juhūṣati-te)

(1) To call by name; tāṁ pārvatītyābhijanena nāmnā baṁdhupriyāṁ

baṁdhujano juhāva Ku. 1. 26.

(2) To call out, invoke, call upon.

(3) To call, name.

(4) To challenge.

(5) To vie with, emulate.

(6) To ask, beg.

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